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Quique Rufras, Batulumque tenent, atque arva Celennae;
Et quos maliferae despectant moenia Abellae: 740
Teutonico ritu soliti torquere cateias;
Tegmina quîs capitum raptus de subere cortex,
Aerataeque micant peltae, micat aereus ensis.

Et te montosae misere in proelia Nersae,
Ufens, insignem fama et felicibus armis :

745
Horrida praecipue cui gens, assuetaque multo
Venatu nemorum, duris Aequicula glebis.
Armati terram exercent, semperque recentes
Convectare juvat praedas, et vivere rapto.
Quin et Marruvia venit de gente sacerdos,

750
Fronde super galeam et felici comptus oliva,
Archippi regis missu, fortissimus Umbro,
Vipereo generi et graviter spirantibus hydris
Spargere qui somnos cantuque manuque solebat,
Mulcebatque iras, et morsus arte levabat.

755
Sed non Dardaniae medicari cuspidis ictum
Evaluit; neque eum juvere in vulnera cantus
Somniferi, et Marsis quaesitae montibus herbae.
Te nemus Anguitiae, vitrea te Fucinus unda,
Te liquidi flevere lacus.

760
Ibat et Hippolyti proles pulcherrima bello,
Virbius; insignem quem mater Aricia misit,
Eductum Egeriae lucis humentia circum
Litora, pinguis ubi et placabilis ara Dianae.
Namque ferunt fama Hippolytum, postquam arte
novercae

765
Occiderit, patriasque explerit sanguine poenas,
Turbatis distractus equis, ad sidera rursus
Aetheria et superas coeli venisse sub auras,
Paeoniis revocatum herbis, et amore Dianae.

741. Soliti sunt.--742. Quis = quibus. 747. Venatu. See Ecl. 5, 29. But others consider it as the ablative. 750. Others write Marrubia.751. See A. 5, 556, and G. 2, 477, 486.

763. Egeriae, one of the native Italian deities, well known from her connection with the history of Numa.—765. Novercae. Phaedra (see A. 6, 444), enraged at her step-son for rejecting her love, had falsely accused him to Theseus. He besought his father Neptune to punish the youth. Neptune sent sea-monsters, which frightened the horses that were drawing the chariot of Hippolytus, who was thrown out and killed.-769. Paeoniis, from Ilaíow, the name of Apollo, as the god who patronises medicine.

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Tum Pater omnipotens, aliquem indignatus ab umbris
Mortalem infernis ad lumina surgere vitae,
Ipse repertorem medicinae talis et artis
Fulmine Phoebigenam Stygias detrusit ad undas.
At Trivia Hippolytum secretis alma recondit
Sedibus, et nymphae Egeriae nemorique relegat, 775
Solus ubi in silvis Italis ignobilis aevum
Exigeret, versoque ubi nomine Virbius esset.
Unde etiam templo Triviae lucisque sacratis
Cornipedes arcentur equi, quod litore currum
Et juvenem monstris pavidi effudere marinis. 780
Filius ardentes haud secius aequore campi
Exercebat equos, curruque in bella ruebat.

Ipse inter primos praestanti corpore Turnus
Vertitur, arma tenens, et toto vertice supra est
Cui triplici crinita juba galea alta Chimaeram 785
Sustinet, Aetnaeos efflantem faucibus ignes;
Tam magis illa fremens, et tristibus effera flammis,
Quam magis effuso crudescunt sanguine pugnae.
At levem clipeum sublatis cornibus Io
Auro insignibat, jam setis obsita, jam bos-

790
Argumentum ingens et custos virginis Argus,
Caelataque amnem fundens pater Inachus urna.
Insequitur nimbus peditum, clipeataque totis
Agmina densentur campis, Argivaque pubes,
Auruncaeque manus, Rutuli, veteresque Sicani, 795
Et Sacranae acies, et picti scuta Labici :
Qui saltus, Tiberine, tuos, sacrumque Numici
Litus arant; Rutulosque exercent vomere colles,
Circaeumque jugum; queis Jupiter Anxurus arvis
Praesidet, et viridi gaudens Feronia luco;

800 Qua Saturae jacet atra palus, gelidusque per imas Quaerit iter valles atque in mare conditur Ufens.

Hos super advenit Volsca de gente Camilla,

773. Phoebigenam, Aesculapius.

785. Chimaeram. See A. 6, 286.—786. Aetnaeos. See A. 8, 419.789. Io, daughter of Inachus (see verse 286), beloved by Jupiter, and changed into a cow, through fear of Juno's jealousy. Juno begged the cow from Jupiter, and set Argus, the hundred-eyed, to watch her. For the reason why Turnus had on his shield the Argive legend (argumentum), see verse 371. - 796. Picti scuta, the accusative of limitation.799. Quis = quibus.

Agmen agens equitum et florentes aere catervas,
Bellatrix: non illa colo calathisve Minervae 805
Foemineas assueta manus; sed proelia virgo
Dura pati, cursuque pedum praevertere ventos.
Illa vel intactae segetis per summa volaret
Gramina; nec teneras cursu laesisset aristas:
Vel mare per medium, fluctu suspensa tumenti, 810
Ferret iter; celeres nec tingueret aequore plantas.
Illam omnis tectis agrisque effusa juventus,
Turbaque miratur matrum, et prospectat euntem;
Attonitis inhians animis; ut regius ostro
Velet honos leyes humeros; ut fibula crinem 815
Auro internectat; Lyciam ut gerat ipsa pharetram,
Et pastoralem praefixa cuspide myrtum.

806. Assueta manus, the accusative of limitation.--811. Observe the dactyls, representing rapidity of motion ; and compare A. 2, 68; 8, 452, 596. On this subject, Pope says

“Not so when swift Camilla scours the plain,
Flies o'er the unbending corn, and skims along the main.'

-Essay on Criticism, 372, 373. -816. The Lycians (A. 4, 143) were known as skilful archers.

LIB ER VIII.

VIRGIL repeats his statement of the confederation against Aeneas, 1-8.

Aid is sought from Diomede, Aeneas's old enemy (see A. 1, 97), and who had founded Argyrippa, or Arpi (see A. 10,28), a town in Apulia, 9-17. Perplexity of Aeneas, 18-25. The river-god appears to him as he sleeps on the bank of the Tiber, 26-35. He confirms him in his projected settlement, and advises him to seek aid from the Arcadian Evander, son of Mercury and Carmenta, who had founded Pallanteum, on the spot afterwards named the Palatine Hill, 36-65. Aeneas awakes and invokes the Nymphs and Thybris, 66-78. An omen, foretold by Helenus (A. 3, 389, &c.) and by the river-god, appears, as he is preparing to ascend the river with two galleys, 79-85. Aeneas and his followers row up the gentle Tiber early in the morning, 86-96. At mid-day they come in sight of Evander's humble settlement, 97-101. The Arcadians happened to be celebrating a sacred festival in honour of Hercules; and Pallas, Evander's son, angrily inquires why their solemn rites are interrupted, 102-114. On hearing who they are, he gives them a friendly welcome, 115-125. Aeneas urges a league upon Evander, 126-151. This is acceded to, 152-171. Evander invites the Trojans to join in the celebration of the festival, with which Aeneas complies, 172-183. EPISODE OF Cacus.* Evander narrates how the festival arose from the benefit conferred on the land by its deliverance from the monster Cacus, whom Hercules slew, 184-275. At Evander's invitation, all renew the joyful rites, and hymn the praises of Hercules, 276-305. They return to the city, and, on the road, Evander gives an account of the early history of the surrounding country, 306-335. He points out localities afterwards famed in Roman story; and Aeneas reposes under his humble roof, 336-368. Venus asks Vulcan for armour for her son, to which the fire-god willingly assents, 369-406. Vulcan repairs to Lipare, where was the workshop of the Cyclops, and sets them to fabricate the promised armour, 407-453. At early dawn, Evander holds a conference with Aeneas, 454-469. Apologising for his own scanty assistance, he advises him to secure the aid of the Etrurians, who had revolted from Mezentius, and places under him at the same time his beloved son Pallas, 470-519. The divine armour clangs and gleams in the heavens while they are thus engaged, 520-529. Encouraged by this, Aeneas, with part of his followers, prepares to visit the Etrurians, 530-559. Parting address of Evander to Aeneas and Pallas, 560-584. Aeneas proceeds and reaches the camp of the Etrurians, near Caere, 585-607. Venus brings her son the armour, on which he gazes with admiration, 608-624. The shield contained the events of Rome's history, in different compartments, 625-629. I. Romulus and Remus, 630-634. II. Rape of the Sabine women, and consequent war, and the union of the two nations, 635-641. III. Punishment of Mettus Fufetius, 642-645. IV. Porsenna's attack on Rome, 646-650. V. Manlius hurling down the Gauls, 651-662. VI. A procession of the priests of Mars and Pan, 663-666. VII. The infernal regions, with traitors, as Catiline, punished, and patriots apart, with Cato presiding over them, 667-670. VIII. Battle of Actium gorgeously described, 671-713. IX. Triumphant entrance of Octavianus (Augustus) into Rome, 714-728. Delight of Aeneas, 729-731.

Ut belli signum Laurenti Turnus ab arce
Extulit, et rauco strepuerunt cornua cantu;
Utque acres concussit equos, utque impulit arma:

1. Belli signum ; vexillum. Laurenti. See A. 6, 891. Turnus. For the reason why Turnus, and not Latinus, took charge of the war, see

• An Episode ('Eturédier), in Epic poetry, is a subordinate narrative, naturally arising out of the main action, but not essential to it, introduced to give a graceful variety to the poem. The two principal Episodes in the Aeneid are this of Cacus, and the adventures of NISUS and EURYALUS, narrated in Book IX.

Extemplo turbati animi: simul omne tumultu
Conjurat trepido Latium, saevitque juventus
Effera. Ductores primi, Messapus, et Ufens,
Contemptorque Deûm Mezentius, undique cogunt
Auxilia, et latos vastant cultoribus agros.
Mittitur et magni Venulus Diomedis ad urbem,
Qui petat auxilium, et, Latio consistere Teucros,
Advectum Aenean classi, victosque Penates
Inferre, et fatis regem se dicere posci,
Edoceat; multasque viro se adjungere gentes
Dardanio, et late Latio increbrescere nomen.
Quid struat his coeptis; quem, si fortuna sequatur, 15
Eventum pugnae cupiat; manifestius ipsi,
Quam Turno regi, aut regi apparere Latino.

Talia per Latium: quae Laomedontius heros
Cuncta videns, magno curarum fluctuat aestu ;
Atque animum nunc huc celerem, nunc dividit illuc, 20
In partesque rapit varias, perque omnia versat:
Sicut aquae tremulum labris ubi lumen aënis,
Sole repercussum, aut radiantis imagine Lunae,
Omnia pervolitat late loca; jamque sub auras
Erigitur, summique ferit laquearia tecti.

Nox erat, et terras animalia fessa per omnes
Alituum pecudumque genus sopor altus habebat:
Cum pater in ripa, gelidique sub aetheris axe,
Aeneas, tristi turbatus pectora bello,
Procubuit, seramque dedit per membra quietem. 30
Huic Deus ipse loci, fluvio Tiberinus amoeno,
Populeas inter senior se attollere frondes
Visus; eum tenuis glauco velabat amictu
Carbasus, et crines umbrosa tegebat arundo;
Tum sic affari, et curas his demere dictis :

25

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4. 7, 599, 618.—6. Messapus. See A. 7, 691. Ufons. See A. 7, 744. -7. Mezentius. See A. 7, 647.-12. Construe: Aenean dicere se posci regem fatis.

15. This is to arouse the fears of Diomede, as the deadly enemy of the Trojans.

18. Laomedontius heros. Aeneas. See A. 6, 648.-19, 20. See A. 4, 285, 286.

27. Alituum, for alitum, the genitive plural of ales.29. Turbatus pectora, the accusative of limitation. See A. 4, 558.-35. Affari, the historic infinitive. See A. 1, 423.

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