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observe, too, the similar endings in the following lines perfectly suited to express the pronunciation of a drunken man.
According to the same rule, the poet, before he leaves the stage, has no scruple in representing him as sober and even eloquent.— It is usual with Aristophanes, in the first instance, to mark the person; and afterwards to modify him. Thus Don Quixote, in the first chapters, is a mere madman; towards the conclusion he is modified, and becomes a vehicle for communicating many of the author's own sentiments and opinions. We shall now extract some lines of the attack upon Cleon which appear to be admirably well translated.
'Where's the officer at audit but has felt your cursed gripe? Squeez'd and tried with nice discernment, whether yet the wretch be ripe.
Like the men our tigs who gather, you are skilful to discern,
Foot and hand are straight upon him-neck and shoulder in your grip,
To the ground anon he's thrown, and you smite him on the hip.'— pp. 185, 186. In the passage which fellows, old deeds of valour' is a most unlucky epithet. The party opposed to Cleon had been lately much strengthened in popularity and influence by the result of the expedition to Corinth. Cleon was aware of it-and (as it appears by this passage) had been truckling to them and began talking about his intention of proposing a proposal for a plan for erecting a monument in memory of the event.' In the two last lines of the original there is a studied vagueness of expression.
In verse 327, ὁ Ιπποδαμου λειβεται θεωμενος, Brunck translates liquitur lacrimis, and the present translator has adopted the same sense. Ve would rather follow the scholiast, who thinks that a slap is given to Hippodamus, by the bye-the phrase should seem equivalent to Τακέται οφθαλμοις, not as expressing sorrow, but envious longing.*-At line 450, the translator observes
'If the reader should think that the abuse of this pair has reached its climax, he has yet to learn the perseverance and extent of Grecian invective-the two rivals compass half the circle of Grecian science for terms of reproach, before they conclude ;--the builder's art, the powers of the nail and the hammer, the glue-pot, the carpenter's yard, the art of running and casting metal, the crafts of the founder, the
Hence you squeeze and drain alone the rich mileh kine of our allies,
brazier, the cheesemonger, and the currier, all furnish terms which render their sarcasms more poignant, and alternately turn the tide of victory.'-p. 199.
This, we think, is an imperfect view of the subject; in the passage, the omission of which is supplied by this observation, it is evidently the object of the poet to mark a departure from the ancient decorum of public oratory, by an affectation of employing metaphors derived from the mechanical arts.-A similar style of affected homeliness has occasionally been in fashion in parliamentary speaking, and would furnish sufficient equivalents for a translation.
But an example is more satisfactory, and commonly more concise than an explanation. We shall endeavour to give the passage according to our notion of the poet's intention.
By the Holy Goddess its not new to me,
This scheme of yours-I've known the job long since
(The CHORUS are alarmed at this new vein of popular metaphor, and encourage their advocate to do his best in the same style.)
Ch. Ah, there it is!-you must exert yourself,
Sausage seller. Does he think I have not track'd him in his in
At Argos? his pretence to make a treaty
With the people there, and his clandestine meetings
With the Spartans? Then he works and blows the coals,
The contest in this instance is no longer a mere reciprocation of abuse and menace; it is an imitation of public oratory as infected and debased by vulgar jargon. What follows is in the same style, and is still more evidently an imitation of the accusatory and menacing style of the orators at that time, when actually speaking before the people. We should suspect that the Sausage-seller's style was copied from Hyperbolus's vein.'
But our readers, if they have followed us thus far, will be glad to turn to a very beautiful specimen of Mr. Mitchell's, in which the higher and more austere lyrical poetry is imitated with a slight infusion of burlesque.
'Lord of the Waters! king of might,
• From starting car and chariot gay,
Their pride and their undoing;
And Phormion's gallant daring;
Aids of immortal bearing.'-pp. 209, 210.
In p. 213 (v. 595 of the original) the translator justly controverts the opinion of Casaubon as to the intention of the poet in this burlesque description of the expedition to Corinth. The truth seems to be that neither compliment nor censure was intended. Aristophanes was the poetical advocate of his party, it was his business to serve them by bringing their merits to the recollection of his audience, and he thought that this might be done, more effectually and less invidiously in the fanciful style of humour which he has here adopted. His statement of the political character and merits of his clients was given distinctly in the Epirrema; here in the Antepirrema, it is enforced by example, but extravagantly and whimsically; in the first place, to avoid tediousness and uniformity; and secondly, from the consideration, (manifest in the concluding lines of the Epirrema) that the party for which he was pleading was particularly obnoxious to popular disgust and envy. It would have becu politic in Cleon as their adversary, to tempt them to acquiesce in an offensive display of their services, by a public monument. Their advocate, on the contrary, (but from the same considerations,) makes his poetic record as humorous and as inoffensive as possible. The Chorus, composed of knights, could hardly have been allowed seriously to celebrate their own exploits.
We shall here insert, as a curious scene in itself, and as a fair specimen of the translation, the Sausage-seller's narrative of his contest with Cleon before the senate, with the chorus of congratulation on his success.
'Straight as he went from hence, I clapt all sail
And followed close behind. Within I found him
And his had been as quick in birth as golden-herb.
Ne'er cross'd my eyes for cheapness, do this day
And then-one obol loads you with anchovies,
One hundred oxen to our patron-goddess."
Straight the tide turn'd: each head within the Senate
Were now upon him -All meantime was uproar
An audience-he brings terms of peace, and craves
And buy me all the leeks and coriander
And groom-like courtesies this bounty gain'd me!
Of coriander vile bas purchas'd him
An entire senate--not a man among them
But is at my behest and does me rev'rence.'-pp. 217–221.
It will readily be imagined that this speech elicits a song of applause from the delighted CHORUS.
Chorus. Well, my son, hast thou begun, and well hast hou competed; Rich bliss and gain wilt thou attain, thy mighty task completed.
He, thy rival, shall admire,
He shall own, abash'd, in thee
Forward, son of mine, undaunted-complete thy bold beginning: No aid from me shall be delay'd--which may the prize be winning.' pp. 222, 223.
The passage, from the sixth to the twelfth line of the Chorus, is, we think, in the true tone which should belong to the choruses of this extraordinary play. In the three first especially
He shall own, abash'd, in thee