Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis: An Integrated Approach
The field of multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA), also termed multiple criteria decision aid, or multiple criteria decision making (MCDM), has developed rapidly over the past quarter century and in the process a number of divergent schools of thought have emerged. This can make it difficult for a new entrant into the field to develop a comprehensive appreciation of the range of tools and approaches which are available to assist decision makers in dealing with the ever-present difficulties of seeking compromise or consensus between conflicting inter ests and goals, i.e. the "multiple criteria". The diversity of philosophies and models makes it equally difficult for potential users of MCDA, i.e. management scientists and/or decision makers facing problems involving conflicting goals, to gain a clear understanding of which methodologies are appropriate to their particular context. Our intention in writing this book has been to provide a compre hensive yet widely accessible overview of the main streams of thought within MCDA. We aim to provide readers with sufficient awareness of the underlying philosophies and theories, understanding of the practi cal details of the methods, and insight into practice to enable them to implement any of the approaches in an informed manner. As the title of the book indicates, our emphasis is on developing an integrated view of MCDA, which we perceive to incorporate both integration of differ ent schools of thought within MCDA, and integration of MCDA with broader management theory, science and practice.
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12 WHAT CAN WE EXPECT FROM MCDA?
13 THE PROCESS OF MCDA
14 OUTLINE OF THE BOOK
THE MULTIPLE CRITERIA PROBLEM
22 CASE EXAMPLES
23 CLASSIFYING MCDM PROBLEMS
72 LINEAR GOAL PROGRAMMING
73 GENERALIZED GOAL PROGRAMMING
74 CONCLUDING COMMENTS
82 ELECTRE I
83 ELECTRE II
84 ELECTRE III
85 OTHER ELECTRE METHODS
32 WHERE DOES MCDA START?
33 PROBLEM STRUCTURING METHODS
34 FROM PROBLEM STRUCTURING TO MODEL BUILDING
35 CASE EXAMPLES REVISITED
36 CONCLUDING COMMENTS
42 VALUE MEASUREMENT THEORY
COPING WITH UNCERTAINTY
44 SATISFICING AND ASPIRATION LEVELS
46 FUZZY AND ROUGH SETS
47 RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF CRITERIA
48 FINAL COMMENTS
VALUE FUNCTION METHODS PRACTICAL BASICS
52 ELICITING SCORES INTRACRITERION INFORMATION
53 DIRECT RATING OF ALTERNATIVES BY PAIRWISE COMPARISONS
54 ELICITING WEIGHTS INTERCRITERION INFORMATION
55 SYNTHESISING INFORMATION
56 SENSITIVITY AND ROBUSTNESS ANALYSIS
57 THE ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS
58 CONCLUDING COMMENTS
VALUE FUNCTION METHODS INDIRECT AND INTERACTIVE
62 USE OF ORDINAL AND IMPRECISE PREFERENCE INFORMATION
63 HOLISTIC ASSESSMENTS AND INVERSE PREFERENCES
64 INTERACTIVE METHODS BASED ON VALUE FUNCTION MODELS
65 CONCLUDING COMMENTS
Summary of main notational conventions for chapter
GOAL AND REFERENCE POINT METHODS
86 THE PROMETHEE METHOD
87 FINAL COMMENTS
IMPLEMENTATION OF MCDA PRACTICAL ISSUES AND INSIGHTS
ESTABLISHING A CONTRACT
93 THE NATURE OF MODELLING AND INTERACTIONS
94 ORGANIZING AND FACILITATING A DECISION WORKSHOP
95 WORKING OFFLINE AND IN THE BACKROOM
96 SMALL GROUP INTERACTION AND DIY ANALYSIS
97 SOFTWARE SUPPORT
98 INSIGHTS FROM MCDA IN PRACTICE
99 INTERPRETATION AND ASSESSMENT OF IMPORTANCE WEIGHTS
910 CONCLUDING COMMENTS
MCDA IN A BROADER CONTEXT
102 LINKS TO METHODS WITH ANALYTICAL PARALLELS
103 LINKS TO OTHER ORMS APPROACHES INTEGRATING AND EMBEDDING
104 OTHER METHODOLOGIES WITH A MULTICRITERIA ELEMENT
105 ORMS APPLICATION AREAS WITH A MULTICRITERIA ELEMENT
AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO MCDA
112 AN INTEGRATING FRAMEWORK
113 THE WAY FORWARD
114 CONCLUDING REMARKS
MCDA Software Survey
Glossary of Terms and Acronyms
achieved aggregation Amsterdam Analytic Hierarchy Process applied approach assessment attribute Belton Business Potential Chapter concept constraints context criterion decision analysis decision maker decision problem decision space decision workshop defined described detail developed discussed ELECTRE evaluation Example Panel expected utility hypothesis explore facilitator factors Figure framework game reserve planning goal programming identified illustrated implementation importance weights indicated initial inputs interactive issues judgements linear programming maximizing MCDA MCDM problems measurement methodologies Milan multicriteria multiple criteria options outcomes outranking methods outranking relation pairwise comparison parameters partial value functions performance possible practice preference modelling problem structuring procedure rank orders reference point relative relevant represented reserve planning problem satisficing scale scenario planning scenarios scores Section set of alternatives shortlist solution specific stakeholders theory tion tive tradeoffs uncertainty utility value function methods value theory value tree vector Zi(a Zi(b
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