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observe, too, the similar endings in the following lines perfectly suited to express the pronunciation of a drunken man.

According to the same rule, the poet, before he leaves the stage, has no scruple in representing him as sober and even eloquent.— It is usual with Aristophanes, in the first instance, to mark the person; and afterwards to modify him. Thus Don Quixote, in the first chapters, is a mere madman; towards the conclusion he is modified, and becomes a vehicle for communicating many of the author's own sentiments and opinions. We shall now extract some lines of the attack upon Cleon which appear to be admirably well translated.

'Where's the officer at audit but has felt your cursed gripe? Squeez'd and tried with nice discernment, whether yet the wretch be ripe.

Like the men our tigs who gather, you are skilful to discern,
Which is green and which is ripe, and which is just upon the turn.
Is there one well-purs'd among us, lamb-like in heart and life,
Link'd and wedded to retirement, hating business, hating strife?
Soon your greedy eye's upon him-when his mind is least at home,--
Room and place-from farthest Thrace, at your bidding he must


Foot and hand are straight upon him-neck and shoulder in your grip,


To the ground anon he's thrown, and you smite him on the hip.'— pp. 185, 186. In the passage which fellows, old deeds of valour' is a most unlucky epithet. The party opposed to Cleon had been lately much strengthened in popularity and influence by the result of the expedition to Corinth. Cleon was aware of it-and (as it appears by this passage) had been truckling to them and began talking about his intention of proposing a proposal for a plan for erecting a monument in memory of the event.' In the two last lines of the original there is a studied vagueness of expression.

In verse 327, ὁ Ιπποδαμου λειβεται θεωμενος, Brunck translates liquitur lacrimis, and the present translator has adopted the same sense. Ve would rather follow the scholiast, who thinks that a slap is given to Hippodamus, by the bye-the phrase should seem equivalent to Τακέται οφθαλμοις, not as expressing sorrow, but envious longing.*-At line 450, the translator observes

'If the reader should think that the abuse of this pair has reached its climax, he has yet to learn the perseverance and extent of Grecian invective-the two rivals compass half the circle of Grecian science for terms of reproach, before they conclude ;--the builder's art, the powers of the nail and the hammer, the glue-pot, the carpenter's yard, the art of running and casting metal, the crafts of the founder, the

Hence you squeeze and drain alone the rich mileh kine of our allies,
While the son of Hippodamus licks his lips with longing eyes.


brazier, the cheesemonger, and the currier, all furnish terms which render their sarcasms more poignant, and alternately turn the tide of victory.'-p. 199.

This, we think, is an imperfect view of the subject; in the passage, the omission of which is supplied by this observation, it is evidently the object of the poet to mark a departure from the ancient decorum of public oratory, by an affectation of employing metaphors derived from the mechanical arts.-A similar style of affected homeliness has occasionally been in fashion in parliamentary speaking, and would furnish sufficient equivalents for a translation.

But an example is more satisfactory, and commonly more concise than an explanation. We shall endeavour to give the passage according to our notion of the poet's intention.

CLEON says,


By the Holy Goddess its not new to me,

This scheme of yours-I've known the job long since
The measurement and the scantling of it all,
And where it was shap'd out and tack'd together.

(The CHORUS are alarmed at this new vein of popular metaphor, and encourage their advocate to do his best in the same style.)

Ch. Ah, there it is!-you must exert yourself,
Come, try to match him again with a carpenter's phrase.

Sausage seller. Does he think I have not track'd him in his in


At Argos? his pretence to make a treaty

With the people there, and his clandestine meetings

With the Spartans? Then he works and blows the coals,
And has plenty of other irons in the fire.
Chorus. Well done! the blacksmith beats the carpenter.

The contest in this instance is no longer a mere reciprocation of abuse and menace; it is an imitation of public oratory as infected and debased by vulgar jargon. What follows is in the same style, and is still more evidently an imitation of the accusatory and menacing style of the orators at that time, when actually speaking before the people. We should suspect that the Sausage-seller's style was copied from Hyperbolus's vein.'


But our readers, if they have followed us thus far, will be glad to turn to a very beautiful specimen of Mr. Mitchell's, in which the higher and more austere lyrical poetry is imitated with a slight infusion of burlesque.

'Lord of the Waters! king of might,
Whose eyes and ears take stern delight
From neighing steeds and stormy fight
And gally swift pursuing ;

• From


• From starting car and chariot gay,
And contests on that festive day,
When Athen's sprightly youth display

Their pride and their undoing;
'Lord of the dolphins and the spear-
Geræstian-Sunian-or more dear,
If Cronus's name salute thy ear,

And Phormion's gallant daring;
'O come amongst us in thy power,
Great Neptune; in her trying hour
Athens knows none so swift to shower

Aids of immortal bearing.'-pp. 209, 210.

In p. 213 (v. 595 of the original) the translator justly controverts the opinion of Casaubon as to the intention of the poet in this burlesque description of the expedition to Corinth. The truth seems to be that neither compliment nor censure was intended. Aristophanes was the poetical advocate of his party, it was his business to serve them by bringing their merits to the recollection of his audience, and he thought that this might be done, more effectually and less invidiously in the fanciful style of humour which he has here adopted. His statement of the political character and merits of his clients was given distinctly in the Epirrema; here in the Antepirrema, it is enforced by example, but extravagantly and whimsically; in the first place, to avoid tediousness and uniformity; and secondly, from the consideration, (manifest in the concluding lines of the Epirrema) that the party for which he was pleading was particularly obnoxious to popular disgust and envy. It would have becu politic in Cleon as their adversary, to tempt them to acquiesce in an offensive display of their services, by a public monument. Their advocate, on the contrary, (but from the same considerations,) makes his poetic record as humorous and as inoffensive as possible. The Chorus, composed of knights, could hardly have been allowed seriously to celebrate their own exploits.

We shall here insert, as a curious scene in itself, and as a fair specimen of the translation, the Sausage-seller's narrative of his contest with Cleon before the senate, with the chorus of congratulation on his success.

'Straight as he went from hence, I clapt all sail

And followed close behind. Within I found him
Launching his bolts and thunder-driving words,
Denouncing all the Knights, as traitors, vile
Conspirators-jags, crags, and masses huge
Of stone were nothing to the monstrous words
His foaming mouth heav'd up. All these to hear
Did the grave Council seriously incline;
They love a tale of scandal to their hearts,


And his had been as quick in birth as golden-herb.
Mustard was in their faces, and their brows
With frowns were furrow'd up. I saw the storm,
Mark'd how his words had sunk upon them, taking
Their very senses prisoners :-and, oh!
In knavery's name, thought I,-by all the fools
And scrubs and rogues and scoundrels in the town,—
By that same forum, where my early youth
Received its first instruction, let me gather
True courage now: be oil upon my tongue,
And shameless Impudence direct my speech.
Just as these thoughts pass'd over me; I heard
A sound of thunder pealing on my right-
I mark'd the omen,-grateful, kiss'd the ground-
And pushing briskly thro' the lattice-work-
Rais'd my voice to its highest pitch, and thus
Began upon them-" Messieurs of the Senate,
I bring good news, and hope your favour for it.
Anchovies, such as since the war began

Ne'er cross'd my eyes for cheapness, do this day
Adorn our markets"-at the words a calm
Came over ev'ry face, and all was hush'd—
A crown was voted me upon the spot.
Then I (the thought was of the moment's birth),
Making a mighty secret of it, bade them
Put pots and pans in instant requisition,


And then-one obol loads you with anchovies,
Said I anon most violent applause,
And clapping hands ensued; and every face
Grew unto mine, gaping in idiot vacancy.
My Paphlagonian discern'd the humour
O' the time; and seeing how the members all
Were tickled most with words, thus utter'd him :
"Sirs--Gentlemen-'tis my good will and pleasure,
That for this kindly news we sacrifice

One hundred oxen to our patron-goddess."

Straight the tide turn'd: each head within the Senate
Nodded assent and warm good-will to Cleon :
"What! shall a little bull-flesh gain the day?"
Thought I within me: then aloud, and shooting
Beyond his mark :--"I double, sirs, this vote,-
Nay more, sirs, should to morrow's sun see sprats
One hundred to the penny sold, I move
That we make offering of a thousand goats
Unto Diana."--Ev'ry head was rais'd;
And all turn'd eyes incontinent on me.
This was a blow he ne'er recover'd straight
He fell to mutt'ring fooleries and words
Of no account-the chairmen and the officers


Were now upon him -All meantime was uproar
In th' Assembly--Nought talk'd of but anchovies
How far'd our statesman? he with suppliant tones
Begg'd a few moments' pause.- Rest ye, sirs, rest ye
Awhile I have a tale will pay the hearing-
A herald is arriv'd from Sparta claiming

An audience-he brings terms of peace, and craves
Your leave to utter them before ye." "Peace!"
Cried 'all, (their voices one,) "is this a time
To talk of peace ?--out, dotard! What, the rogues
Have heard the price anchovies bear!-marry
Our needs, sir, ask not peace.-War, war, for us,
And, chairmen, break the assembly up." "Twas done,
Upon their bidding, straight--who might oppose
Such clamour?--then, what haste and expedition
On every side! one moment clears the rails!
I the meantime steal privately away

And buy me all the leeks and coriander
In the market-these I straight make largess of,
And gratis give as sauce to dress their fish.
Who may recount the praises infinite

And groom-like courtesies this bounty gain'd me!
In short you see a man, that for one pennyworth

Of coriander vile bas purchas'd him

An entire senate--not a man among them

But is at my behest and does me rev'rence.'-pp. 217–221.

It will readily be imagined that this speech elicits a song of applause from the delighted CHORUS.

Chorus. Well, my son, hast thou begun, and well hast hou competed; Rich bliss and gain wilt thou attain, thy mighty task completed.

He, thy rival, shall admire,
Chok'd with passion, pale with ire,
Thy audacity and fire:

He shall own, abash'd, in thee
Power and peerless mastery
In all crafts and tricks that be.
At all points art thou equipt,
Eye and tongue with treach'ry tipt,
Soul and body, both are dipt
In deceit and knavery.

Forward, son of mine, undaunted-complete thy bold beginning: No aid from me shall be delay'd--which may the prize be winning.' pp. 222, 223.

The passage, from the sixth to the twelfth line of the Chorus, is, we think, in the true tone which should belong to the choruses of this extraordinary play. In the three first especially

He shall own, abash'd, in thee
Power and peerless mastery
In all crafts and tricks that be.'



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