Imagens das páginas

In the flourishing town of Volo, situated at the head of the gulf of the same name, and containing about seven hundred houses built of stone; in the large and populous town of Makrinitza, and the group of villages called Zagora, and indeed in the whole region of Thessaly, from the vale of Tempé to the gulf of Volo, the Greeks enjoy certain advantages in situation and commerce, which afford them more liberty and greater scope for exertion than are common to most of their countrymen. Much of the literature of modern Greece,' says Dr. Holland, has come from this quarter.' The authors of the Modern Greek Geography,' were natives of Melies, and so is Gazi, the conductor of the Equis of Ayios, at Vienna. Philipidi, another native of Melies, has published translations of La Lande's Astronomy and of the Logic of Condillac; and Kavra, of Ampelachia, has translated the Arithmetic and Algebra of Euler, and the Abbé Millot's Elements of History.

The Hellenic language is now extensively cultivated both in and out of Greece. In Constantinople are two schools: one for ancient Greek; the other for logic, physics, and mathematics. At Smyrna there is a Greek college in which the Hellenic language is taught, two on the Island of Scio, and one on Patmos ; two at Joannina, and two at Athens; and several in the Ionian islands. In Venice, in Vienna, and many towns of Austria and Hungary, are free schools for the education of the Greeks in their ancient language, and the universities of Padua, Pisa, and Bologna, are open to them. To what extent it is intended to carry the university of Cephallonia, of which the Earl of Guilford has been appointed Chancellor, we know not; but we cannot help thinking that, if the money to be expended upon it were appropriated to the education of the Grecian youths at our own universities, they would have a fairer chance of becoming better scholars, better men, and consequently better patriots, than by receiving their education in the Ionian islands.

Upon the whole, however, the Greeks may be considered as in a progressive state of improvement; and, with their literary improvement, will necessarily be increased that desire for the restoration of their independence, which they have never wholly lost sight of, and of which every lover of freedom must wish to see the accomplishment. There is much, however, to be done before they can be considered ripe for such an event. In their present divided and dispersed condition, without the means of communication, without military skill or military resources, ignorant besides as the bulk of the people are, and low in morals, they are not fit to govern themselves. In such a state, the sudden removal of the Turkish power would prove an evil instead of a good. If from the Achæan league to the present day, the states of Greece never


united in any general object, it will hardly be expected of them when they are more separated by their character, and more divided in their views, that they should agree for the accomplishment of one and the same object. Let it be recollected also, that the circumstances of the world are totally changed since they were an independent people. Greece, which was a civilized and polished nation in the midst of barbarians, is now, compared with the rest of Europe, herself barbarous; and the eternal warfare and disputes which, in her most flourishing periods, prevailed among her petty states, could not now be tolerated. Mere nominal freedom, therefore, in her present state of ignorance, superstition and disunion, would prove a greater evil than the yoke of the Turks. It is perfectly idle to talk, with Sonnini and others of his description, of the restoration of Greece to independence, and of the sacred duty of the nations of Christendom to unite and form another crusade for the liberation of the Greeks. The first victims of any war undertaken for their freedom would be the Greeks themselves. Of this they had fatal experience in the Russian crusade for the liberation of the Morea. While we hoped,' says one of them, that the days of our ancient liberty were about to regain their splendour, our houses were set on fire, our daughters were ravished, by the very soldiers who came to defend our country, and unhappy Greece felt only the weight of her chains encreased.'-But on this subject we have already stated our sentiments at large,) No. XX. Art. VII.) and circumstances have not materially changed since that time.


It has been justly observed by Mr. Douglas, that 'the seeds of rational liberty will never prosper in a soil not antecedently prepared by proper cultivation to receive them.' The Greeks are accordingly preparing their soil by extending the benefits of education; but they have only yet commenced their formidable task. Education must become much more general; true religion and morality must be far more widely disseminated among the lower orders; the idle ceremonies, the numerous fast days, the multitude of papás and caloyers must be greatly abridged; the land cultivated with more care; roads of communication opened; the fisheries encouraged; commerce extended; the oriental custom of shutting up their women and denying them the blessings of an enlightened education must be abolished; and, above all, those who are at present at the head of the Greek church, and those who, from their wealth or power, have any sway over the people, must be more than ordinarily careful not to suffer the poisonous dogmas of infidelity imported from the Universities of Germany and Italy, to be spread among their youth, before they can rationally aspire to the enjoyment of that freedom of which they will only then be truly worthy.

Vol. XXIII. No. 46.-Q. R.



ART. III.A Letter to the Editor of the Quarterly Review. By Wm. Parnell, Esq. Dublin. 1820.

WE generally have the charity to refrain from noticing the answers which angry authors make to our criticisms; but we have departed from this rule on special occasions; and we are induced to do so in the present instance, because we conceive that, amidst a good deal of petty dispute, Mr. Parnell has involved in the controversy some topics of general interest.

The Letter' before us is a protest against the justice of our opinion of Maurice and Berghetta, or the Priest of Rahery,' the review of which has, we have reason to know, amused not a few readers who had thrown away the work itself in disgust.-We intimated that Mr. Pamell, Knight of the Shire for Wicklow, was the supposed author of this strange novel; he here avows it, and defends his offspring with even more than parental partiality. But as he affects to write calmly, (though we can perceive that he fancies he has levelled some sly and stinging personalities at us,) we shall examine his Reply without any other objects than those of correcting error and establishing truth.

Any one who reads the novel, the review, and the reply, will be satisfied that even if all Mr. Parnell's recriminations were well founded, they would affect but little, if at all, the real question'the merit of his work.' He might have corrected us on points of agricultural or genealogical detail (such as his pamphlet dwells upon) without disproving the substantial charges: but, in truth, even that paltry victory we cannot allow him; he is wrong throughout his novel was as dull as an argumentation, and now his argument is as flimsy as a novel.

Mr. Parnell's 'first ground of complaint' is, that the person selected to review his work should be totally ignorant of the most ordinary facts of farming.'-p. 4.



Some may incline to think that if we had amongst us one person 'ignorant of the most ordinary facts of farming,' he was just the person to whom might be committed, without any great impropriety, the examination of a novel. But Mr. Parnell is not of this opinion, nor indeed were we. We can assure this gentleman that we are so far from being totally ignorant' on that subject, that we have entertained many practical farmers by our accurate and judicious accounts of his discoveries. To prove our ignorance, however, Mr. Parnell employs three pages in abusing the fac (the long handled spade), with which he says an Irish labourer always works as timidly as a lady tuning her harp-strings: but when did we say a word in defence of the fac? Mr. Parnell recommended the short handled spade, the use of which occasioned a great


stoop, and he also recommended the use of a scythe with a bent handle, which prevented the necessity of stooping.' It was upon the inconsistency of these reasons, apparent we think even to those who may be 'ignorant of farming,' that we observed, and not at all upon the real value of the respective implements: nay, we did not disagree with Mr. Parnell, for our expression was the change may be desirable, but not assuredly for the reasons assigned by the author.'-No. XLII. p. 485.

We had smiled at Mr. Parnell's developing with great solemnity, that recondite mystery in the art of mowing, that damp grass is cut more easily than dry, and that it is less fatiguing to mow in the morning and evening than under the meridian sun.' p. 473. To this he replies:

'It is also no discovery, as your Reviewer states, nor is it a very important fact in England, to shew that grass may be mown easier when full of sap and wet with the morning and evening dew; but it is of im portance to urge this fact in Ireland, where, if known, it is not attended to; and to any one who has witnessed, as I have done during the last hot summer, the mowers of the country working through the heat of the day on task-work, with no diet but potatoes, and actually with no drink but water, an attempt to lighten this severe labour, by transferring it from the heat of the mid-day to the cool of the morning and evening, would not be esteemed a fit topic for ridicule.'—pp. 7, 8.

What we'ridiculed' was-not the fact, which we asserted to be notorious, but-Mr. Parnell's pompous exhibition of it as valuable information, to acquire which, his hero was obliged to make a tour into England. When it was mentioned that Goldsmith intended to travel in quest of useful inventions, Doctor Johnson thought there was danger of his going to Constantinople, and bringing back a wheelbarrow as a wonderful discovery. Did the doctor by this phrase ridicule either travelling or wheelbarrows? or is not the smile excited at the simple Irishman painfully journeying into foreign parts to make a discovery which every peasant in the country was already acquainted with?-And does Mr. Parnell really believe that Irish mowers do not work in the evening and morning, and that English mowers do not work in the midday? and does he know what task-work means?—We doubt it— if he did, he could not be ignorant that in England, as in Ireland and every other country, when men work by the day, they will gladly accept permission not to work during the heat of the day, but that when they work by task they will choose their own time, and work only at such hours as they please. If there be any class of the Irish who less than another want Mr. Parnell's advice, it is probably the mowers; for it may surprise this worthy gentleman to be informed that many of those admirable mowers, whom he sees

with bent scythes cutting the swathe of this favoured country, are no other than Irishmen, who migrate hither during the harvest, and return to Ireland in the autumn with the profits of their labour; and we scarcely suppose that they leave all their experience behind.

Having made such exquisite observations on these two points and these only-on one of which we gave no opinion, and on the other, agreed with him-Mr. Parnell proudly exclaims, 'So much for your Reviewer's knowledge of agriculture!'


The royal descent and noble names and titles which Mr. Parnell chose to lavish upon two Irish peasants struck us as supremely absurd; and we incidentally observed, that he christened the girl Geraldine, thereby intimating that the Fitzgeralds, to whom the name of Geraldine is appropriate, were of the ancient house of O'Neal or O'Toole.'-p. 476.

On this Mr. Parnell is very angry and very triumphant; he asserts, that if we had known any thing of Irish history, we would have known that the illustrious House of Fitzgerald never disdained alliance with the Irish families;' and he reminds us that Walter Scott tells us in poetry and prose, that the Fitzgeralds and O'Neals intermarried. This Mr. Parnell might have proved without Sir Walter's assistance, from Collins's Peerage, a venerable authority with which we are not wholly unacquainted; but what we were disposed a little to doubt (and what Mr. Parnell ought to have proved) was that Geraldine was a popular Christian name, or likely to be one, amongst the O'Neals and O'Tooles of our day-and surely when Mr. Parnell was so curious in the selection of appropriate and septic names as to call the hero Muircheartach, and the heroine Berghetta, it was not quite congruous to give their child the Anglo-Italian name of Geraldine: but upon this hint, for it was no more, Mr. Parnell speaks thus-

'Indeed, sir, I begin to blush at the supposition that your Reviewer should be an Irishman; all the waters of the Shannon will not wash out the scandal of such unpardonable ignorance of the antiquities of his country, accompanied with so much pretension, and contrasted with the accuracy of the Scottish bard.'-p. 10.

On this we will just observe, for Mr. Parnell's sake, that the effect of an immersion in the Shannon is not, in the vulgar notion to which he alludes, to wash out the stains of ignorance or to clear the understanding, but the very reverse; and we shall not be greatly surprised to hear that Mr. Parnell had himself taken a dip in this celebrated stream before he began his pamphlet.

The next reproach may appear somewhat trivial, but as we are obliged to admit it to be well founded, we cannot, in candour, suppress it.

Mr. Parnell had been celebrating the glories of a certain king, Tuathal,

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