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meaning. In animadverting on Bellamy's absurd pretension of discovering, in plain passages of the Hebrew Scriptures, a sense which had never been thought of before, we remarked how strongly the folly of it was pointed out by the entire concurrence of all translators, ancient and modern, as to the received sense. In particular, we stated that, besides many other versions, the Chaldec Paraphrase, the Septuagint, the versions of Aquila, Symmachus, and Theodotion, as far as they remained, were entitled to consider ation in removing doubts as to the sense of the Hebrew, as they were made at a time when many advantages for the right interpretation of that language probably existed, which we do not now possess. It must have been obvious to every reader, that, in stating this, we had not the slightest intention of pledging ourselves for the accuracy of the versions to which we alluded, in every part; we merely meant to say, that, in passages similar to those to which we then referred, (we were speaking of a passage in the book of Genesis,) if the received sense could be deemed at all doubtful, the concurrence of these several versions must make it completely certain. Yet Sir J. Burges, after observing that Aquila translated the bible with the insiduous design of perverting passages bearing testimony to the truth of the Gospel, quotes (copying from Dr. Owen) a particular text (Isaiah xiv. 7.) which he perverts from its true sense of prophetically alluding to our Saviour's miraculous birth; and most unwarrantably insinuates that we approved of Aquila's version in such passages as this; and thence infers that, as Reviewers, we have deserted the cause, and sanctioned a passage directly contrary to our avowed principles and to the whole tenor of our orthodox and enlightened publication.'-(Enquiry, p. 74.)-This gentleman must already have discovered that we entertain no very extraordinary respect for his talents and understanding: but we really do not rate him so very low as to think that he did not, in the passage to which we have alluded, know that our meaning was not that which he has represented.

We here take leave of the Baronet. The duty of guarding the public against the errors into which he would lead them, has been by no means a pleasant one, and we greatly regret that he should have adopted a proceeding which has imposed it upon us. We sincerely believe that it is far from his views to impair the credit of the Holy Scriptures; and we therefore lament the more that weakness of judgment which could lead him to act as if he had the worst intentions. It has often happened, that an injudicious friend has proved more prejudicial than an avowed foe; but never, surely, was there a stronger instance of it, than this before us; where a person wishing to support the authority of the Bible, pursues a course by which weapons of the most fatal kind are supplied to its


enemies. We easily see that he has been carried away by the dangerous vanity of seeking to display his erudition in matters of theology; and the stimulant power of the same busy feeling, probably, induced him to obtrude himself into a discussion foreign to his pursuits, and to which he is wholly incompetent. We believe too (and we grieve while we make the humiliating admission) that he is really the dupe of Mr. Bellamy; and that, imposed upon by his bold and confident asseverations, he verily conceives him qua lified to improve the present translations of the Hebrew Scriptures! On these accounts, we could have looked with some indulgence on the part he has taken, if he had not assumed a tone of arrogance and invective, which, in a person of his rate of understanding, is perfectly intolerable. For the part of his proceedings which we noticed in the beginning of this article, we cannot possibly frame any adequate excuse; we allude to his production of Bellamy's translation through many pages of his book, under the name of a literal translation from the Hebrew,' with a studious concealment of Bellamy's name, in a manner which must lead every reader to sup pose that it is a literal translation which he has carefully made himself, or one, at least, for the accuracy of which he is prepared solemnly to vouch. This bears, as we have said, every appearance of a direct and intentional imposition on the public. Our readers have the facts before them, and must judge for themselves.

With regard to Mr. Bellamy, we really grow more convinced, as we become more acquainted with him, that he is perfectly incorri gible. Since the preceding observations were written, he has published what he calls A Critical Examination of the Objections made to the New Translation in which he again puffs off himself and his performances* in the most extravagant strain; scatters in the wildest profusion opprobrious epithets on all his opponents; pretends to argue while he only gratuitously asserts; and asserts under the profoundest ignorance of every thing on which assertion ought to be founded. In fact, it is the unhappy lot of this writer in his vain endeavours to evince his learning and competence, only to redouble the proofs of his incapacity. But the worst part of his proceeding (and it is a feature of peculiar blackness) is his repeated and wilful misrepresentation of the intention of those who object to his translation. He affirms, in the preface of this last publication, (p. iv.) that the design of a few objectors to a new revision of the authorised translation is to shew that errors are consecrated by time, to put a stop to any amendment of the present version, however contradictory to the sacred original, however it

He especially eulogizes a work which he has recently published under the name of The Antideist,' in which he surrenders to the infidel the Bible as it stands in our present version, and considers it to be only defensible, as represented in his translation.


may impeach the moral justice of God, &c." Was there ever a more impudent statement of a palpable untruth?How often must we repeat that the sole design of those who object to his translation is, to maintain the true sense of Scripture, and to prevent its being grossly perverted and misrepresented? What to say more we hardly know:-but we are almost tempted by this inveterate persistance in detected falsehood, to suspect (and we speak it with equal seriousness and sorrow) that Mr. Bellamy labours under some deficiency of understanding; that he has not, in short, sufficient matter for reason and argument to work upon, and that, therefore, all human means must fail to produce in him any conviction of his error, or to turn him from the evil of his proceeding.

ART. II.-1. An Essay on certain Points of Resemblance between the Ancient and Modern Greeks. By the Hon. Frederick Sylv. North Douglas.

2. Travels in the Ionian Isles, Albania, Thessaly, Macedonia, &c. during the years 1812 and 1813. By Henry Holland, M.D. F.R.S. &c. 1819.

3. Greece, a Poem; with Notes, Classical Illustrations and Sketches of the Scenery. By William Haygarth, Esq. A.M.

IT T is a remark of Lord Byron, that of the ancient Greeks we know more than enough of the moderns we are perhaps more neglectful than they deserve.' We do not quite agree with the first part of his lordship's proposition, for we think that we have still much to learn respecting them. Leaving this, however, we readily admit that a multitude of classical' volumes on Greece has issued from the press since the middle of the seventeenth century: nor ought we perhaps to wonder that a portion of the globe so intensely interesting to the scholar, the artist, and the antiquary, should, by reviving ancient recollections and associations, exert an influence on the feelings, and so completely absorb the eye and the mind of the traveller as to leave him unconscious almost of the present race of mortals, and careless of the existing state of Greece.

'Yet are her skies as blue, her crags as wild,
Sweet are her groves and verdant are her fields,
Her olive ripe as when Minerva smiled,
And still his honied wealth Hymettus yields;
There the blythe bee his fragrant fortress builds,
The free-born wanderer of her mountain air;
Apollo still her long, long summer gilds,
Still in his beam Mendeli's marbles glare,
Art, glory, freedom fail, but nature still is fair.


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It is true that, in most of the accounts of modern travellers, we find, mixed up with the remains of ancient glory,' incidental notices of the habits, manners, and condition of the present degraded race of Greeks, more especially in those of our own countrymen. Yet, strange as it may appear, no two maps of Greece are found to agree, nor is there one that is not shamefully defective in all the great features of a country-the mountains, promontories, bays, harbours, creeks, and rivers. We may be allowed, indeed, to notice it as a proof, if not of ignorance, at least of want of taste and feeling, in the compiler of a modern system of geography (Pinkerton) that he has deemed one of the 2565 pages of his three huge quarto volumes sufficient for all Greece, about half a dozen lines for Attica, and half a line for Athens, just to inform the simple reader that 'Atini, the ancient Athens, is of small population.'.

In the cursory view which it is our intention to take of this interesting country, we have no design to swell our pages with notices of ruined cities, temples and tombs; of sacred fountains, hallowed groves, and mysterious caverns; or to seek for coincidences with what Homer and Herodotus may have said, or Strabo and Pausanius described. The task we propose to ourselves is the more humble, though perhaps not the less instructive endeavour of looking at Greece and its inhabitants as they now exist; and of exhibiting, from personal acquaintance, and with the aid of the writers whose names stand at the head of this article, in conjunction with the valuable collections of Mr. Walpole, a general, though necessarily an imperfect sketch of the present condition and state of society among the Greeks.

The peninsula of Greece, properly so called, is a tongue of land jutting into the Mediterranean, like the peninsula of Italy, from which it is separated by the Ionian sea on the west, and from Asia Minor by the Archipelago on the east. In the former sea are situated the Seven Islands constituting the Ionian Republic, which may strictly be considered as a component part of Greece; in the latter, about one hundred islands of various size. All these, together with the peninsula lying between them, compose a territory whose chief population consists of the legitimate descendants of the ancient Greeks.

Assuming the peninsula to commence at the head of the gulf of Salonica on the east, and at that of Avlona on the west, or, about the parallel of 40° of north latitude, we shall find it extended in the direction of S. S. E. to Cape Colonna (the ancient Sunium) in latitude 373° N. being about 200 English miles in length, and 100 in mean breadth, and containing an area of about 20,000 square miles. Connected with it on the S. W. by the


narrow isthmus of Corinth, is the sub-peninsula of the Morea (the ancient Peloponnesus), containing a surface somewhat less than half the former country. The islands may be estimated roughly as equal in extent to the Morea; and thus the whole will amount to about 40,000 square miles. The population is more difficult to be ascertained; but by taking an average of that which is stated by various writers, we may assume the following

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Making a total of

.. 4,000,000

Of these the Greeks may be computed at not less than three millions; the rest being composed of Turks, Musselman Albanians, Jews, and the mixed descendants of Romans, Venetians, Neapolitans, and other Europeans known generally by the name of Franks.* What may be the number of Greek families spread over the inland provinces of Turkey in Europe, in Asia Minor, in Russia and Germany, it would be idle to offer any conjecture. They have been stated as high as 80,000.

The population of the seven Ionian islands, now under the protection of Great Britain, has been estimated at 200.000, of a very mixed race, but the majority of them Greeks. Of these Corfu may contain from 60 to 70,000; Cephalonia 60,000; Zante 40,000; Santa Maura 18,000; Ithaca and Cerigo, each 8,000; and Paxo 3 or 4,000. Of these islands Zante is by far the most beautiful and fertile, the greater part of its surface consisting of an immense plain of one continued vineyard, interspersed and broken by groves of olives, oranges, and other fruit trees; but the other islands are also exceedingly picturesque and beautiful.

Down the middle of the peninsula, and parallel nearly to its two coasts, runs a continuous range of lofty mountains, varying in height from seven or eight thousand feet in the northern and central part, to as many hundred feet about the southern extremity. Of the former height may be reckoned the loftiest ridge of Pindus and Parnassus; while Parnes, Pentelicus, and Hymettus, in Attica, do not exceed the latter. Other branches are thrown off towards either coast from this central chain; to the eastward the celebrated Olympus, rising near the head of the

Professor Carlyle reckons the proportion of the Greeks in Europe to the Turks as three or four to one; and the former to amount to three and a half millions.

VOL. XXIII. NO. 46.-Q. R.



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