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in company with some friends, their expedition having the combined objects in view of sporting and the pursuit of natural history, and has passed most of the interval in Cashmere and Thibet, where he is believed to have made very considerable collections-zoological, botanical, and geological.
MR. MARTIN, Senior in the Natural Science Tripos of 1873, was last week elected to a Fellowship at Christ's College, Cambridge.
GODFREY'S Laboratory, Maiden Lane, Strand, in which the Hon. Robert Boyle worked out his phosphorus experiments, has been converted into a Roman Catholic chapel.
SOME of the Paris newspapers announced that M. Wurtz, Dean of the Faculty of Medicine at Paris, would be obliged to resign; the Figaro went so far as to give the name of the intended successor of the celebrated Professor of Chemistry -a M. Depaul. The rumour happily has proved false, and was maliciously spread because a clerk employed in the office of the Faculty had been dismissed for misdemeanour. There is, however, to be a demonstration among the students in honour of M. Wurtz, who is a great favourite with them.
THE Professorship of Applied Mathematics and Mechanism in the Royal College of Science for Ireland (Science and Art Department), vacant by the appointment of R. Ball, LL.D., F.R.S., to the Professorship of Astronomy in the Dublin University, has been filled by the appointment of H. Hennessey, F.R.S.
DR. JAMES APJOHN, F. R.S., has resigned the Professorship of Chemistry in the School of Physic attached to Trinity College, Dublin. Dr. Apjohn still holds the Professorships of Applied Chemistry and of Mineralogy in the University of Dublin. The Provost and Senior Fellows of Trinity College, Dublin, will, pursuant to the School of Physic (Ireland) Act, proceed on the 30th of January, 1875, to elect a Professor of Chemistry. There is a fixed salary of 400/. a year, with an additional payment of 100l. a year on condition that a number of Senior Sophisters nominated by the Bursar shall have free laboratory instruction. In addition the Professor has the fees for lectures and laboratory instruction, which ought to equal, at the lowest calculation, 400/. a year. The Professor will have the use of the college laboratory for analyses bearing on medical chemistry, such as medical and medico-legal investigations, and analyses connected with purposes of public health. Candidates are required to send their names, with the places of their education, the Universities where they have taken their medical degrees, and the places where they have practised, to the Registrar of Trinity College, Dublin, and to the Registrars of the King and Queen's College of Physicians in Ireland, Kildare Street, Dublin, on or before the 23rd of January, 1875.
IN accordance with the wishes of the Professors of the Medical School of Trinity College, Dublin, the Provost and Senior Fellows have resolved that a three months' course of practical instruction in Human Histology shall be added to the curriculum for the degree of M.B., the same to be under the superintendence of Dr. Purser, King's Professor of the Institutes of Medicine. IIO. has been voted to buy twenty microscopes, and we presume a room will soon be built for the purpose.
THE Competitive system is making daily progress' in France Four Commissaires de Police being required, the Prefect of the Seine instituted a competition among the police-secretaries, and fourteen candidates offered themselves. A committee of examiners was appointed, the examinations have been held, and the candidates are awaiting the result, which will be issued very shortly. Up to the present time Commissaires de Folice have been appointed at the discretion of the Prefect, only from
amongst gentlemen holding the diploma of Licentiate in Law, and secretaries of police are obliged to possess that qualification before being admitted to the examination.
EACH year the five Paris Academies-the Academy of Sciences, the Academy of Fine Arts, the Academy of Inscrip. tions, the Academy of Moral Sciences, and the French Academy hold a general meeting on the 25th of October, the anniversary of 3 Brumaire, an. IV. (25th October, 1795), the day when the French Republic published the law organising the National Institute. During the Restoration the meeting was held yearly on the 24th April, the day when King Louis XVIII. returned to France, with the foreign troops, after the battle of Waterloo. When the Republic was proclaimed in 1848, a decree changed the date of the annual celebration to the 25th October; but when Napoleon III. accomplished his coup d'état, he appointed the 19th of August, which was continued to be the date to 1870. The Republic being again proclaimed, the celebration was restored to the 25th of October. Each Academy or Class of the Institute
appoints successively the president of the meeting. The turn of the Academy of Sciences having come round this year, M. Bertrand, who is the president in charge, was the chairman of the whole Institute. His being a candidate for the perpetual secretaryship has given much interest to his presidential address, which was printed at full length in all the papers, and largely approved.
THE Prefect of the Seine has appointed a Commission to inquire into the state of lightning conductors-which are in a very imperfect condition on some public buildings-and the best method of testing their efficacy. The institution of this Commission appears to have been suggested by the corresponding committee which was appointed by the British Association, and which existed during two years without any result. It is to be hoped that the Farisian Commissioners will be more successful.
THE Municipal Council of Paris will very likely ask from the Government an authorisation to establish industrial schools in that city.
AT a meeting held a year ago in Islington, a large number of influential gentlemen were"appointed a committee to obtain for that large and important district a Public Library and Museum, under the "Public Libraries and Museums Act." A requisition to the vestry and overseers of the parish was circulated for signature, and the scheme has, we believe, met with general approval, so that we hope soon to see it carried into effect.
M. FAYE has officially announced himself a candidate for the post of Perpetual Secretary of the Academy of Sciences, but the chances of M. Bertrand do not appear to have been greatly altered.
THERE will be an examination at Sidney College, Cambridge, on Tuesday, April 6, 1875, and three following days, of students intending to commence residence in the following October, when (provided fit candidates present themselves) two scholarships will be awarded for natural science, one of the value of 60%., and one of the value of 40%. The scholarships will be tenable, under certain conditions, until the time of taking the B.A. degree, or until promotion of others to greater value.
A copy of the cœlometer, an instrument invented by Mr. W. Marsham Adams, B.A., late Fellow of New College, Oxford, for the purpose of illustrating elementary astronomy, is to be placed in the Examining Department of the Board of Trade at Tower Hill, and also on board her Majesty's training-ship Conway, at Birkenhead. Rear-Admiral Sir A. Cooper Key has, we believe, signified his intention of applying to the Admiralty for leave to purchase one for the Naval College at Greenwich, of which he is the president.
WE have just received a paper by Dr. Pietro Pavesi, Professor of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy in the University of Genoa, entitled "Contribuzione alla storia naturale del genere Selaché," in which that naturalist shows that the Rashleigh❘ Shark (Polysprosopus rashleighanus) and the Broad-headed Gazer (P. macer), described as British by Mr. Crouch in his work on the fishes of our seas, are not, as Dr. Günther suggests in his valuable Catalogue of Fishes in the British Museum, monstrosities of Selache maxima, but belong to a species found in the Mediterranean, Selache rostrata (Macri), in which the eyes are situated at the base of the elongate, narrow, nasal snout, instead of near the point of the short snout, as they are in S. maxima.
over that obtained from the East Indian figs, the principal of which is Ficus elastica, and consequently a higher market value, it will add to the Indian revenue by establishing a course of regular industry by a systematic tapping of the trees, and it will perhaps, to some extent, relieve the figs from a continued strain upon them, and probable future exhaustion.
We have received a little book with a very long title, published by Messrs. Ward, Lock, and Tyler. It is called "Arcadian Walks and Drives in the North-west Suburbs of London, for the Pedestrian, Carriage, Horse, and Bicycle," and contains a variety of hygienic and other hints to pedestrians, and forty-two schemes of walks and drives in the north-west district, together with notes on the fauna, botany, &c., of the localities visited. This "booklet" would be much improved and rendered more generally useful by the addition of a map.
IN a recently issued report on the trade and commerce of Java, we read that the total amount of Cinchona trees of all sizes and ages growing in Government plantations at the end of 1872 was 1,705,542, and the bark crop for the same year amounted to 18,000 kilogrammes.
IT has recently been discovered that the bamboo contains a dangerous poison which the natives of Java extract from the cane in the following manner. The cane is cut at each joint, and in the cavity is found a certain quantity of small fibrous matter of a black colour, which is covered with an almost imperceptible coating of tissue which contains the poison. If swallowed the filaments do not pass into the stomach, but remain in the throat and produce violent inflammation and ultimately death. Experiments are to be made with various kinds of bamboo, to test the existence and nature of this alleged poison.
A GREAT deal of interest is attached to the last report of Dr. King, the superintendent of the Calcutta Botanic Gardens, for, besides the usual details as to the exchange of plants and seeds with the Royal Gardens at Kew, and other similar colonial and foreign establishments- which exchange, by the way, has not been a light affair, inasmuch as from April 1873 to March 1874, 12,812 plants and 2,532 parcels of seeds were sent to various parts of the world—we have satisfactory accounts of the culti❘ vation of the mahogany tree, the ipecacuanha, and the Para rubber tree. The former, as is well known, is a native of Central America and the West Indies; but there are, as Dr. King tells us, a good many old mahogany trees about Calcutta, which, however, rarely if ever yield perfect seed, so that fresh plants have been obtained direct from their native country. He says, further, that "it has been abundantly proved that the treeing a site, as the ground of the old botanic garden affords one
THE Syndicate appointed last June to collect information as to the space and accommodation required for a new Geological Museum have issued their report. They consulted the present Professor of Geology (Mr. Hughes), who considers it desirable that a very much larger number of specimens should be exhibited under glass than is the case at present; that there should be larger intervals in the arrangement of the collection; that more ample accommodation should be provided for students wishing to work at special points in detail, and for lecturers who wish to bring a class or private pupils; that work-rooms, class-rooms, and library, together with private rooms for the Professor and a Paleontologist, which are wholly wanting at present, should be provided. The estimated space for the museum and necessary offices would be 31,700 square feet. The Syndicate do not regard the estimate as excessive, and there is no difficulty respect
of sufficient dimensions in proximity to the other museums of natural science. The sum of 10, 500., which has up to the present time been subscribed towards a new museum as a memorial to Professor Sedgwick, would be far from sufficient for the erection of a museum such as is indicated by Professor Hughes. The cost of such a museum, with suitable fittings and furniture for every department, could not be estimated at less than 25,000l. The Syndicate do not consider by the terms of their appointment that they are called upon to suggest any source from which this sum can be supplied.
will thrive in most parts of Bengal, and that the Indian grown timber is valuable." There are fine mahogany trees in the gardens at Saharunpore and Madras, and Dr. King doubts not that it will grow admirably in almost any part of India in situations free from frost, and where a little moisture can be secured in very dry weather. Of the few trees that were left in the Calcutta Botanic Gardens after the last cyclone in 1867, the mahoganies are by far the finest ; they were planted about eight years since, and are now from 8 to 11 ft. in circumference, 6 ft. from the ground. The quality of the wood of some of the trees blown down in the cyclones of 1864 and 1867 was found to be excellent. Such, then, are the prospects of the successful acclimatisation of one of the most valuable furniture woods known : so valuable indeed is it in European commerce, that about 40,000 tons are annually imported into Great Britain from Honduras, Jamaica, and San Domingo. So far as the increase of the ipecacuanha plants is concerned, the propagation by root and leaf-cuttings has been so successful that there is at present a stock of 63,000 living plants; whereas only four years since there were but twelve cuttings at the Cinchona Gardens, and seven out of these twelve were afterwards accidentally destroyed. Then again, with regard to the most valuable of all the indiarubber producing plants, namely, that of Para-the Hevea brasiliensis-six plants of which Dr. King took with him from Kew on his return to India in November last, we are told that already a few plants have been raised from cuttings taken from these six plants, and before the lapse of another year Dr. King hopes "to be able to report a considerable increase." The advantages to be obtained by the successful introduction of these trees into India are many, for besides the great superiority of the rubber
THE "Origin of Species" controversy has been resumed by M. Blanchard, a member of the French Institute, in the Revue des deux Mondes. The learned naturalist supports strong antiDarwinian theories.
A TELEGRAM from St. Petersburg has been received at Paris, stating that the Imperial Commission appointed to survey the Sea of Aral has finished its work. The level of that large inland sea is about 165 ft. above that of the ocean.
THE signature to the letter on Supernumerary Rainbow," in NATURE, vol. x. p. 503, should not be Joseph, but Hugh Blackburn.
THE additions to the Zoological Society's Gardens during the past week include a Bonnet Monkey (Macacus radiatus) from India, presented by Mr. S. T. Hughes; a Black-backed Piping Crow (Gymnorhina leuconota) from South Australia, presented by Mr. F. Fuller; a Speckled Terrapen (Clemmys guttata) from North America, presented by Mr. A. B. Duncan; a White Stork (Ciconia alba), two Thicknees (Edicnemus crepitans), European, deposited.
THE Journal of Mental Science, October 1874.-This number opens with the address of Thomas Laws Rogers, M.D., president at the annual meeting of the Medico-Psychological Association, Aug. 6, 1874. His object was to procure a fixed meaning for the terms "restraint" and "seclusion," and the clear sense and practical aim of his remarks present a sharp contrast to the rather wandering discussion which followed.-Dr. J. Batty Tuke has a paper on a case in which the clinical history and postmortem examination will, he thinks, support its being designated one of syphilitic insanity.-Dr. Daniel Hack Tuke writes about the Hermit of Red-Coat's Green, and finds him insane, an opinion from which there is little room for dissent. Probably also it would have been well had he individually "been put under the protection of the Lord Chancellor and the inspection of his visitors;" it "would have been better for the neighbourhood, better for his family, and better for the Hermit of Red-Coat's Green himself." But could not those very considerations be urged, and often with greater force, in favour of a curtailment of the liberty of thousands of frivolous, reckless, immoral persons, who are a far greater pest to their family and neighbourhood than poor Lucas was after he became the hermit?-Dr. H. Hayes Newington contributes a thoughtful paper On different forms of stupor.-In an interesting article on the mental aspects of ordinary disease, Dr. J. Milner Fothergill obtrudes his materialism in a way that will be distasteful to many, while to others the thing itself will appear shallow. Thought "is the product of the combustion of what was originally food." The brain of "Robbie Burns transmuted his oatmeal porridge into Tam O'Shanter."-In reviewing Dr. Maudsley's "Responsibility in Mental Disease," Mr. J. Burchell Spring, chaplain to the Bristol Lunatic Asylum, while doing justice to the ability of the work, seems to have the advantage of the author in matters of history. He very cleverly cuts away the ground from under Dr. Maudsley's rather uncalled-for assertion that the brutal treatment of the insane "had its origin in the dark ages of Christian superstition."
Journal de Physique, tome iii., No. 33, September. This number commences with a description of the "phonoptometer" by M. J. Lissajous. This apparatus consists an ordinary terrestrial telescope, of which the eye-piece is broken across, and the third lens from the eye (the one which inverts the image formed by the objective) attached to the prong of a tuning-fork. The lens is thus capable of vibrating in a vertical plane, the vibrations of the fork being maintained by an electro-magnet and contact-breaker. The telescope being directed to a distant object presenting a brilliant point, and the electro-magnet put into action, the point becomes a luminous vertical line if at rest, but if vibrating in a direction transverse to that of the motion of the lens, then the composition of the two movements gives rise to the well-known optical sound figures. The author claims for this ingenious instrument the power of determining the velocity of a luminous point on its trajectory, such as luminous projectiles, bolides, &c.-Theory of the phenomena of diffraction observed to infinity or in the focus of a lens, by M. J. Joubert.On the mutual influence which two bodies vibrating in unison exercise upon one another, by M. A. Gripon. The author describes several experiments illustrating this remarkable action, employing for the purpose collodion membranes, which vibrate in unison with the column of air in the resonance boxes of tuning-forks, organ-pipes, &c. A small pendulum composed of a pith ball suspended by a thread of cotton is attached to such a membrane, and the system is then brought near the resonant case of a vibrating fork, with which the membrane is capable of vibrating in unison. The membrane vibrates strongly when at a distance of one metre, but when brought to within four or five centimetres of the mouth of the case, the sound of the latter undergoes a considerable weakening, and the pendulum of the membrane is scarcely moved. If the vibrations of the fork have but small amplitude, the proximity of the membrane to the resonant case extinguishes the sound altogether. None of these effects are produced if the membrane is not capable of vibrating in unison with the fork. membrane of a lower note is placed in front of the case and a current of warm air directed upon it, the weakening of the sound only occurs when the note of the fork is reached. Arrangements for repeating the experiments with organ-pipes are also described.-Graphic representation of the constants of voltaic elements, by M. A. Crova.-Some experiments concerning
the effects of magnetism on the electric discharge through a rarefied gas when the discharge occurs in the prolongation of the axis of the magnet, by MM. Auguste De la Rive and Edouard Sarasin. The authors employed in this research a columnar electro-magnet. The tube through which the discharge is transmitted rests on the upper extremity of the magnet, the line of electrodes being a prolongation of the axis of the magnet. Various gases sealed up in Geissler tubes have been experimented with, the discharge from a Ruhmkorff coil being allowed to traverse the gas. Changes occur in the appearance of the luminous discharge where the magnet is excited, these changes being accompanied by a change in the resistance offered to the current by the gas. Thus a tube containing hydrogen permitted the passage of an induced current marking 25° on the galvanometer when the magnet was not excited, but when excited the galvanometer reading was 40°. It seems to be a law that the augmentation in the intensity of the current is greater with a gas which is a good conductor than with one which is an inferior conductor of electricity. The authors confine themselves in this paper to a description of the facts without entering into theoretical considerations.-The number concludes with three papers reprinted from Poggendorff's Annalen: On the stroboscopic determination of the intensity of sounds, by E. Mach; Researches on magnetisation, by Holz; O. E. Meyer and F. Springmuhl, On the internal friction of gases.
Zeitschrift der Esterreichischen Gesellschaft für Meteorologie, Oct. 15.-In an article on the state of development or forwardness of vegetation in Italy compared with that of Giessen, in Germany, Prof. H. Hoffmann expresses his regret that for the greater part of Italy we possess no observations of the kind to which he wishes to direct attention. A knowledge of the relative state of vegetation at many different places would help invalids to the choice of a residence congenial to them, and dispel the false estimates of Italian climate now so common. In the course of a rapid visit to Italy in March and April, 1874, he took a number of observations, and compared them on his return to Giessen with like observations simultaneously taken at that place. The weather was fortunately fine and fairly uniform over Central and Southern Europe during the period of his travels. The average state of vegetation in open situations can be roughly calculated under normal conditions by reckoning for every degree southwards an advance of 3 days. Direct observation shows this rule generally to hold good. Rome is 8° south of Giessen, Naples 9°; this gives, at the rate above mentioned, an advance for Rome of 30, for Naples of 34 days. On looking at the map which accompanies Prof. Hoffmann's paper, we find the real difference to have been for Naples 35, for Rome 23; and so with many other places in Italy. If we have the number of days' advance in the spring, by doubling it we obtain the relative length of summer, or the period of vegetation. The Riviera di Porrente is quite abnormal, having a warm and early spring. Prof. Hoffmann's method consisted in taking the mean of the number of days' advance before Giessen, of the bursting into leaf or flower of several common kinds of trees in a certain place, and making this number the criterion of climate. In conclusion, he affirms that the extended observation of a single species of tree in the above manner, with regard also to the time of first fruits, would give us a new insight into comparative climatology, and that after various species had been so dealt with, maps might be made, exhibiting for each month a fair example in the development of one of these species. A list of the plants observed is appended. Among the Kleinere Mittheilungen, in a communication from Dr. Hildebrandtson, director of the Meteorological Department of Upsala Observatory, we find that he arrives at results similar to those of Mr. Ley respecting the movements of cirrus, this cloud appearing to move away from the centre of a cyclone and towards the centre of an anticyclone.
for the soirée at the Owens College.-Prof. Boyd Dawkins,
Academy of Natural Sciences, June 23.-Dr. Ruschen-
Anatomical notes by Dr. Chapman were read, On the disposition
On report of the committee to which it was referred, the
THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 12, 1874
SIR JOHN LUBBOCK AT BIRMINGHAM IR JOHN LUBBOCK, in his inaugural address as president of the Midland Institute, gave utterance to some wholesome truths which we sincerely hope the Government and people of the country will take to heart. Sir John, as a member of the Schools Commission and of the Science Commission, has had ample opportunities of ascertaining the exact state of our schools and universities as to the teaching of science; and after all that has been said and done, he comes to the unhappy conclusion that, practically, science is ignored in the vast majority of our educational institutions of all classes-elementary schools, endowed schools, and universities. At the same time he is driven to the conclusion that a widespread interest in science already exists in the country. Of this we think anyone can assure himself who looks around and can read the signs of the times. There is undoubtedly a widespread feeling that the present all but universal system of education is inadequate and unsatisfactory and that science must, sooner or later, be allotted a place in all our schools. Notwithstanding this feeling, the fact undoubtedly remains as Sir John Lubbock stated it, that the great fault of our present system of education is the neglect of science; some few years hence it will be deemed incredible that a boy should be allowed to pass through any good school and yet be entirely ignorant of any one branch of natural knowledge.
Here, then, on one side exists a craving, becoming more and more defined, in the country, that science be given a place in our educational system, and on the other hand the fact that scarcely anything definite has yet been done to give science an established place in our schools and universities. In most cases where science has been admitted into our schools, it has been only on sufferance as a kind of interloper for which any odd corner is good enough. In spite of all that has been said recentlyagain to refer to the address-about the advantage of science, notwithstanding the reports of Royal Commissions and the action of Parliament, though the importance of science is generally admitted, still it is unfortunately the case that, with a few exceptions, it is either entirely ignored in our endowed schools or has allotted to it a space of time ludicrously inadequate, and, indeed, almost nominal. In some cases it is permitted, but only on condition of being taken out of playtime, which is not fair to the boy, and being paid for extra, which naturally does not recommend it to the parent. It is for parents and for the public to say whether this state of things is satisfactory; and Sir John called attention to it because he thought that parents were in general scarcely aware how little their sons were even now learning beyond the old routine. The present state of matters ought not, therefore, to be tolerated, and the only position in our schools and universities, for the teaching of science, is a position of, least, equality with all the other old-fashioned means of education. The only principle on which a satisfactory course of education can be constructed is, that it is essential for the well-being of every man and woman that he I J 263
and she should start in life with a well-trained mind and a fair knowledge of the principles and the main facts of everyday life.
Sir John Lubbock admits the importance of language as a means of education, but he thinks that it has hitherto been given a far too prominent place in our schools, and that the amount of time devoted to linguistic studies is out of all proportion to the results achieved. "We still," he said, "indeed, teach the Latin grammar rather than the Latin language, for a man cannot surely be said to know a language which he cannot speak; and I cannot but believe that if our children were taught Latin and Greek as they are taught French and German, they would learn them in half the time. Mr. Arnold, in his report on German schools, tells us that it is common there for the master to address his boys in Latin, and for the class to speak Latin in reply. The German boys, he adds, have certainly acquired through this practice a surprising command of Latin."
It is well known that scholarship in Germany is far more widespread and accurate than in England, and we see that this scholarship is acquired with a much less expenditure of time. The consequence is, that plenty of time remains in German schools for the teaching of science, which forms so important a part of education throughout that country, and which gives the German a startingpoint in life so very much superior to that which the average Englishman has, even when educated at our public schools and universities. No one can deny the increasing importance of a knowledge of science in all departments of human activity, and we fear that if another two generations of boys be allowed to pass. through our schools in their present condition, this country will be almost hopelessly behind certain countries on the Continent. This has been recently admitted as a truth by several practical men, whose position as such ought to be of some weight with our trading and manufacturing community. But to this subject we hope to return in an early number.
In the meantime, it is clear to all who have taken pains to inquire into the facts that a radical reform must soon be made in our present system of education, from the elementary schools upwards; that a rearrangement of subjects and a reform in methods must be made, so that science may be allotted a place of equal prominence with other subjects, and that Government must begin the reform by insisting that such a change be made in the programmes of all schools under its control. On this point Sir John said :
No doubt we had greatly increased the number of our schools and the attendances of the children, but while we had been disputing over the 25th clause and arguing about compulsion, we had somewhat lost sight of the character of the education given; and he was sorry to say that there was abundant evidence, not only that it had not improved, but even that it had fallen off in the last few years. The present system of payment practically confined the instruction given to reading, writing, and arithmetic. No doubt a payment of 3s. per head was nominally offered for any two other subjects, but other grants amounted to 185.-namely, 5s. for attendance, Is. for music, and 4s. each for reading, writing, and arithmetic, which were obligatory. Now, as 15s. was the maximum granted, it followed that if three-quarters of the children pass in reading, writing, and arithmetic, the