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and is healed” (61). "The Deere being a figurative use of marquise, the wife of a stroken though never so deep, feedeth on the marquis. herb Dictaninum [sic], and forth with is Monkey. — Prof. Skeat derives this word healed,

," Carde of Fancie' (iv. 58). In Virgil from Moneke, the name of the ape's son in ('Æn., xii.) and in Pliny.

*Reinke de Vos,' a version of the Beast Epic, 11. Albeit their heartes seem tender, yet published A.D. 1498. He connects the word they harden them lyke the stone of Sicilia, Moneke with the Ital. mona, a monkey, and the which the more it is beaten the harder it madonna, my lady. I think another etymois” (56). “Shee will prove lyke the Stone of logy is possible. It should be noted that in Silicia, which the more it is beaten the harderReinke' nearly all the names of the animals it is," Carde of Fancie' (iv. 46). Which is are real names, or yet-names of men and the wiser here? *The stones of Sicillia" are women, as, for instance, Boldewin; Hinze, petused again for another purpose in Greene's name of Hinrek (Henry); Lütke, pet-name • Vision'(xii. 202). Many misprints in Greene of Ludolf; Metke, pet-name of Mechthild are corrected in this manner.

(Matilda); Reinke, pet-name of Reginhart. H. C. HART. Is it not possible that Moneke may be the (To be continued.)

Koseform of a Christian name also į It has been suggested in Germania, xiv. 216, xvi.

303, that Moneke is a Koseforn of the ChrisFOUR ETYMOLOGICAL NOTES. tian name Simon. Such decapitated forms Bayonet.—' H.E.D.' throws some doubt on

for pet-names are, of course, extremely comthe usual derivation from Bayonne. But I mon in Italy and Germany. Simon would think the etymologists have the


be a good name for an ape from association of history in maintaining the traditional with Lat. sīmus, Gr. oīuos, flat-nosed, sīmia, derivation. • H.E.D.’ quotes Des Accords an ape. Cp. 'Pug.' (1583) for the phrase "bayonnettes de

Paper.—How are we to account for the form Bayonne." This is pretty early evidence, paper ? Is it to be explained as an irregular considering that the bayonet appears to have form of M.E. and A.F. papir, adopted from been used in the modern way long after the Lat, papyrus, as suggested by .H.E.D.,' or Wars of the League. Voltaire, to be sure,

as directly representing a Romanic form in the 'Henriade (chant viii.) mentions the papērum or paperum? Is the -er in paper to use of this weapon in the battle of Ivry be accounted for by suffix-contamination, i.e., (1590) :

-er for the unusual -ir ? or is it due to a

Romanic -ēr- or -er-? The same difficulty Au mousquet réuni le sanglant coutelas Déjà de tous côtés porte un double trépas.

meets us in the French papier (whence Cette arme que jadis, pour dépeupler la terre,

G. papier), which cannot be explained by the Dans Baïonne inventa le démon de la guerre,

Latin form. A Romanic form papērum is Rassemble en même temps, digne fruit de l'enfer, required to account for Welsh pabwyr, the Ce qu'ont de plus terrible et la flamme et le fer.

wick of a lamp or candle, for which a reed But in a note he says: “ La baïonnette au was formerly used; compare O. Ital. papero bout du fusil ne fut en usage que long-temps papejo, papeo), a wick, a gunner's match; see après. Le nom de baïonnette vient de Florio. A Romanic form is required to Baïonne, où l'on fit les premières baïonnettes." explain Flemish poper, a bulrush, whence

Marquee.—This word is doubtless Fr. mar. Poperingen, orig. the bulrush people ; also quise. But no English dictionary, as far as Span. and Port. papel, Catalonian paper. I know, has explained the exact meaning of There is a possibility that the Eng. word marquise. Dr. Skeat explains simply, a paper may be due to a continental Romanic large tent, orig. a tent for a marchioness or form introduced through commerce. lady of rank." This explanation is pictur

A. L. MAYHEW. esque, but neither exact nor historical. A marquise is not strictly a tent, and is not HARVEST-TIME.—There is not much of the intended for a lady of high rank. The word romantic in harvest-time work in the cornis defined in the dictionary of the French fields nowadays. The human harvester is Academy (ed. 1786) as follows: "Terme qui superseded by the machine harvester, which est en usage parmi les gens de guerre, pour cuts, gathers, and binds a sheaf in one operasignifier, une tente de toile, qu’un officier tion, and does in one working day more than fait tendre par-dessus sa tente, pour y être six men could do in three under the old d'autant plus à l'abri des injures de l'air.” system; yet there is no better result now Hatzfeld explains : "Toile tendue au-dessus financially, if the cry of hard times is to be des tentes d'officier.” The word is, no doubt, believed, than was the case sixty years ago,

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when an ordinary harvest - time in good meal, when the workers sat down on the cut weather lasted quite two months. Those corn, or sheltered from the sun behind the who know the harvest customs of sixty shocks, each shock made up by seven sheaves, years ago must regret that such have which the binders had built as the work passed, never to be revived, for these are went on. This meal was generous in kind, days of implements, which have all but but plain-bread, cheese, or bacon, with ale, pushed out the human harvester.

beer, and milk for drink. The food came In the Midland villages of sixty years ago from the farmhouse quite ready for use, in the harvest-time was brighter and sunnier deep baskets lined and covered with snowthan now seems to be the case; every man, white cloths. It was the pride of the farmer's woman, and child went forth into the fields wife to send out each day fresh, good, and to help the farmer, and win the “extra wage wholesome food – the bread, cheese, and for harvest” which was one of the con bacon of a kind for quality seldom met with ditions of farming work, as is still the case now, everything home-made. even when only machines are employed.

The work went on after this with breaks When the first cornfield was ready for the for "drinkings” to the four o'clock," as the sickle or scythe, word was passed round, and second meal in the field was called. When early on a morning the sicklemen or scythe- dusk was near, the leader stopped the wholo men with the gatherers and binders were at harvest gang, and then the rest of the eatables the field. The gatherers of the sheaves and and drinkables were finished before going the binders were generally the wives and home. The first day's work of harvest was children of the men, and the whole work of trying to the best hands, but all considered the harvest was of the nature of a family it pleasurable work. Thos. RATCLIFFE. outing, and at that a most pleasant though

Worksop. hard-working one if the weather was good. “Coop," TO TRAP.-The opening sentence

On some farms the work began by the of a story, 'Charley's “Coup,' by Mr. Jack pleasing ceremony of the farmer himself London, in the July number of The Pall taking the sickle and cutting the first hand Mall Magazine, reads thus :fuls, or making the first sweep with the

“Charley called it a coup,' having heard Neil scythe. Then the reapers or mowers fell in Partington use the term; but I think he misunderone by one behind the leader, the women and stood the word, and thought it meant 'coop, to children, as gatherers and binders, following catch, to trap. in their wake. The first stop was when the Coop is not given in Hotten's 'Slang leader wanted to sharpen. He said, “Now," Dictionary,' though therein is "Cooper, to and all stopped at the end of his sickle cut destroy, spoil, settle, or finish”; but the or scythe swing. Then came the music of following illustrative paragraph is from The half a dozen tools sharpening as the stone Observer of Sunday, 28 July, 1805, repubrasped the steel blades, and in the case of lished in that journal of 30 July, 1905 : scythes the sound of each in a different note “One of the large schooners belonging to the was far from unpleasing, the newest and Boulogne flotilla was lately brought into the Downs broadest blades making the deepest notes, Creole, bound, some time since, from Philadelphia

under the following circumstances:-An American the worn ones the higher. The sharpening to Amsterdam, was, according to their phrase, pause was as often as not the time for 'low

silver cooped,' that is getting the American seaas well, when from the wooden kegs men into a state of intoxication, putting money or stone bottles came the welcome “guggle, into their pockets, and afterwards swearing guggle," of the home-brewed as it fell into them in as having enlisted in the Batavian serthe horn ale-tots provided for that purpose. Of the Creole, who was forced on board a large

vice. This stratagem was made use of in the case These ale-tots of horn were held to be the steamer, bound, with forty others, along shore best for harvest drinkings, the liquor drunk from Dunkirk to Boulogpe. Indignant at the treatin this way being cooler and sweeter than in ment he had met with, he determined to extricate any other form, and far before that of "suck himself. On Thursday se'night, himself and two ing the monkey," as liquor drunk from a others, the mate and the master, sailed with the bottle was called. The tots were emptied at and the other man inebriated and persuaded them

flotilla. The Creole contrived to make the master a drain, all except a few drops, and a curious to turn in to sleep, and he would take the helm. action was that of each man tossing the last In the course of the night be steered for the English drops from the horn to the ground by a twist land.” of the wrist, a custom that was always carried

ALFRED F. ROBBINS. out. The drink for the women and children VANE OF KENT.—John West, of Tunbridge, was beer made of herbs, or milk.

in the county of Kent, yeoman, otherwise Eleven o'clock was the first stopping for a called John a Vane, of 'Tunbridge, yeoman,


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was called to answer Thomas a Ventre on a he belonged to the Middle Temple. His entry plea why he did not pay him 101. which he is thus recorded on the books of that Inn: owed him, and unjustly, detained ; and "February 6, 1605.- Henry Lucas, son and heir Thomas, by John Benge, his attorney, says of Edward Lucas, of Thriplow, co. Cambridge, that he, on 26 September in the third year of Esq., deceased.” the reign of the king that now is, at Tun- In the account given of him in the 'Dict. bridge, demised to the same John Vane the Nat. Biog.' he is represented as dying on manor of Hilden with its appurtenances in 22 July, 1663. I think there must be an Tunbridge, except 10s. 7}d. of rent and the error here, as this date does not accord with rent of four peppercorns, two ploughshares, an entry in the Temple Church register of three hens, and twenty-four eggs, parcel of burials. A copy of this, furnished to me by the manor aforesaid, to have and to hold the the late Dr. Vaughan, Master of the Temple, inanor aforesaid, except the above, to John runs thus :Vane and his assigns, from Michaelmas next " Lucas.- Henry Lucas, of the Middle Temple, following for seven years at a rent of five Esq: was buried in the high Chancell under Serj

Vane had neglected to pay the rent; Turner's Moniment the one and twentieth day of hence the action. By John Nethersole, his July, 1663.

” attorney, he asks leave to imparle the It has sometimes been imagined that the plaintiff, which is granted (De Banco, 847, above Henry Lucas belonged to the family Trin. 13 E. IV. m. 158).

of Lucases residing at Guilsborough ; but It seems not unlikely that John West or this would appear to be incorrect, as the his father changed his name on his inarriage latter bear different arms. with Vane. If this is so, further light may

The Lucases of Thriplow were of the same be obtainable on the much disputed history stock as the well-known family who were of the Vane family. MARK W. BULLEN.

settled in Suffolk as early as 1180. This race Ealing.

owned numerous manors in that county, one

of which was Little Saxham. Here Thomas “JIGGERY - POKERY.” The expression Fitz Lucas, secretary to Jasper, Duke of " Hickery-puckery,” which MR. JAS. PLATT Bedford, Solicitor - General, 19 Hen. VII., justly, styles (ante, p. 87), singular, brings erected a fine mansion, and the church at to mind one, of apparently a similar con- one time contained many striking monustruction, which in years gone by I ments to the Lucas family. in the habit of constantly hearing, viz., John Lucas, third son of this Thomas Fitz

Jiggery-pokery." This was an expression Lucas, removed to Colchester, and became then (and may be it is still) in everyday the founder of the Essex branch. Of these use with the conjuring fraternity and many the more noted were Şir Thomas Lucas, Knt., other showmen, where their aim was to of Lexden, and his brothers, Lord Lucas of delude the public. Its meaning seems to be Shenfield, and Sir Charles Lucas, Knt., the closely allied to that of the phrase alluded defender of Colchester, who, along with Sir to by MR. PLATT, which we may take to be George Lisle, was shot, by the order of trickery: The expression which I now give was Lord Fairfax, when the town surrendered, rather forcibly brought to memory within 28 August, 1648. Their sister Margaret the last week, when I came across two men became the wife of William Cavendish, the disputing over some matter; one, shaking his loyal Duke of Newcastle. clenched fist at the other, said 'menacingly, Mary,

daughter of the first Lord Lucas, was "Mind ! I'll have no jiggery-pokery about created Baroness Lucas of Crudwell, Wilts, and it," which seemed to imply that he fancied carried with her several of the family estates some subterfuge was intended. Of course, I on her marriage to Anthony de Grey, Earl know that, although the sound of the two of Kent. (Rev.), J. STRATTON, expressions shows some similarity, their Master of Lucas's Hospital, Wokingham. origin may be widely different, so I should

EASTER BY THE JULIAN AND GREGORIAN like to have expert opinion on the matter. W. E. HARLAND-OXLEY.

STYLES.–Now that the attention of almanacWestminster.

makers is being turned towards 1906, and the

time is approaching when others will follow HENRY LUCAS.-I have been reading in them in this, it may be of some interest to the ‘Dict. Nat. Biog.' the article on Henry point out that Easter Day pext year will fall Lucas, founder of the Cambridge Mathe- on the same actual day by both styles of the matical Professorship. It omits, I see, one calendar, though we shall call it 15 April

, or two interesting points connected with and those of the Eastern Church 2 April

. him. It does not mention, for instance, that This coincidence has not happened for ten


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years ; it fell so last time on two successive

Queries, years, viz., 1895 and 1896.

But this will not be the case next time, Easter Day in 1907 WE must request correspondents desiring infalling by the Julian calendar five weeks formation on family matters of only private interest after its date by the Gregorian.

to affix their names and addresses to their queries,

in order that answers may be sent to them direct.

W. T. LYNN. Blackheath.

ORIGINAL REGISTERS SOUGHT. - Je serais ERN ALCHEMY : MAKING DIAMONDS. — très - reconnaissant à qui voudra bien me Now and anon comes an announcement from donner des renseignements aux trois quesParis or another learned centre that a savant tions suivantes. has at last discovered a method for the trans- 1. Où se trouve le manuscrit original de mutation of a base metal, such as lead, into Jean Stillingfilete "de nominibus fundatorum silver or gold. Has the literature of these Hospitalis S. Johannis Jerusalem in Anglia," attempts ever been made the subject of dont une copie du XVIIe siècle se trouve à la bibliographic investigation? The mere pos- bibliothèque du College of Arms à Londres ? sibility (1) of such a discovery being made is 2. Où se trouvent les chartes concernant le profoundly suggestive of many sociological Temple publiées par Dugdale "ex autograph' problems.

in turri beatæ Mariæ Ebor''? Y a-t-il quelqu'un Of indirect bearing on the same topic is à York qui puisse me rechercher ces chartes the production of genuine diamonds by et me les photographier ? artificial processes.

On this a few refer- 3. Où se trouve le registre de Guillaume ences follow:

Grenefeld, archevêque d'York. dont des The Making of Diamonds.-Chambers's Journal, extraits concernant le concile d'York en 1311 whole vol. lxxix. ; series 6, vol. v. (1901-1902) ont été publiés dans les Concilia Magna 724-6.

Britanniæ' (London, 1737), ii. pp. 393-401 ? Perkin, F. M. A New Method of making Dia

LE MARQUIS D'ALBON. monds. — Public Opinion, xxix., No. 4 (26 July, Paris, VII., 17, Rue Vaneau. 1900): 112. Originally appeared in Nature, London.

Sherard, Robert H. How Real Diamonds are GEORGE III.'S DAUGHTERS.- Where can be made out of Sugar.-Pearson's Magazine, ix. 260-4. be found any biographical information about Illustrated.

the different daughters of George III., espeThere is said to be an article on the same cially Princess Sophia and Princess Amelia,, subject in The Anglo-American Magazine, iii. in historical works, private memoirs, pub28, to which I have not access at this writing. lished or unpublished, portraits or engravEUGENE F. McPIKE. ings, &c. ?

F. REBOUL. Chicago, U.S.

2, Avenue Victor Hugo, Nogent-sur-Marne. HOW THE ENGLISH PRESS OBTAINED COPIES WHEEL AS A SYMBOL IN RELIGION. Can OF THE TREATY OF PEACE, 1815.- In a book any one say in what way is the wheel a just published by H. Bouillant, Paris, entitled symbol of religion? I have been referred to

Mory & Cie., 1804-1904,' by Henri Mory, Scribner's Magazine, vol. xxii. p. 733, and an interesting account is given of_this. It cannot find it. I shall be glad if any one appears that Nicolas Alexandre Toussaint can supply me with the explanation given in Mory, who founded the firm at Calais, was Scribner,

JAS. MATTHEWS. corresponding, clerk to the English Post Public Library, Newport, Mon. Office, and had the exclusive privilege of the [The wheel of the sun-god's chariot becomes an transmission of English journals to the Con- emblem of the sun himself

. The spokes of the tinent, as well as the forwarding of foreign inexhaustible. See Grimm, Deutsche Mythologie,

wheel constitute a species of cross. The subject is journals to England. The text of the treaty ii. 585; H. Gaidoz, Le Dieu Gaulois du Soleil et le appeared in the Moniteur of the 26th of Symbolisme de la Roue'; Revue Archéologique, III. November. Mory at once started a courier, Série, iv. pp. 14 sqq. ; and the writings of Mannwho reached Calais on the following morning hardt, Frazer, &c.] at ten o'clock. The wind was favourable, GIBBON, CH. LVI. NOTE 81. — Can any of and he arrived in London at nine the same your readers say where an explanation is evening, having accomplished the journey in to be found of & otpotédervs (Anna Comnena, thirty-three hours. The treaty appeared the Alexias,' iii. 10)? Gibbon seems to accept following morning in all the London papers, the meaning "flash of lightning”; but this where the French ambassador read it for does not seem to afford any sense in the the first time. It was not until the same passage, and Gibbon only speaks of himself day that the official news was received at as groping out a meaning for the sentence in Calais.

JOHN C. FRANCIS. which the word occurs. I do not find the

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word in Liddell and Scott, Pape, Sophocles, the Swale in Yorkshire, by other writers for or Contopoulos.

E. T. BURCH. the Kentish Swale. Is there any trustworthy LABYRINTH AT POMPEII.-Has the labyrinth of year, or the exact place?

authority for the number, the year and time

John OATES. shown in the tessellated pavement in the House of the Labyrinth at Poinpeii ever been “OF" AFTER “INSIDE,” “OUTSIDE,” &c.photographed or engraved and, if so, where Ante, p. 101, occurs the sentence, “ They stood can a copy of it be obtained ? No one seemed outside of the western gate." Is not the “of” to know either on the spot or in Naples. As in italic type superfluous here - also after a rule the thing one wants is the very sub- such words as approve, inside, &c. ? I should ject that the camera has never cared to see.

be glad of any information dealing with this St. SWITHIN.

question of the use or omission of “of” in CARDINAL MEZZOFANTI.-I should like to such cases.

F. HOWARD COLLINS. know who was the author of a pamphlet on

AUTHORS OF QUOTATIONS WANTED. — Cardinal Mezzofanti, of which the title-page

To maintain reads :

The day against the moment: and the year “Il Cardinale Mezzofanti: sua vita, sua cono- Against the day. scenza delle lingue, e la sua biblioteca. Estratto I have seen this ascribed to Tennyson, but dall'Université Catholique. Bologna, 1857, Tipi delle Scienze, Piazza S. Martino, Palazzo Foldi." cannot find it. In any case I require the 8vo. pp. 24.

exact reference, as well as the name of the I do not find any reference to it in Dr. author.

R. E. FRANCILLON. Russell's life of the great linguist.

The following is arranged, I rather think. WILLIAM E. A. Axon.

as a glee or part-song. Who is the author of Manchester.

the words & GYTHA, MOTHER OF HAROLD II. - I shall

Could a man be secure be grateful to any one who can direct me to

That his life would endure,

As of old, for a thousand long years, sources of information regarding Gytha, wife

Like the patriarchs of old, of Godwin, and mother of Harold II. There

What deeds might he do! is no biographical notice of her in the 'D.N.B.'

JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. I am specially anxious to ascertain the date of her death.

HELGA. What is the correct version, and who is

the author, of the following 1– STANIHURST : WALSIE.-Can any one tell There is so much good in the worst of us, me the name of the wife of Richard Stani. And so much bad in the best of us, hurst, Mayor of Dublin in 1489 ? Their son That it hardly behoves any of us

To talk about the rest of us. Nicholas (father of James Stanihurst, the

Who Speaker) married Catherine Walsie.

E. M. DEY. were these Walsies ? and what were their

St. Louis, Mo. arms ? KATHLEEN WARD.

Like as the waves make for the pebbled shore Castle Ward, Downpatrick.

So do our minutes hasten to their end.


KING JOHN POISONED BY A TOAD. There stand that a German translation of this work appeared in Berlin prior to the edition King John was poisoned by the blood of a

is a story that through the agency of a monk recently published by Methuen & Co. in toad. What is the earliest authority for this London, although both the title-page and preface of the latter suggest that it is the fable? I have seen what seems to be a sixfirst and complete edition from the MS. Is

teenth-century engraving of the monk preit a fact that the translation did appear first, paring the potion. It was a cutting from a and that it contained many passages omitted printed book. In what volume does it occur?

K. P. D. E. from the English edition? Why were these passages omitted without an explanation ? THE ALMSMEN, WESTMINSTER ABBEY.-I Is the German translation easy to procure have been seeking for a considerable period Does a trustworthy bibliography exist of for information concerning this small body Wilde's works?

C. B. of men, the origin being, I believe, of å St. PAULINUS AND

respectable antiquity. So far my search has THE SWALE. With been without success. May I ask for the respect to the great number of baptisms in the help of readers of ‘N. & Q.’in the matter? river Swale credited to Paulinus, the honour

(Miss) JENNIE LAVENDER. appears to be claimed by some writers for

2, Surbiton Park Terrace, Kingston-on-Thames.

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