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life in oneness with Christ no less than meeting legal claims or abolishing righteous penalties.

Schleiermacher, Edwards, Macleod Campbell, Rothe, are names that recall the growth of recent theological thought towards fuller recognition of the naturalness of Christ's suffering viewed in its constituents and concomitants; of the unimportance of the mere quantum of suffering in His “crucified fidelity”; and of the reality of the fact of substitution-a substitution of Christ for humanity taken as not literal but moral, vicarious with a reality and profundity unknown to our faith and labour and sacrifice for our fellows. The objective reconciliation with God as provided in Christ has been freed from its independence of the subjective side of the atoning process as seen in repentance and faith, among others by Schleiermacher, Nitzsch, Hofmann, Göschel, and Bushnell, until in Ritschl's great work, so valuable for its delineation of the progress of Christian thought upon the subject since Anselm, the tendency is seen carried so excessively far as to make satisfaction or expiation no longer necessary. If the solidarity of the race in evil made redemp1 Die Christliche Lehre von der Rechtfertigung und Versöhnung.

tion necessary, recent Christian theology has found larger scope and fuller development for the principle of solidarity as the law of universal life, subject to the modifying influences of human freedom. As a result of the new stress laid by Bersier and others on the doctrine of the solidarity of mankind in Christ, the unity of humanity in Him, the world is seen as redeemed no less than as fallen, and life and acceptance as no less secured to it in Christ, incorporated with the race as its Centre, Head, and Representative, than were death and disability through the primal Adam. The progress of recent Christian thought in harmonising the principle of atonement with the solidarity of the race, and with the worldlaw of substitution, is well illustrated in the recent treatment of this theme by Dorner and Westcott, to instance no others.

The unique fact of Christ's Resurrection has received, in our recent Christian theology, despite Renan's making it a chef-d'æuvre of idealism, and Pfleiderer's late endeavour, following on that of Weizäcker, to resolve its reality into certain subjective impressions produced on the disciples by the personality of Jesus, fuller verification by the increased measure in which it has been proved to be the source of life to the Church in all her living developments, and in which t and transforming effects of faith in His Resurrection have been shown to point to Christian history being an embodiment of this great central fact. It does not seem too much to say that the deeper study of the phenomena of Christ's Person, life, words, and works, has rendered His Resurrection almost a necessity of thought, so naturally do they tend, in the view of Christian thought, to the Resurrection as their fulfilment, as that, indeed, which gives spiritual congruity to all events and issues connected with it.

The faith of the Exaltation of the ascended Christ was never surer or healthier than in the days that are, for, thanks to such writers as Milligan, Dale, Stearns, Gore, and many more that might here be named, the living Christ, in the plenitude of His grace and the infinitude of His power, never wielded stronger or more acknowledged sway than He does to-day, notwithstanding the neglect of His exaltation and enthronement by the dogmaticians of no very remote date. The living activity of the glorified

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Christ, as seen in the ceaseless presentation of His life to God as our High-Priest and Representative, has been in recent years presented with unwonted power and clearness, whereby the strength, wisdom, sympathy, of the Christus pro nobis have been brought to bear more directly upon the weaknesses, wants, and ways of men, by whose receptiveness His presence and help are spiritually conditioned. That other and hardly less important activity, in which Christ, as Master and Lord, communicates of the fulness of divine life to the creature by His imparted Spirit, Christus in nobis, has in modern days been brought into view less as an article claiming intellectual assent than a living belief

-a belief in the reality of the inward Christhaving intimate relation to our enlightenment, sanctification, and consolation, as will be more specifically noticed in a subsequent chapter.

In Soteriological matters, our modes of thinking of salvation have been beneficially influenced by the recent elevation of our Christological ideas, since our Soteriology must always be conditioned by our Christology. Nor is the progress here by any means to be regarded as completed, for, as the “ Christ transcendent” more truly becomes the “ Christ immanent,” then, as has been lately said by an American theologian, “great and wonderful as the human soul may be, the immanent Christ " will be found to be “infinitely richer and more glorious. Here there are ocean depths and mountain heights, an overhanging canopy and a circling horizon, which challenge perception and thought with greater authority and power than the natural earth challenges the geologist or the natural heavens challenge the astronomer.”

In the restatement of its teaching touching Election, modern Christian theology has discontinued the former Calvinistic emphasis on the divine side of the question as one-sided, and the voices of the human soul and of the moral consciousness have been allowed to utter their protest against the ethical character of God being sacrificed to the demands of an inexorable logic. The fact of election has been less thought of as the result of decree, since the will of God has been less regarded as mere arbitrium into which reason may not inquire, than of the inward realisation of eternal life freely offered to all, in per

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