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Galileo announces his discoveries in Enigmas—Discovers the

Crescent of Venns — The Ring of Saturn—The Spots

on the Snn—Similar Observations made in England by

Harriot—Claims of Fabricins and Schemer to the discovery

of the Solar Spots—Galileo's Letters to Velser on the

claims of Scheiner—His residence at the Villa of Salviati—

Composes his work on Floating Bodies, which involves him

in new controversies - 39

CHAPTER IV.

Galileo treats his opponents with severity and sarcasm—He is

aided by the sceptics of the day—The Church party the most

powerful—Galileo commences the attack, and is answered

by Caccini, a Dominican—Galileo's letter to the Grand

Duchess of Tuscany, in support of the motion of the Earth and

the stability of the Sun—Galileo visits Home—Is summoned

before the Inquisition, and renounces his opinions as here-

tical—The Inquisition denounces the Copernican System-

Galileo has an audience of the Pope, but still maintains his

opinions in private Bociety—Proposes to find the Longitude

at Sea by means of Jupiter's satellites—His negotiations

on this subject with the Court of Spain—Its failure—He

is unable to observe the three Comets of 1618, but is in-

volved in the controversy to which they gave rise . . .51

CHAPTER V.

Urban VIII., Galileo's friend, raised to the Pontificate-

Galileo goes to Borne to offer his congratulations—The Pope

loads him with presents, and promises a Pension to his Son

— Galileo in pecuniary difficulties, owing to the death of his

patron, Cosmo—He again rashly attacks the Church, notwith-

standing the Pope's kindness—He composes his System of

the World, to demonstrate the Copernican System—Artfully

obtains a license to print it—Nature of the work—Its in-

fluence on the publio mind—The Pope resolves on sup-

pressing it—Galileo summoned before the Inquisition—His

to his Visitors—Ingratitude of Witichms—Tycho sends an

assistant to take the Latitude of Frauenburg and Konigs-

berg—Is visited by Ulrie, Duke of Mecklenburg—Change in

Tycho's fortunes 133

CHAPTER III.

Tyoho's Labours do honour to his Country—Death of Frede-

rick II.—James VI. of Scotland visits Tycho at Uraniburg

—Christian IV. visits Tycho—The Duke of Brunswick's

visit to Tycho—The Danish Nobility, jealous of his fame,

conspire against him—He is compelled to quit Uraniburg—

And to abandon his Studies—Cruelty of the Minister

Walchendorp—Tycho quits Denmark with his Family and

Instruments—Is hospitably received by Count Rantzau—

Who introduces him to the Emperor Rudolph—The Em-

peror invites him to Prague—He gives him a Pension of

3000 Crowns—And the Castle of Benach as a Residence and

an Observatory—Kepler visits Tyoho—Who obtains for him

the appointment of Mathematician to Rudolph . . 147

CHAPTER IV.

Tycho resumes his Astronomical Observations—Is attacked

with a Painful Disease—His Sufferings and Death in 1601

—His Funeral—His Temper—His turn for Satire and

Raillery—His Piety—Account of his Astronomical Dis-

coveries—His Love of Astrology and Alchemy—Observa-

tions on the Character of the Alchemists—Tycho's Elixir

—His fondness for the Marvellous—His Automata and

Invisible Bells—Account of the Idiot called Lep, whom he

kept as a Prophet—History of Tycho's Instruments—His

great Brass Globe preserved at Copenhagen—Present state

of the Island of Huen 165

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