« AnteriorContinuar »
To Uxma'ke. v. a. To deprive of former Think not thy friend can ever feel the soft qualities before possessed; to deprive of
Unmanly warmth and tenderness of love. Adais. form or being
UNMA'NNERED, adj. Rude; brutal; unThey 've made themselves, and their fitness
You have a slanderous, beastly, unwash'd Does unmake you,
tongue God does not make or unmake things, to try
In your rude mouth, and savouring yourself, experiments.
Ben Jersen Empire! thou poor and despicable thing,
If your barking dog disturb ber ease, When such as these make or unmake a king.
Th' unmanner'd malefactor is arraign d. Dryden.
Dryden. UNMA'NNERLINESS, n. s. Breach of civiBring this guide of the light within to the trial; lity; ill behaviour. God, when he makes the prophet, does not un Á sort of unmannerliness is apt to grow up make the man.
with young people, if not early restrained; and TO UNMA'N. v. a.
that is a forwardness to interrupt others speake ing.
Lecke, 1. To deprive of the constituent qualities of a human being, as reason.
UNMA'NNERLY, adj. Ill-bred; not civil ; What, quite unmann'd in folly ? Sbaksp. not complaisant. ross errors unman, and strip them of the
Sweetheart, very principles of reason, and sober discourse. I were unmannerly to take you out, South, And not to kiss you.
Sbakspeert. 2. To emasculate.
He called them untaught knaves, urmaaneris, 3. To break into irresolution; to deject.
To bring a slovenly, unhandsome corse
Betwixt the wind and his nobility. Sbakspeari, Unman their courage, and augment their fears. He will prove the weeping philosopher when
he grows old, being so full of unmannerle sadness
in his youth. Ulysses vail'd his pensive head;
Sbakspeare. Again unmann'd, a shower of sorrows shed. Pope.
Bare-faced ribaldry is both unmanncrly in itUNMA'NAGEABLE. adj.
self and fulsome to the reader. Dryden.
A divine dares hardly shew his person among 1. Not manageable ; not easily governed.
fine gentlemen; or, it he fall into such conThey 'll judge every thing by models of their
pany, he is in continual apprehension that some own, and thus are rendered unmanageable by any pert man of pleasure should break an unmannerly authority but that of absolute dominion. Glanv.
jest, and render him ridiculous. Swifi. None can be concluded unmanageable by the UNMA'NNERLY. adv. Uncivilly. milder methods of government, till they have
Forgive me, been thoroughly tried upon him; and if they
If I have us'd myself unmannerly. Sbakspeare. will not prevail, we make no excuses for the obstinate.
Locke. UNMANOʻRen, adj. Not cultivated.
The land, 2. Not easily wielded. UNMA'NAGED. adj.
In antique times, was savage wilderness ;
Unpeopled, unmanur'd, unprov'd, unprais'd. J. Not broken by horsemanship.
Spenser. Like colts, or unmanaged horses, we start at dead bones and lifeless blocks.
1. adj. Not observed ; not re2. Not tutored; not educated.
garded. Savage princes filash out sometimes into an ir I got a time, unmarked by any, to steal away, regular greatness of thought, and betray, in their I cared not whither, so I might escape them. actions, an unguided force, and unmanaged virtue.
Sidney. Felton. This place enmark'd, though oft I walk'd the
green, In all my progress I had never seen. Drycka.
Entring at the gate, conceal'd in clouds, 1. Unbecoming a human being.
He mix'd, unmartid, among the busy throng, It is strange to see the unmanlike cruelty of Borne by the tide, and pass d unseen along. mankind, who, not content with their tyran
Dredes nous ambition, to have brought the others' vir
Unmark’d, unhonour'd at a monàrch's gate
. tuous patience under them, think their master
Pepee hood nothing, without doing injury to them.
UNMA'RRIED. adj. Having no husband, Where the act is unmanly, or the expectation
or no wife. contradiccious to the attributes of God, our Unmarried men are best friends, best masters,
hopes we ought never to entertain. Collier. best servants, but not always best subjects, for 2. Unsuitable to a man ; effeminate.
they are light to run away:
Bacer. By the greatness of the cry, it was the voice Husbands and wives,' boys and zamerry'd of man; though it was a very unmanlike voice,
Dryden. so to cry.
Sidney: TO UNMA'S K. v. a.
1. To strip of a mask. Though never so ridiculous,
2. To strip of any disguise. Nay, let them be unmanly, yet are follow'd.
Roscometa. This is in thee a nature but affected;
Though in Greek or Latin they amuse us, A poor unmanly melancholy, sprung
yet a translation unmasks them, whereby the From change of fortune. Sbakspeare. cheat is transparent.
Glanville. My servitude, ignoble, Unmanly, ignominious, infamous. Milton. To UNMA'SK. v. n. To put off the mask.
Unmanly dread invades the French astony'd, My husband bids me; now I will wanask. And streight their uşcless arms they quit, This is that face was worth the looking on.
UNMA'SKED. adj. Naked ; open to the
Madam was young, unmeet the rule of sway. view.
I am unmeet ; 0, I am yetito learn a statesman's art; My kindness and my hate unmask'd I wear,
For I cannot flatter thee in pride. Shakspeare For friends to trust, and enemies to fear. Dryd.
O my father! UNMA'STERABLE. adj. Unconquerable ;
Prove you that any man with me convers'd
At hours unmeet, refuse me, hate me. Sbakspo not to be subdued.
Alack! my hand is sworn The fætor is unmasterable by the natural heat Ne'er to pluck thee from thy thorn; of man; not to be dulcified by concoction, be Vow, alack ! for youth in-et, yond unsavoury condition.
Youth so apt to pluck a sweet. Sbakspears UNMA'STERED. adj.
Its fellowship unmeet for thee, 1. Not subdued.
Good reason was thou freely should'st dislike. 2. Not conquerable.
Milton Weigh what loss your honour may sustain, if
That muse desires the last, the lowest place,
Who, though unmeet, yet couch'd the trembling you Or lose your heart, or your chaste treasure open
string To his unmaster'd importunity. Sbakspeare.
For the fair fame of Anne.
Prior. He cannot his unmaster'd grief sustain,
UNME'LLOWED. adj. Not fully ripened. But yields to rage, to madness and disdain.
His years but young, but his experience old; Dryden.
His head unmellow'd, but his judgment ripe. UNMA'TCHABLE. adj. Unparalleled; un
UNME'LTED. adj. Undissolved by heat. The soul of Christ, that saw in this life the
Snow on Ætna does unmelted lie, face of God, was, through so visible presence of
Whence rowling flames and scatter'd cinders fly.
Waller. Deity, filled with all manner of graces and virtues in that unmatchable degree of perfection; UNME'NTIONED. adj. Not told; not for which, of him we read it written, that God named. with the oil of gladness anointed him. Hooker. They left not any error in government un
England breeds very valiant creatures; their mentioned or unpressed, with the sharpest and mastiffs are of unmatchable courage. Sbakspeare. most pathetical expressions. Clarendon, UNMA'TCHED. adj. Matchless ; having
Oh let me here sink down no match, or equal.
Into my grave, unmention'd and unmourn'd!
Soutbera. That glorious day, which two such navies saw, As each, urmatcb'd, might to the world give iaw;
UN MERCHANTABLE, adj. Unsaleable ; Neptune, yet doubtful whom he should obey, not vendible.
Held to them both the trident of the sea. Dryd. They feed on salt, unmerchantable pilchard. UNME'ANING. adj. Expressing no mean.
Carew. ing; having no meaning.
UNME'RCIFUL. adj. With round, unmeaning face.
1. Cruel; severe ; inclement. UNME'ANT. adj. Not intended.
For the humbling of this unmerciful pride in The flying spear was after Illus sent :
the eagle, Providence has found out a way. But Rhætus happen'd on a death unmeant.
L'Estrange. Dryden. The pleasant lustre of fame delights children UNME'ASURABLE, adj. Boundless; un.
at first; but when experience has convinced
them, by the exquisite pain it has put them 19, bounded.
how cruel and unmerciful it is, they are afraid Common mother! thou
to touch it.
Locke. Whose womb unmeasurable, and infinite breast Whatsoever doctrine represents God as 1117Teems and feeds all.
just and unmerciful cannot be from God, beYou preserved the lustre of that noble fa
cause it subverts the very foundation of religion. mily, which the unmeasurable profusion of an
Rogers. cestors had eclipsed.
2. Unconscionable ; exorbitant. UNME'ASURED. adj.
Not only the peace of the honest unwriting 1. Immense ; infinite.
subject was daily molested, but unmerciful de Does the sun dread th' imaginary sign,
mands were made of his applause. Pope. Nor farther yet in liquid æther roil,
UNME'RCIFU I. L Y. adv. Without mercy; Till he has gain'd some unfrequented place, without tenderness. Lost to the world, in vast, unmeasur'd space?
A little warm fellow fell most unmercifully Blackmore. upon his Gallick majesty.
Addison. 2. Not measured ; plentiful beyond mea. UNME'RCIFULNESS. n. s. Inclemency ; sure.
cruelty ; want of tenderness. From him all perfect good, unmeasur'd out,
Consider the rules of friendship, lest justice descends.
| Tuylor. UNME'DDLED with. adj. Not touched ; UNME'RITABLÉ. adj. Having no desert. not altered.
Not in use. The flood-gate is opened and closed for six
Your love deserves my thanks; but my desert days, continuing other ten days unmeddled with.
Unmeritable, shuns your high request. Shaksp. Carew.
UNME'RITED. ad;. Not deserved; not UNME'Ditated. adj. Not formed by
obtained otherwise than by favour. previous thought.
This day, in whom all nations shall be blest, Neither various style
Favour unmerited by me, who sought Nor holy rapture wanted they, to praise
Forbidden knowledge by forbidden means. Mill. Their Maker, in fit strains pronounc'd, or sung A tottering pinnacle unmerited greatness is. Unmeditated.
Government of the Tongy UNME'Et. adj. Not fit; not proper; pot UNME'RITEDNESS. 11. s. State of being worthy,
As to the freeness or unmeritedness of God's mixed otherwise than with some little aspersion love; we need but consider, that we so little of the old.
Bacon , could at first deserve his love, that he loved us Thy constant quiet fills my peaceful breast even before we had a being.
Boyle. With unmix'd joy, uninterrupted rest. Roscer, UNMI'L KED. adj. Not milked.
What is glory but the blaze of fame, The ewes still folded with distended thighs, The people's praise, if always praise uamist? Urmilk'd, lay bleating in distressful cries. Pope.
Milten UNMI'NDED, adj. Not heeded ; not re
Thy Arethusan stream remains unsoil'd; garded.
Unmixt with foreign filth, and undehil'd. Dryden,
Together out they fly,
Inseparable now, the truth and lie: A poor, unmirded outlaw, sneaking home;
And this or that unmixt no mortal ear shall My father gave him welcome to the shore.
Popa . Sbakspeare. UNMO'ANED. ad;. Not lamented. He after Eve seduc'd, kaminded, slunk Into the wood.
Fatherless distress was left unmoan'd; UNMI'NDFUL. adj. Not heedful ; not re
Your widow dolours likewise be unwept. Sbaks.
UNMOI'ST. adj. Not wet.
Volatile Hermes, Huid and unmoist,
UNMOISTENED. adi. Not made wet. I shall let you see, that I am not unmindful of
The incident light that meets with a grosser the things you would have me remember. Boyle.
liquor will have its beams more or less interWho now enjoys thee, credulous, all gold;
ruptedly retiected than they would be if the Who always vacant, always amiable,
body had been samoistened,
Bark Hopes thee; of flattering gales
UNMOLE'STED. adj. Free from disturba Unmindjich
Milton. ance ; free from external troubles. Urmindful of the crown that virtue gives, Cleopatra was read o'er; After this mortal change, to her true servants,
While Scot, and Wake, and twenty more, Amongst the enthroned gods on sainted seats. That teach one to deny one's self, Miltor. Stood unmolested on the shelf.
Prisr. He, not unmindful of his usual art,
The fowls of the air, and the beasts of the First in dissembled tire attempts to part;
field, are supplied with every thing, unmolested Then roaring beasts he tries. Drydin. by hopes or fears.
Rosario When those who dislike the constitution are Safe on my shore each unmolested swain so very zealous in their offers for the service of Shall tend the flocks, or reap the bearded grain. their country, they are not wholly unmindful of
Popes their party, or themselves.
TO UNMO'OR. v. a. TO UNMI'NGLE, v. a. To separate things
1. To loose from land, by taking up the mixed.
anchors. It will unmingle the wine from the water; the
We with the rising morn our ships enmoer'd
, wine ascending, and the water descending.
And brought our captives and our stores aboard.
Bacon. UNMI'NGLEABLE. adj. Not susceptive of
2. Prior seems to have taken it for casting
anchor. m xture. Not used.
Soon as the British ships anmoor, The sulphur of the concrete loses by the fer
Prier. mentation, the property of oil being unmingle
And jolly long-boat rows to shore. able with water.
UNMO'R ALIZED, adj. Untutored by moThe umningleable liquors retain their distinct rality surfaces.
Norris. UNMI'NGLED. adj. Pure ; not vitiated by UxMO'RTGAGED. adj. Not mortgaged.
unmoralizeil temper. any thing mingled.
Is there one God unsworn to my destruction? As easy may'st thou fall
The least unmortgag'd hope? for, if there be, A drop of water in the breaking gulph,
Methinks I cannot fall. And take unning!ed thence your drop again,
This he has repeated so often, that at present Without addition or diminishing. Sbakspeare. there is scarce a single gabel unmor igaped. Ald. Springs on high hills are pure and unmingled.
Bacon. UN MO'RTIFIED), adj. Not subdued by His сир is full of pure and unaningled sorrow. sorrow and severities.
Taylor. If our conscience reproach us with an artikel Vessels of zer.mingled wine,
sin, our hope is the hope of an hypocrite. Rogers. Mellifluous, undecaying, and divine.
Pope. UNNO'VEABLE, adj. Such as cannot be UNMI'RY. adj. Not fouled with dirt. Pass, with safe, unmiry feet,
removed or altered. Where the rais'd pavement leads athwart the
Wherein consist the precise and wamevable street.
boundaries of that species. UNMITIGATED. adj. Not softened.
UN MO’VED. adj. With publick accusation, uncovered slander, 1. Not put out of one place into another. unmitigaied rancour,
Vipers that do fly
Nor winds, nor winter's rage o'erthrow's UNMI'XT thing; pure; not
His bulky body, but unmou'd he grows. Dress by additions.
Chess-men standing on the same squares of Thy commandment all alone shall live
the chess-board, we say they are all in the same Within the book and volume of my brain, place, or unmoved; though, perhaps, the chess Uniniz'd with baser matter. Shakspeare.
board hath been carried out of one ruunt into It exhibits a mixture of new conceits and another. old; whereas the instauration gives the new, 2. Not changed in resolution.
UNMIXEDBedline Nepture maled corrupted
Among innumerable false, unmou'll
of persons or things; not representing Unshaken, unseduc'd.
nature. 3. Not affected; not touched with any They admire only glittering trifles, that in a ses passion.
rious poem are nauseous, because they are une Cæsar, the world's great master and his own, natural. Would any man, who is ready to die Unmou'd, superior still in every state,
for love, describe his passion like Narcissus ? And scarce detested in his country's fate. Pope.
Dryden, 4. Unaltered by passion.
In an heroic poem, two kinds of thoughts are I meant to meet
carefully to be avoided; the first are such as My face with face unmov’d, and eyes unwet. Dryd.
are affected and unnatural; the second, such as UNMO'VING. adj.
are mean and vulgar.
Addison. 1. Having no motion.
UNNA'TURALLY. adv. In opposition to
nature. The celestial bodies, without impulse, had continued unactive, unmoving heaps of matter.
All the world have been frightned with an Cheyne.
apparition of their own fancy, or they Have most 2. Having no power to raise the passions ;
unnaturally conspired to cozen themselves.
UNNA'TURALNESS, n. s. Contrariety to TO UN MO'ULD. v. a. To change as to the
The God which is the God of nature doth Its pleasing poison never teach unnaturalness.
Sidney. The visage quite transforms of him that drinks, UNNA'VIGABLE. adj. Not to be passed by And the inglorious likeness of a beast Fixes instead, unmoulding reason's mintage,
vessels; not to be navigated. Character'd in the face.
Pindar's unnavigable song VNMOʻURNED. adj. Not lamented; not
Like a swift stream from mountains pours along.
Some who the depths of eloquence have found, O let me here sink down
In that innazigable stream were drown'd. Dryd. Into my grave, unmention'd and unmourn'd.
Let wit her sails, her oars let wisdom lend; Southern.
The helm let politick experience guide: ÇO UNMU'FFLE. v. a. To put off a co Yet cease to hope thy short-liv'd bark shall ride, vering from the face.
Down spreading fate's unnavigable tide. Prior. Unmuffle, ye faint stars! and thou, fair moon, The Indian seas were believed to be unnavia That wont'st to love the traveller's benizon, gable.
Arbutbnot. Stoop thy pale visage through an amber cloud, UNNECESSARILY. adv. Without necesAnd disinherit chaos, that reigns here
sity; without need; needlessly: In double night, of darkness and of shades. Milt.
To abrogate, without constraint of manifest UNMUSICAL. adj. Not harmonious; not harm thereby arising, had been to alter unnepleasing by sound.
cessarily, in their judgment, the ancient received Let argument bear no unmusical sound, custom of the whole church.
Hooker, Nor jars interpose, sacred friendship to grieve. 'Tis highly imprudent, in the greatest of men,
Ben Jonson. unnecessarily to provoke the meanest. L' Estr. One man's ambition wants satisfaction, an. These words conie in without any connexion other's avarice, a third's spleen; and this discord with the story, and consequently unnecessarily. makes up the very unmusical harmony of our
Broome. Decay of Piety. UNNE'CESSARINESS. n. s. Needlessness. TO UNMU’ZZLE, v. a. To loose from a These are such extremes as afford no middle muzzle.
for industry to exist, hope being equally outNow unmuzzle your wisdom. Shakspeare.
dated by the desperateness or unnecessariness of Have you not set mine honour at the stake,
Decay of Piety. And baiced it with all th' unmuzzled thoughts UNNECESSARY. adj. Needless; not Thy tyrannous heart can think? Sbakspeare.
wanted; useless. UNN A'MED. adj. Not mentioned.
Tbe doing of things unnecessary is many times Author of evil, unknown till thy revolt, the cause why the most necessary are not done. Unnam'd in heav'n. Milton,
Hooker. UNNATURAL. adj.
Thou whoreson zed; thou unnecessary letter. I. Contrary to the laws of nature ; con
Let brave spirits, fitted for command by sea trary to the common instincts.
or land, not be laid by, as persons unnecessary Her offence
for the time. Must be of such unnatural degree,
Bacon. That monsters it.
Lay that unnecessary fear aside ;
Miné be the care new people to provide. Dryd. People of weak heads on the one hand, and
Unnecessary coinage, as well as unnecessary revile affections on the other, have made an un
vival of words, runs into affectation; a fault to natural divorce between being wise and good.
Dryden. 'Tis irreverent and unnatural to scoff at the
They did not only shun persecution, but afinfirmities of old age.
firmed that it was unnecessary for their followers
to bear their religion through such fiery trials. 2. Acting without the affections implanted
Addison. by nature.
UNNEIGHBOURLY. adj. Not kind ; not Rome, whose gratitude
suitable to the duties of a neighbour. Tow'rds her deserving children is enrollid
Parnassus is but a barren mountain, and its inIn Jove's own book, like an unnatural dam, Should now eat up her own. Sbakspeare.
habitants make it more so by their unneighbourly If the tyrant were,
Garib. To a son so noble, so unnatural,
UNNEIGHBOURLY. adv. In a manner What will he be to us!
Tenbam. not suitable to a neighbour ; with male. 3. Forced; not agreeable to the real state volence; with mutual mischief.
UN NETHES.} adeThis is from un and
These two christian armjes might combine
In fight they stood The blood of malice in a vein of league,
Unwearied, unobnoxious to be pain'd. Milton, And not to spend it so unneighbourly. Shaksp. UNOBSE'QUIOUSNESS. n. s. IncompliUNNEʻR VATE, adj. Weak; feeble. A ance ; disobedience. bad word.
They make one man'o particular failings con Scaliger calls them fine and lively in Musæus; fining laws to others; and convey them as such but abject, unnervats, and unharmonious in Ho to their succeeders, who are bold to misname all
Broome. unobsequiousness to their incogitancy presumpT, UNNE'RVE. v. a. To weaken ; to en
UNOBSE'R VÁBLE, adj. Not to be obThe precepts are often so minute and full of served ; not discoverable. circumstances, that they weaken and unnerve A piece of glass reduced to powder, the same his verse.
Addison, which, when entire, freely transmitted the beams UNNE'RVED. adj. Weak; feeble.
of light, acquiring by contusion a multitude of Pyrrhus at Priam drives, in rage strikes wide ; minute surfaces, reflects, in a confused manner, But with the whift and wind of his fell sword little and singly unebservable images of the lucid The unner'd father falls.
body, that from a diaphanous it degenerates into UNNETH.
a white body.
Boyle. ead, Saxon, easy; and UNOBSE'RVANT. adj. ought therefore to be written uneath.]
1. Not obsequious. Scarcely; hardly; not without diffi. 2. Not attentive. culty. 'Obsolete.
The unobservant multitude may have some geDiggon, I am so stiffe and stanke,
neral confused apprehensions of a beauty, that That unnctb I may stand any more;
gilds the outside frame of the universe. Glane. And how the western wind bloweth sore,
UNOBSE'RVED. adj. Not regarded; not Beating the wither'd leaf from the tree.
attended to; not heeded; not minded. Spenser.
The motion in the minute parts of any solid A shepherd's boy,
body, which is the principal cause of violent When winter's wasteful spight was almost spent, motion, though unobserved, passech without Led forth his flocke, that had been long ypent;
Basen. . So faint they waxe, and feeble in the fold,
They the Son of God, our Saviour meek, That now unnethes their feet could 'em uphold. Sung victor; and from heavenly feast refresh'd,
Brought on his way with joy: he, unobseru'd, UNNO'Ble. adj. Mean; ignominious; ig
Hone to his mother's house private return'd. noble.
Milton. I have offended reputation;
Every unwonted meteor is portentous, and the A most unnoble swerving.
appearance of any unobservcd star some divine prognostick.
Glanik, UNNOʻTED. adj.
Such was the Boyne, a poor, inglorious stream, 1.Not observed; not regarded; not heeded. That in Hibernian vales obscurely stray'd, They may jest,
And, unobserv'd, in wild meanders play'd. Till their own scorn return to them unnoted.
Addiser. Sbakspeare. Had I erred in this case it had been a wellHe drew his seat familiar to her side,
meant mistake, and might have passed unabe Far from the suitor train, a brutal crowd;
Atterbury. Where the free guest unnoted might relate,
UNOBSERVING, adj. Inattentive; not If haply conscious of his father's fate. Pope.
heedful. 2. Not honoured. A shameful fate now hides my hopeless head,
His similitudes are not placed, as our umeba
serving criticks tell us, in the heat of any action; Unwept, unnoted, and for ever dead.
but commonly in its declining. Drydenta UNNU'MBERED. adj. Innumerable. UNOBSTRUCTED. adj. Not hindered;
The skies are painted with unnumber'd sparks; not stopped. They are all fire, and every one doth shine.
Unobstructed matter flies away,
Sbakspeare. Ranges the void, and knows not where to stay. Our bodies are but the anvils of pain and dis
Blackmore. cases, and our minds the hives of unnumbered UNOBSTRU'CTIVE.adj. Not raising any cares and passions.
obstacle. Centaurs, and double shapes, besiege the door.
Why should he halt at either station? why Dryden.
Not forward run in unobstructive sky? Blecke. Pitchy and dark the night sometimes appears; UNOBTA'INED. adj. Not gained ; not Our joy and wonder sometimes she excites, acquired. With stars unnumber'd.
Prior. As the will doth now work upon that object UNOBE'YED. adj. Not obeyed.
by desire, which is motion towards the end, as Not leave
yet unobtained: so likewise, upon the same here Unworshipp'd, unobey'd, the throne supreme. after received, it shall work also by love. Heeker.
Milton. UnO'Bvious. adj. Not readily occurring. UNOBJE'CTED. adj. Not charged as a
Of all the metals, not any so constantly disfault, or contrary argument.
closeth its unobvious colour as copper.
Begles What will he leave unobjected to Luther, when UnO'CCUPIED. adj. Unpossessed. he makes it his crime that he defied the devil?
If we shall discover further to the north pole, Atterbury. we shall find all that tract not to be vain, useless
, UNOB NO'Xious. adj. Not liable ; not or unoccupied. exposed to any hurt.
The fancy hath power to create them in the So unobnoxious now, she hath buried both; sensories, then unoccupied by external impresFor none to death sins, that to sin is loth. Donne. sions,