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LONDON, SATURDAY, AUGUST 5, 1905.
building-which, had Waynflete's plans been
fully carried out, would probably have been CONTENTS.-No. 84.
demolished to make room for its enlargement. NOTES :-Magdalen College School and the 'D.N.B.,' 101–
Possibly the fact that Anwykyll was a married Yorkshire Dialect. 102-Yorkshire Spellings-Bartholomew and Cbarles Beale, 104–“Bust" for "Burgt" - Omar man may have caused some alteration to be Khayyam' FitzGerald's First Edition — "z hoorea" : & made in the ultimate destiny of the chambers
Ghost-Word, 105. QUERIES :- Brisson's "Ornithologie, 105 - Lord Nelson and originally built for the schoolmaster and
Cardinal York-The Archiepiscopal Cross and Becket,' usher over the schoolroom (Bloxam, iii. 7). 105–Ballad : Spanish Lady's Love fo an Englishman Whatever room was to spare seems to have Great Events in Church History in Pictures-*Kniaz
been at once occupied by the intruding mem** Bombay Grab"-Don Quixote,' 1595-6—John LeechDoberty, Winchester Commoner-Robert Henry levers-bers of the Granmar Hall ; and when, in the General Officers – The Screaming Skull"-Mélisande: early years of the sixteenth century, the Ettarre, 107—'La Belle Assemblée': Miss Cubitt-Lord Chesterfield – Yachting-Robert Wood, Traveller and Poli- School buildings were extended, the addition tician-John Whitney-Nicholas Klimius-Gordon of the was made not so much for the benefit of the West Indies – Romanoff and Stuart Pedigree: 108--Basil School as for that of the new Hall, which at Montagu's MSS.-Kynaston's Translation of ObaucerBook-plate Motto, 109.
the same time began to be known as Magdalen REPLIES :-Poem by Sir Thomas Wyatt, 109_" To Ply," | Hall. This society had at first the closest
Robert Sirr, 111Irish Soil Exported - Owen Brigstocke, 113-B... Hm connexion with the College, the early Prin--St. Paul's Cathedral-William Shelley, 114–Tbe Weep- cipals being all, or almost all, Fellows of the ing Willow-Gastrell and Shakespeare's Home-Authors latter. But, apart from this personal conof Quotations Wanted-Boninge i Ledsumo The Donke's nexion, and from the fact that the College Bagnio in Long Acre, 115 – Pleshey Fortifications Charlemagne's Roman Ancestors-Jules Verne: Star and were the owners of the site of the Hall and Crescent Moon-Moon and Hair-cutting, 116.
received rent for it, the two societies were NOTES ON BOOKS:-R. S. Hawker's Life and Letters
Walker's · Septem Psalmi Pænitentiales – The Burling. entirely separate. The College had no juriston'-Reviews and Magazines.
diction over the Hall, or over any persons Obituary :-Mr. Henry Sotheran.
residing in it who were not at the same time Booksellers' Catalogues.
members of the College itself.
But it was Notices to Correspondents.
not until 1694 that the Chancellor of the
University finally established his right to Notes.
nominate the Principal. After a while writers, MAGDALEN COLLEGE SCHOOL AND THE that the Hall was part of Waynflete's own
adding insult to injury, persistently asserted . D.N.B.'
foundation-a fiction which, originally con(See ante, p. 21.)
ceived by the College for the purpose of AT Magdalen the buildings which comprised establishing their claim to the site of the the last important part of the College erected Hall, had come to be generally accepted, and in the founder's lifetime were begun in August, had even insinuated itself into the University 1480. They stood outside of the western Calendar (Wilson, p. 29; S. G. Hamilton's gate, on the ground between the present · Hertford College,' p. 101'; 'Oxon Almanack Št. Swithun's Buildings and the small block Top' for 1749). The schoolroom, as built by which now bears the name of the Grammar the founder, was 72 ft. in length by 24 ft. 9 in. Hall-a name by which the School, and the in width. It was lighted on either side by buildings immediately adjoining it, were five square windows, placed irregularly, and known in the fifteenth century: The School by two windows at the east (south ?) end, one buildings themselves consisted of a school being a small window over the door of enroom with chambers for the master and usher, trance. In later times, when further stories and a kitchen. Of the present picturesque had been added to the two raised in Waynbuilding known as the Grammar Hall the filete's lifetime, it was found necessary to southern part, including the small bell-turret, support the schoolroom ceiling by beams, is a fragment of the School building; but and twelve wooden pillars in two rows the adjoining rooms were for the most part (Bloxam, iii. 6). The interior, as thus altered, included in the premises occupied by the must have in some measure resembled Lower members of Magdalen Hall. John Anwykyll
, School at Eton to-day, the exact date of first master of the School (1480-8), and his which is uncertain, but is not later than 1500. usher and successor, John Stanbridge, were In the latter room the double row of wooden among the foremost grammarians of their pillars (said to be of Spanish chestnut) down day in England, and their teaching attracted the centre
erected by Sir Henry many besides members of the College. These Wotton (Provost 1624-39), although an unstrangers settled themselves, cuckoo fashion, trustworthy tradition relates that the wood, in tenements-adjoining the original School being wreckage from one of the vessels of the
Invincible Armada, was presented by Queen A grammar school is mentioned in audit rolls Elizabeth (R. A. Austen Leigh’s ‘Eton Guide,' of Richard III.'s reign ; and the recent p. 79; A. Clutton-Brock's 'Eton'; Izaak “ ' building of a new school” is noticed in Walton's Life of Wotton'). The exterior of 1515. The original dormitory and schoolthe Magdalen schoolroom, with its fine but- room were, perhaps, situated on the western tresses as seen from the west, appears in the side of the cloisters. The present Upper drawing by Joseph Skelton (plate 52 of School dates only from 1690-1 (ibid., 41, 135). •Oxonia Antiqua Restaurata '). This view (For these references to Sir H. C. Maxwellrepresents the eastern and western side of Lyte's book I am indebted to Mr. A. G. Magdalen Hall quadrangle, and gives a good Parham, of Exeter College, and sometime idea of the interior or northern face of its chorister of Magdalen.) A. R. BAYLEY. gateway. The southern front of both Hall St. Margaret's, Malvern. and schoolroom may be studied in an engrav.
(To be continued.) ing from a drawing by N. Whittock of 1823, showing "Old Magdalen Hall and other buildings” adjoining the College, “commonly
YORKSHIRE DIALECT. called the Gravel Walk.” The only ancient As, owing to the general spread of educa school building of the fourteenth century tion and the constant migration of the now existing is the original schoolroom of agricultural population to our large towns, Winchester College, now called Seventh the local dialects-or perhaps ono should Chamber," Wykeham's magna domus. A large rather say the native language of our more slice was cut out of it to form Seventh rural districts-are likely in a few years to Chamber Paysage,” the way out to school in become extinct, it might be of interest to 1687, when the New (now Old School was your readers to record a few of their principal built. The arch way of that passage is the peculiarities. For instance, our Yorkshire original school doorway. The window which language is almost entirely Scandinavian or lights the passage above is also part of the Saxon, as is shown in the names of our towns original window. The original dimensions and villages, and the Norman invasion has were 45 ft. 6 in. long by 28 ft. 10 in, wide, and scarcely affected our vocabulary at all. 15 ft. 3 in. high from the present floor, which is Observe, for instance, Aldby, (the old probably higher than the original floor. Four village), Aldwark (the old work or fort), wooden columns, one of which still remains, Derwent (clear stream, a common name of supported the ceiling and hall above. The rivers in the North), Godmanham (the village light came in through three windows in the of the sacred stone, where stood formerly a south wall. All of these remain, although celebrated temple of the Druids), Riccal (the the one now lighting the passage is shorn of hall of meeting or judgment), Wheldrake (in its lower portion. In each window were which name one would scarcely recognize benches of stone for the eighteen præfects, Queldrick, or the ridge of quail), Escrick (the so that they might preside over the others." ridge of ash), Thorganby (the sacred village These benches, in a triple row, still remain in of Thor), York (the city on the Ure), and the two untouched windows (Leach's Win-countless other instances. chester Coll.,' p. 122). It will be seen that I generally "stump” those who profess Waynflete's schoolroom was considerably rashly to understand our language with some longer than, but not so wide as, Wykeham's such sentence as this : “T'watter siping thruff At Eton, according to Henry VI.'s original t'assen mak t'middin rank smittle." This intention, or will,
seems gibberish to most Englishmen, and yet “the Provost's lodging was to extend for a length every one of the words is one of our old of 70 ft. on both floors, from behind the upper end original language, simple Saxon or Scandiof the hall to a corner tower situated close to the navian, meaning simply, "The water soaking north-east angle of the new church. Exactly through the ashes makes the heap very opposite to this, but only on the ground floor, was to be a schoolroom of similar length, adjoining the infectious.” gateway.”—Maxwell-Lyte’s ‘History of Eton Col. I always contend that we Yorkshiremen do lege,' pp. 36, 43.
not drop our h like a Cockney, though we do Disregarding the example of monastic estab- clip the article, as in saying " t'ill” for the lishments, the king, had resolved to follow hill”; but we do the same, curiously enough, Wykeham's lead and supply_his College with also before a consonant, "t'letter," " t'door, a regular schoolroom. The Eton cloister was, &c., while we odly omit the possessive s, as however, occasionally (again like that of for“ the master's key” we should say "the Winchester College) to be the scene of public master key." We still use frequently thedisputations in grammar between the scholars. good old Shakespearian word 'parlous,"
much in the sense of our slang word “awful,” lurcher as a "snap dog,” and of a greyhound a parlous time" for "a bad time," or
grew dog." adverbially, as ar beas parlous towed” for In cricket we still call runs "notches," “I am very tired or annoyed," or parlous though we do not keep our scores on a stick clarty for a very dirty road. I like our as formerly ; to slog or hit hard is to “bat it good old word kitty wankle" for very or out,” to catch is to “kep," a feeble stroke is doubly uncertain, as a kitty wankle airtim termed a "dirty go"; and if we are surprised for a bad haytime, or what we call a "catchy we say that “caps owt," or beats everything. time.”
“Kittle" we know as fickle or uncer- In shooting we always speak of partridges tain, as “kittle cattle,” and “wankle” or simply as birds," and it is funny to hear 'wankling” is a term we apply to an our yeomanry talk of their rifles as 'guns." unhealthy calf, or one weak on its legs and We speak of a breadth of anything as a unlikely to live.
'breed," and the small, irregular corners of It is curious to trace our corruption of new ploughed fields are called
gares”; a small. words derived from the Greek, as the taties wood is a rush"; the wide, straggling fences are sadly deinicked ” would mean that they so good for game, and now so rare, are called were affected by the epidemic.
a hole from which earth is dug is A dyke in the North means a ditch, and called a delphin" (delved), while in digging not, as in the South, a bank, as the well- a drain we must be careful to give it plenty known Ditch at Newmarket and the Devil's of " batter," or shelving edge, as otherwise it Dyke at the top of the Downs, ever visited will “ sag" or cave in."
'Stattus" is the by strangers who go to Brighton.
local name for the old fairs established by A“stobb” or stobben” means a stump or statute, and at Martinmas we have our thorn, and is also used as a verb, as arve annual hirings, or mops, when a “fest," or stobbed mar thoom” for “I have pricked my fastening penny, is given to bind the bargain.. finger or thumb." A very expressive saying Like the immortal James Pigg, whose protolike that of the bad penny is “nout's never type is believed to be North Yorkshire rather lost." Children at least believe in the than Northumbrian,
addle wor mysterious visitants at windows called arles” when we earn our wages, and money. * barguests”; indeed, when our school is still spoken of as “brass."
. children first saw the stained-glass windows In York a gate” means à street, as in our private chapel they howled at the Micklegate, or the little street; while the sight of * barguests," as they called them. gate itself is called a "postern," as Skelder
There are also still many adult believers in gate Postern; or a bar, like Monk Bar, which wise men and wise women or witches having perhaps is derived from bar or barrier, or the power of curing diseases and making up from the old barbicans, of which the only love potions, as well as of detecting thieves example is to be found in connexion with and evildoers. To call” a person is to abuse Walmgate Bar. The bridge over a ditch in him, also described as to "talk Irish,” from front of a gate is called a goatstock," of the language used by the Irish who come to which perhaps one of your readers can do field work; and a suinmons is frequently supply a derivation, for I cannot ;. while a applied for for insult when assault is stile is a “stee," and a footpath is called a intended. A magistrate to act in Yorkshire "rampart" or "trod.”. A quantity of anyshould have some knowledge of the language; thing is a "seet," or sight. in fact, I have had to intervene to save a For birds we have innumerable local names, man from a heavy sentence for a cowardly which may be found in Morris and other use of a knife by explaining that “neifo writers on birds. We find the word "start' means only the old Saxon word nief or fist, for tail in the blackstart and redstart; and and that no knife was mentioned at all. the “club start" is the stoat, for “club”
To get evidence to define drunkenness, means short, as in "club-footed.” A rat is except from the police, is always most “ratten" or “rotten"; a polecat is a difficult, as not only is it looked upon as a “foomart” or “foulmart,"as contrasted with very venial offence by the lower classes, but the sweetmart, or pine and beech martens, is divided into many stages, as “market now almost extinct except in the wildest fresh," looked upon as almost a normal con parts of the Lake District. dition, "had a sup,” or in extreme cases Though we still sup our “Jooance," or “had a drop ower mooch.”.
allowance, of drinkings,” one seldom hears A Yorkshireman is called a "tyke,” though the word “beevor” used for drinks, which I have never heard a dog so called in the seems to be of Norman origin. As in Ireland, county of broad acres; but we speak of a we call rooks “crows," the carrion crow being
simply known as “carrion”; and we talk of accused of ingratitude through ignorance of
reeky chimbly,” as in Auld Reekie itself; their manners and language. For instance, indeed, we have many of the purely Scotch if you offer tyke" a present he will mean words in common, but not those of real as much by "Well, I've no objection," or "I French derivation, as "asshet” for assiette, doan't care if I do," as a Southerner would and “gigot” for a leg of mutton. We arrange mean by the most profuse thanks. If you our sheaves in stooks, and do not carry, but ask him the way to the next village he may
' lead," our hay; and we “theck wer ricks" reply,“Arm shoor ar doan't knaw," not from when we thatch our stacks.
stupidity, but because he is summing you up, * Wick”
is our equivalent for the old who you are, what you are, and what is your English word “quick," for living, as opposed business there. In conclusion one may safely to deed,” or dead ; thus by a quickwood say that the more you know the Yorkshire
one of growing thorns man the more you will appreciate him. He instead of one of wood or iron, å "dead says rather less than more than he means ; fence.” That worst of weeds known in the but when once you gain his confidence you South as twitch or couch grass is only too will find him the best of good fellows. familiar to us as wicks," and its hated
J. J. DUNNINGTON-JEFFERSON. rival the charlock as “ketlocks." All spelling,
Junior Carlton Club, Pall Mall, S.W. of course, is phonetic. If we build a pigsty
[“I'll fettle thee” means “I'll give thee & big a stee,” but we do not, at any rate
thrashing.”] in the low country, use the more northern expressions of " but' and ben" for the inner book of the village carpenter here
, about the
YORKSHIRE SPELLINGS. The accountand outer dwelling-rooms. The terms .by” and “out by" are used in coal mining, beginning of the last century, has lately come and the boxes of coal are “corves.” A
hands. It is most interesting read
pony is a Galloway, perhaps from the county of ing, throwing as it does much light sideways that name; a hedgehog is a "pricky otchin," upon the life of the people of that day, and the hedgepig”. of Shakespeare ; and the affording examples of words and spellings little gentleman in velvet is not called mole, now obsolete in ordinary English. Among
Ι but mouldiewarp," and is far more wide the old spellings I may mention bing for bin awake than is usually supposed to be the (a chest). This form of the word would not Bullocks are called "beasts," and be surprising in any of the Danish districts;
' wether sheep“ hogs," as in the song "Three the same sounding of the word is still com silly hoggets came hirpling [limping) home."
mon hereabouts. Other examples that occur A silly fellow is “nobbut a daft or soft laddle for ladle, and shade for shed. The last
are rammer-rod for ramrod.craddle for cradle, body," and we all know what a sad deed a three are still in use in this neighbourhood, "saft day maks of things." We enjoy for but I have heard creddle as well as craddle. the time, if we afterwards regret, the sad'
M. C. F. MORRIS. cakes, or sally-lunns, which are apt to put
Nunburnholme Rectory, York. one's interior in a “fullock," or confusion.
The above will give some idea of our York. BARTHOLOMEW AND CHARLES BEALE. - The shire dialect, but if any one, like Oliver, D.N.B.' mentions two sons of Mary Beale, wants inore, he will find plenty of both amuse the celebrated portrait painter (1632-97): ment and instruction in a book called • Forty Bartholomew, who is said to have begun life Years of a Moorland Parish,' by Atkinson, as a portrait painter, but to have subsethe late beloved and well-known rector of quently studied medicine under Dr. SydenDanby.
ham and practised at Coventry; and Charles, To tidy up or to put anything away is to who followed his mother's branch of art, side" or to
right” it, and the most useful painted portraits both in oil and in water word in the dialect is to
This colours and some few in crayons, but was commeans, like the American word “fix,” to do pelled soon after 1689, by weakness of sight, to almost anything, as you may say, "fettle up" relinquish his profession, and died in London, that road, hedge, room, or anything else, in in what year is not known. Yet I think it the sense of putting things to rights. It is probable that he may have been painting, also used as a noun, as “in good condition and painting, well, in 1714. would be called “in good or fair fettle," or There lies before me a curious epistle from the opposite in nobbut poor fettle." Medi. one Charles Young, addressed to “Barth" cine is, perhaps not unsuitably, termed Beale, Esq., At his House at Baldeston Hall, "stuff."
In Suffolk." It is written, not on letter paper, Yorkshire folk are reserved, and are often but, in accordance with an economical fashion
of the times, on the margin of a number (706) recently paid at auction for this edition, that: of The Evening Post, 13-16 February, 1714. the principal reason of its great rarity has The letter contains some items of general only recently been explained in William news not included in the printed portion, e.g.: Bodham Donne and his Friends' (London,
“Feb. ye 17. Yesterday the Queen came to and 1905). At p. 274 FitzGerald says, in a letter Lay at Hanıpton Court and that day about two to Donne, under date 1868:came to and Dined at St. James's And I hope will “The former Edition was as much lost as sold, meet her Parliamo to morrow but be that as it will. when B. Quarritch [sic] changed houses ; he has God be thanked She is alive and Well to yo Shame told Cowell these 2 years that a few more would and dissapointmt of thousands of her Enemies At sell: a French Version has revived my old flame : home if not abroad who designedly reported wth and now Mr. Childs will soon send some 200 copies Joy in theire faces that she was dead; but concealed to B. Quarritch (sic)." till some body came over. But tis thought it was chiefly intended to affect Rostad, if so it has The French version referred to is that of answered effectually."
M.J. B. Nicolas. Mr. Childs was the printer The Evening Post notes under date Windsor, (John Childs & Son) of the second edition (of 15 February : “This Afternoon Her Majesty 1868). It is most significant that in the (who continues in good Health) Touch'd for volume I am quoting, though FitzGerald is the Evil, and intends to go to-morrow to mentioned in almost every letter, and his Hampton Court."
lightest doings recorded, we reach p. 274 and The relations existing between Charles the year 1868 before 'Omar Khayyám' is as Young and Bartholomew Beale are not very
much as mentioned. The change of houses easy to understand, but it would appear that by B. Quaritch was, of course, his migration Bartholomew was consulted as a physician from Castle Street (near Charing Cross Road) by Young, who had derived benefit from his to Piccadilly. EDWARD HERON-ALLEN. treatment. Young goes on to say :
" PHOOREA” GHOST - WORD. "The "I waited upon Mr. Beale and paid him 12.02.00; Standard Dictionary' has an entry: “Phoorea and he desires to present his humble Service and thanks. And I believe I shall have two Pictures (Bengal), the kuppur." This has always home in a few days as good as ever he or any Eng. seemed to me a good example of ignotum. lishman ever Drew. As to my ffriends, tis an exact per ignotius, since not every reader can be by leaving out all Sourness, Wrinkles and Age he Sindhi name of a common and dangerous Counterpi Life excepted, Aud for mine. I must say expected to remember that kupper is the has worked me up to a Beau of 40: And yet Setting som flattery aside, which
is soon forgiven by one of viper. It is also a good example of what is 60: tis Something exceeding like, which he modestly called a ghost-word. There is no such word says is oweing to my Sitting again so Soon, but I as phoorea. It is a misprint for phoorsa, must charge it on a Juster acc To the greatness which is the Marathi synonym for kuppur: of his Skill, and peculiar Care,” &c.
Some write it phursa, and in Whitworth’s Although it might have been expected that Anglo-Indian Dictionary' it is given as in writing to Bartholomew, Young would fursa, which does not look much like phoorea, have alluded to the painter as" your brother," and yet is the same. This may interest Dr. it is difficult to believe that this courtly Murray, who is now dealing with Pho. artist was any other than the Charles Beale
JAMES PLATT, Jun. whose career was supposed, by the writer of the article in the 'D.N.B.,' to have been cut short some twenty-three years earlier.
We must request correspondents desiring in“ BUST" FOR BURST.”—It is interesting formation on family matters of only private interest to find that the familiar use of bust for to affix their names and addresses to their queries, burst
is by no means confined to England in order that answers may be sent to then direct. and English-speaking countries. Koolman's "E. Fries. Dict.' has busten, i.e., bursten, to
BRISSON'S ORNITHOLOGIE.' Dr. Louis burst, spring, &c.; and the same usage is The Bremen Wörterbuch' notes that in the the favour of submitting to me a copy of recorded in the Low G. glossary by Berghaus. Bureau, the distinguished director of the
museum at Nantes, has lately done me Bremen dialect the verb barsten, to burst, has the copperplates executed by Martinet for for its past tense not only burst, but bust.
Brisson's Ornithologie' (Paris, 1760, 6 vols. WALTER W. SKEAT.
4to), which differ in two remarkable respects. "OMAR KHAYYAM': FITZGERALD'S FIRST from any at present known. In the first EDITION, 1859.-It should be mentioned, in place all the figures are coloured, and next connexion with the record price of 461. the lettering has been altered throughout