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Quique Rufras, Batulumque tenent, atque arva Celennae;
Et te montosae misere in proelia Nersae,
741. Soliti sunt.--742. Quis = quibus. 747. Venatu. See Ecl. 5, 29. But others consider it as the ablative. 750. Others write Marrubia.—751. See A. 5, 556, and G. 2, 477, 486.
763. Egeriae, one of the native Italian deities, well known from her connection with the history of Numa.—765. Novercae. Phaedra (see A. 6, 444), enraged at her step-son for rejecting her love, had falsely accused him to Theseus. He besought his father Neptune to punish the youth. Neptune sent sea-monsters, which frightened the horses that were drawing the chariot of Hippolytus, who was thrown out and killed.-769. Paeoniis, from Ilaíow, the name of Apollo, as the god who patronises medicine.
Tum Pater omnipotens, aliquem indignatus ab umbris
Ipse inter primos praestanti corpore Turnus
800 Qua Saturae jacet atra palus, gelidusque per imas Quaerit iter valles atque in mare conditur Ufens.
Hos super advenit Volsca de gente Camilla,
773. Phoebigenam, Aesculapius.
785. Chimaeram. See A. 6, 286.—786. Aetnaeos. See A. 8, 419.789. Io, daughter of Inachus (see verse 286), beloved by Jupiter, and changed into a cow, through fear of Juno's jealousy. Juno begged the cow from Jupiter, and set Argus, the hundred-eyed, to watch her. For the reason why Turnus had on his shield the Argive legend (argumentum), see verse 371. - 796. Picti scuta, the accusative of limitation.—799. Quis = quibus.
Agmen agens equitum et florentes aere catervas,
806. Assueta manus, the accusative of limitation.--811. Observe the dactyls, representing rapidity of motion ; and compare A. 2, 68; 8, 452, 596. On this subject, Pope says
“Not so when swift Camilla scours the plain,
-Essay on Criticism, 372, 373. -816. The Lycians (A. 4, 143) were known as skilful archers.
LIB ER VIII.
VIRGIL repeats his statement of the confederation against Aeneas, 1-8.
Aid is sought from Diomede, Aeneas's old enemy (see A. 1, 97), and who had founded Argyrippa, or Arpi (see A. 10,28), a town in Apulia, 9-17. Perplexity of Aeneas, 18-25. The river-god appears to him as he sleeps on the bank of the Tiber, 26-35. He confirms him in his projected settlement, and advises him to seek aid from the Arcadian Evander, son of Mercury and Carmenta, who had founded Pallanteum, on the spot afterwards named the Palatine Hill, 36-65. Aeneas awakes and invokes the Nymphs and Thybris, 66-78. An omen, foretold by Helenus (A. 3, 389, &c.) and by the river-god, appears, as he is preparing to ascend the river with two galleys, 79-85. Aeneas and his followers row up the gentle Tiber early in the morning, 86-96. At mid-day they come in sight of Evander's humble settlement, 97-101. The Arcadians happened to be celebrating a sacred festival in honour of Hercules; and Pallas, Evander's son, angrily inquires why their solemn rites are interrupted, 102-114. On hearing who they are, he gives them a friendly welcome, 115-125. Aeneas urges a league upon Evander, 126-151. This is acceded to, 152-171. Evander invites the Trojans to join in the celebration of the festival, with which Aeneas complies, 172-183. EPISODE OF Cacus.* Evander narrates how the festival arose from the benefit conferred on the land by its deliverance from the monster Cacus, whom Hercules slew, 184-275. At Evander's invitation, all renew the joyful rites, and hymn the praises of Hercules, 276-305. They return to the city, and, on the road, Evander gives an account of the early history of the surrounding country, 306-335. He points out localities afterwards famed in Roman story; and Aeneas reposes under his humble roof, 336-368. Venus asks Vulcan for armour for her son, to which the fire-god willingly assents, 369-406. Vulcan repairs to Lipare, where was the workshop of the Cyclops, and sets them to fabricate the promised armour, 407-453. At early dawn, Evander holds a conference with Aeneas, 454-469. Apologising for his own scanty assistance, he advises him to secure the aid of the Etrurians, who had revolted from Mezentius, and places under him at the same time his beloved son Pallas, 470-519. The divine armour clangs and gleams in the heavens while they are thus engaged, 520-529. Encouraged by this, Aeneas, with part of his followers, prepares to visit the Etrurians, 530-559. Parting address of Evander to Aeneas and Pallas, 560-584. Aeneas proceeds and reaches the camp of the Etrurians, near Caere, 585-607. Venus brings her son the armour, on which he gazes with admiration, 608-624. The shield contained the events of Rome's history, in different compartments, 625-629. I. Romulus and Remus, 630-634. II. Rape of the Sabine women, and consequent war, and the union of the two nations, 635-641. III. Punishment of Mettus Fufetius, 642-645. IV. Porsenna's attack on Rome, 646-650. V. Manlius hurling down the Gauls, 651-662. VI. A procession of the priests of Mars and Pan, 663-666. VII. The infernal regions, with traitors, as Catiline, punished, and patriots apart, with Cato presiding over them, 667-670. VIII. Battle of Actium gorgeously described, 671-713. IX. Triumphant entrance of Octavianus (Augustus) into Rome, 714-728. Delight of Aeneas, 729-731.
Ut belli signum Laurenti Turnus ab arce
1. Belli signum ; vexillum. Laurenti. See A. 6, 891. Turnus. For the reason why Turnus, and not Latinus, took charge of the war, see
• An Episode ('Eturédier), in Epic poetry, is a subordinate narrative, naturally arising out of the main action, but not essential to it, introduced to give a graceful variety to the poem. The two principal Episodes in the Aeneid are this of Cacus, and the adventures of NISUS and EURYALUS, narrated in Book IX.
Extemplo turbati animi: simul omne tumultu
Talia per Latium: quae Laomedontius heros
Nox erat, et terras animalia fessa per omnes
4. 7, 599, 618.—6. Messapus. See A. 7, 691. Ufons. See A. 7, 744. -7. Mezentius. See A. 7, 647.-12. Construe: Aenean dicere se posci regem fatis.
15. This is to arouse the fears of Diomede, as the deadly enemy of the Trojans.
18. Laomedontius heros. Aeneas. See A. 6, 648.-19, 20. See A. 4, 285, 286.
27. Alituum, for alitum, the genitive plural of ales.—29. Turbatus pectora, the accusative of limitation. See A. 4, 558.-35. Affari, the historic infinitive. See A. 1, 423.