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ENTERED according to Act of Congress, in the year 1832.

By CHARLES BOWEN, in the Clerk's office of the District Court of Massachusetta.





UNITED STATES,-Policy of the Administration.-Sectional Parties.-

Policy of the Southern States of the Northern.-Periodical Press.-

Political Machinery.- Political Course of the President.—Quarrels with

the Vice President.--Change of Cabinet.-Causes of Resignations.-

Character of New Cabinet opposition.-Anti-Masonic Party - Origin of

same.-Principles of Anti-Masonic Party.—Effect upon the Politics of

the Union.

Indian Affairs. Conduct of Georgia

. --Case of George Tassel.--

Resolutions of State Legislature.--Survey of the Cherokee Territory:-

Proceedings of State Legislature.-Co-operation of the Federal Govern.

ment.- Occupation of the Cherokee Country.- Arrest of Missionaries.-

Condemnation and Imprisonment of.-Process in Supreme Court of the

United States. Judgment of Court.-Change in mode of Paying Indian

Annuities - Treaty with the Cherokees.- Proceedings of Senate.-Motion

in House on the Indian Relations.-To reform mode of distributing An.


Foreign Relations.-Claims on France.-Conduct of France.-Meas-

ures of Administration.-Objections to Claims.-Louisiana Treaty -

Beaumarchais.—Treaty with°France.-Intercourse with British West In-

dies.-North East Boundary.-Origin of Controversy.-Treaty of 1783.-

Of 1794-of 1814-of 1827.-Umpire appointed. --Award. - Protest on

the part of the United States.

Opening of Congress.- President's Message. Impeachment of Judge

Peck.Trial.--Acquittal.--Act declaring Law of Contempts.--Bill

to Repeal the 25th Section of Judiciary Act.-Judicial System of United

States.--Mode of executing Resolutions of Continental Congress.-Mode

Provided by Federal Constitution.- Chisholm vs. Georgia.- Amendments

to Constitution.—Twenty-fifth Section.--Cohens vs. Virginia.- Decision

of Court.-Discontent.- Rejection of Bill to Repeal.

Distinction between Federal and State Governments.-Prospects of

the Country: - Cominerce.- Manufactures.- Internal Improvements.-

Policy of Federal Government.--History of Policy.-.Madison's

Veto. -Course of Congress.-Monroe's Veto.-Act of April, 1824.-

Object of Act.—Policy of Adams' Administration.-Progress of In-

ternal Improvement.- Course of Jackson's Administration.- Veto.—Bills

Retained. --Grounds of objection.- Report of Committee on Internal Im-
provement.--Debate in House.-Congress act in opposition to sentiments
of President.-President yields to Congress.

Treasury Report for 1830. - Appropriations for Pensions.—For Support

of Government.--Debate on Survey of Public Lands.--Debate

on Mission to Russia.-Debate on Turkish Treaty:--Appropriations for

Navy-for Fortifications—fo: Army-for the Indian Department-for

Public Buildings.



COLOMBIA. -- Geography - Physical Aspect.-- Productions - Govern-

ment under Spain. - Religion. -Character of the people.-Causes of the

Revolution.- Revolutionary Movements.—Miranda.-Events of Bayonne.

-Juntas.- Independence.


GERMANY.—Importance of.–Fall of the Western Empire, and its revival

under Charlemagne.-Electors.—Constitution of the Holy Roman Em-

pire.—Diet of the Empire.-French Revolution.-Dissolution of the

German Empire.-Confederation of the Rhine.--Its dissolution.-Con-

gress of Vienna.-Mediatised Princes.—Deliberations respecting the re-

construction of the German Empire.--As to Saxony.—New confederacy.

- Its objects.—Provisions of the Act of Confederacy:-Diet at Frank-

fort.-General and Ordinary Assembly:-Powers of the members of the

Diet.-Deliberations of the Diet.-Federal Army.-- Internal Navigation.

-Tariffs.-Commercial Conventions.-Literature.-Copy-Rights.-

Liberty of the Press.- Patriotic Associations.-Central Commission at

Mentz:- Constitutions of Saxe Weimar:--Bavaria.-Wertemburgh, Han.
over, Baden, Nassau, Prussia, Austria, &c.-Quarrel of the Duke of

Brunswick with George IV.-Decision of the Diet.—Revolution in

Brunswick.-Commotions in Saxony, Hesse Cassel, &c.


THE PENINSULA.-Portugal.-Emigrants.—Negotiation.--Distress of

the country.-Operations at Terceira.—Conduct of England.-Don Pe-

dro.—Effect of the French Revolution.-Collision with England.- And

with France.-Regency at Terceira.–Spain. - Attempt of the Exiles.-

Mina.—Disputes.- Attack from Bayonne.-From Pespignan.-Torrijos. 151

GREECE AND TURKEY.—Effect of the Treaty of Adrianople.-Proto-

col of February -Choice of Leopold.-He declines.-State of Greece.-

Destruction of the Fleet.-Assassination of Capo d'Istrias.- Turkey.-

Mahmoud's reform.-Revolts.—The Viceroy of Egypt.

POLAND.-Frequency of revolutions.-Partition of Poland. Its effects.

-Policy of Napoleon.—The Polish legion.—The Dutchy of Warsaw.-

Congress of Vienna.—Poland subjected to Russia.- Alexander's char-

ter.-Tyranny of the Russians.- Conspiracy of 1825.-Oppression of Ni-

cholas. -New conspiracy.-Effect of the French Revolution.-Designs of

Nicholas.—Commencement of the revolution.


POLAND CONTINUED.-Provincial Government.—The Grand Duke.—Depu-

tation to St. Petersburgh.-Russian proclamation.-State of Warsaw.-

Chlopicki Dictator.–Military preparation.-Radzivil succeeds Chlopicki.

-The Polish forces.-Diebstsch enters Poland.-Military Operations.

Various engagements.—Negotiations.-Battle of Crokow.-Appointment

of Skrzynecki.—Efforts of the Poles.-Operations of Dwernicki.- Propo-

sitions. -Skrzynecki's operations.—Insurrection in Lithuania.—Battle of



POLAND CONCLUDED.-Position and Strength of the Armies.-Skrzynecki's

Plans.-Defeat of Licrawski.-Dwernicki's operations.-The Cholera

Morbus.-Battles of Kuflew and Minsk.-Advance of the Poles.-Battle

of Ostrolenka.- Death of Diebitsch.-Operations in Lithuania.- Battle of

Wilna.–Jankowski's expeditions.-Excitement in Warsaw.-Disasters

in Lithuania.-Retreat of the Poles.-Chlapowski and Rohland enter

Prussia.—Paskewicz passes the Vistula.—Council of War.Dembinski's

operations.--Fall of Warsaw.—Dispersion of the Polish army._Reflec-



THE NETHERLANDS.-State of things in October, 1830. —Bombard-

ment of Antwerp.-National Congress. -De Potter's resignation.-Decla-

ration of Independence.-Adoption of monarchy: - Exclusion of the

House of Orange.-Designs of Russia.—The Constitution.-Offer of the

Crown to the Duc de Nemours.-Regency of Lurlet de Chokier.-Confer-

ences of London.—Question of Luxembourg:--Election of Prince Leo-

pold.—Hostilities commenced by Holland.- Opening of the Belgic Cham-


SWITZERLAND.—Formation of the Confederacy:-Constitution of the

Old Republic.-I1s Evil and Abuses.- The French Revolution.-Act of

Mediation.—Compact of 1814.-Its Public Law.—Exarnple of Berne.-

Other Cantons.-Foreign Interference.—Movement in Tessino.-In other

Cantons.-Hostilities in Bàle.-Constitution of Berne.--Of other Cantons.

State of Schwytz.—Proceedings of the Diet.-Neufchatel.-Reflections. · 225

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