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his model in placing them under the tutelage, chester : the master (Informator Gramand making them part, of his College, instead maticorum) received 101. a year, being half of putting them upon an independent footing: the allowance-less travelling expensesHe established a school-"a splendid pile of made to the President of the College; the brick in two stories, with two towers"--at usher (Hostiarius), one hundred shillings. A his birthplace, Wainfleet, in Lincolnshire, new feature was that the School was to be in which, liko Chichele's similar foundation at part a training, school for masters : "two or Higham Ferrers, in Northamptonshire, still three of the thirty [Demies) at least were to retains the buildings of the fifteenth century. study, so that not only might they profit The Hospital of SS. John and James at themselves, but be able to instruct and teach Brackley, in the latter county, was annexed others, and stand qualified for the purpose.” to Magdalen by her founder; and upon the The trust of the famous warrior and litigious death of the last chantry priest in 1548, after landowner Sir John Fastolf for founding at the Act for the Suppression of Chantries, the Caister Castle, Norfolk, a college “of seven College established a school, which still con- priests and seven poor folk" was eventually tinues, in place of the chantry. Of the old transferred by John Paston, one of the Hospital buildings nothing now remains but trustees, to the College in Oxford newly the chapel, which serves as the chapel of the founded by Waynflete, another of the trustees. College School (Leach's Winchester College,' Fastolf's seven priests were represented by pp. 121, 212, and the Rev. H. A. Wilson's four chaplains and three fellows; and the Magdalen College,' p. 265).
seven poor folk by the seven eldest Demies, Magdalen College School appears to have who, according to the statutes, received one been opened in 1479, inside the College, and in penny a week, “ which being nowadays [Mr. 1480 to bave been removed to separate build- Collins, master of M.C.S., told Thomas ings outside its gates. The founder ordained Hearne, 15 May, 1721] but a small pittance, that the thirty foundationers of his College - they that have it are called, by such as have who, corresponding to the Scholars at Win it not, Fastolf's Buckram Men.” chester, were called Demies (demi-socii), from It is difficult, if not impossible, to discover their receiving half a Fellow's commons- at what period the choristers, not matricu were to be admissible at the early age of lated, were first allowed to enter the Grammar twelve. They might stay, like founder's kin School. The elementary portion of their at Winchester, to twenty-five, and were to be education was at first entrusted to the kept at school under the grammar master of instructor in music, and in 1519 Robert Perrot, the College, to be instructed in grammar, the College organist, is styled “scholemaster poetry, and other arts of humanity," until of the choristers." But as early as 1490 they should be considered by the President William Bernard, instructor of the choristers, and master fit to enter upon the University is also called organist (Pulsator Organorum); course in Arts (Rev. H. Rashdall's Uni- and the latter title gradually superseded the versities of Europe in the Middle Ages,' II. former. The choristers, who are sixteen in pt. ii. p. 514). So close, then, was the con- number, originally lived in the Fellows' nexion between the two that it almost chambers and waited upon them. They also appears more difficult to determine who waited in hall down to 1802. At Winchester among the College alumni were not partly College the choristers, also sixteen in number, educated at the Grammar School than who were to make the Fellows' beds, wait in hall,
Like Eton, the School was to be open and dine off the fragments and broken meats. and free, the master to teach freely (libere et if sufficient, of the Fellows' and Scholars gratis) all who came to it. But it would tables. Possibly, from the first, the instructor appear that the College never at any time of the Magdalen choristers may have handed admitted the claims of persons in no sense them over to the grammar master in matters members of the University or of any college touching the construing, and not singing, of or hall to receive gratuitous teaching in the Latin. Besides their singing and acting, School. The petition of the citizens in favour we find the eight choristers of the Chapel of the School in 1550, while it states that such | Royal at Whitehall obliged to attend classes teaching was of great advantage to the in their grammar school. inhabitants of Oxford, shows also that those In 1474 a tower was roofed “in the wall who received it were scholars or choristers of towards the College meadows,"
" which is various colleges (Wilson, 240n., and J. R. probably identical with a tower by the water Bloxam's * Register of St. M. M. Coll.,' iii. mentioned in the accounts for building the pp. 1-6, 275-85). The salaries of the master walls, and with what was afterwards known and usher were to be the same as at Win. as the “Songe Schoole." Under that name
it may be seen in the bird's-eye view of Oxford We find in the account-books from 1481 drawn by Ralph Agas in 1578. From the down to the Reformation frequent charges building accounts it appears to have been for gloves for
the Boy-Bishop on the feast of furnished with a " vyse," or winding staircase, St. Nicholas (6 December), by which it appears and to have had two moulded windows. It that this custom-regulated by the Use of stood just by the Cherwell end of the present Sarum--was sanctioned by the founder in “New Buildings,” and was destroyed to make his lifetime. Of old, too, the President used room for them in February, 1733/4. In 1487 to wash the feet of seven choristers on Maundy the "house of the school of the chorister's Thursday, (Bloxam, vol. i. pp. vi, vii). But was finished.
This may have been some one time-honoured and popular relic of the building, in connexion with the Songe past yet survives: the custom of singing Schoole," which included, in the eighteenth on the great tower (the building of which a century, certain rooms occupied by the venerable but untrustworthy tradition has organist. Thomas Hearne, indeed, with ascribed to Wolsey) at five o'clock in the learned dust besprent,” noting its demolition morning of May Day, the festival of SS. Philip in his diary, speaks of “the organist's house, and James :commonly called the music-school-house"
Do you remember how, upon May-morning, (Wilson, pp. 24, 48 ; Bloxam, vol. i. p. iii). We climbed the tower?-first the broad wooden Waynflete appears,
like his master flights, Henry VI., to have delighted in newel stair And then the spiral steps; and last the ladder
That led us out into the welcome air? cases. The beautiful “vyse,” crowned by a little spire, of his great tower" (Founder's The origin of this rite is veiled in obscurity. Tower at Magdalen)-in autumn incarnadine It has been asserted that it represents à with virginia creeper-is beloved by artists; former custom of saying an annual requiem and he is credited with the design of Tat- mass for Henry VII. on the top of the tower. tershall Castle, Lincolnshire, for Ralph, Lord That mass was ever said there is extremely Cromwell (Lord Treasurer of England 1433- unlikely; and the hymn now sung ("Te 1443). Here the grand staircase of 175 steps Deum Patrem colimus," &c.) is not part of is in the south-eastern turret, and gives the service of the requiem mass according to access to forty-eight separate chambers, four any use. In fact, the so-called "sweet Latin of which are very large. The stone handrail, hymn for Henry's soul” was written in the sunk into the brickwork, and beautifully seventeenth century by the non-juring Dr. moulded to afford a firm hand.grasp: is Thomas Smith, sometime master of M.C.s., original in conception, and probably unique and set to the music to which it is still sung, in design. This is the only staircase in a as part of the College "grace," by Benjamin building. 87 ft. long, 69 ft. wide, and 112 ft. Rogers, organist 1664-86... It is true, how
, high, which is almost entirely constructed of ever, that the annual "obit” of Henry VII., small bricks, brilliantly coloured, and of who died 21 April, originally fixed for 2 or Flemish or Dutch make. The curve of this 3 October, has been held on 1 May certainly splendid staircase is of the rare sinistral since the early part of the sixteenth century. formation, and is contained within a shaft But originally the ceremony upon the tower 22 ft. in diameter, built of enormously thick appears to have been of a purely secular walls. Many of the fireplaces in the present nature. Anthony Wood says: “The choral Palace of Westminster were modelled after ministers of this house do, according to an the magnificent specimens at Tattershall ancient custom, salute Flora every year on (T. A. Cook's 'Spirals in Nature and Art,' the first of May at four in the morning with
vocal music of several parts." And in the In 1512-13 certain buildings near the middle of the eighteenth century the perCherwell seem to have been repaired, and formance was a merry concert of both vocal mention is made of a wall " between the and instrumental music, consisting of several' kitchen and the music school." . This has merry ketches, and lasting almost two hours been supposed (Bloxam, vol. i. p. iii) to refer (Wilson, p. 50; Wood's Colleges and Halls, to a wall separating the two buildings, on p. 350; John Pointer's 'Oxoniensis Academia, account of "the peculiar attractions" of the pp. 66, 68). Since 1849 the choristers have former for the youthful stomach. But they been boarded at the expense of the College were in fact divided, not only by a con- in the master's house. siderable space, but also by a block of build. In 1515 Richard Foxe, third bishop after ingy, the old stable, shown in Loggan's print Waynfleto of the richest see in England, of 1674, standing midway between them founded in Oxford Corpus Christi — the (Wilson, p. 64).
college of the Renaissance. Educated, in alb
probability, at Magdalen-of which College, D.N.B.,' lviii. 360). _ Wood thinks ('Athenæ,' according to Wood, he was a benefactor iv.), that Richard' Eedes, the Presbyterian Foxe was in early life (17-22 Edward IV.), as divine, was either clerk or chorister of C.C.C. Mr. A. F. Leach has demonstrated, master of in 1626 (D.N.B.,' xvii. 141). In 1685 Charles the ancient Grammar School of Stratford-on- Manwaring Fullman and in 1687 William Avon, afterwards refounded by Edward VI. Manwaring Fullman were choristers of C.C.C. (vide "Holy Ghost Gild Book, f. cvii). In They were song of the antiquary William dater life he held with distinction the office Fulman noticed later. A. R. BAYLEY. of Lord Privy Seal under Henry VII. and
St. Margaret's, Malvern. Henry VIII. In his statutes he ordains that
(To be continued.) the two choristers at C.C.C. are to be taught grammar and instructed in good authors, either within his College or at M.C.S. These THE DUKE'S BAGNIO IN LONG ACRE. two choristers were, at first, probably seldom At the sale of Mr. Julian Marshall's enmatriculated : in process of time their specific gravings a print was included of an interest functions ceased, and they became simply and extreme rarity entitling it to a mention ordinary students (Dr. T. Fowler's 'History in the columns of N. & Q. It must be of C.C.C., 1893, pp. 48, 429, 430). An examina- classed among the shopbills or handbills of tion of the list of these C.C.C. choristers sug the period. The upper portion is occupied by gests certain names as those
an engraving 6 in. by 5 in. in height, illusstudents at M.C.S. In 1552, for example, trating, in section, a building consisting of one Roach is found, his name being written a semicircular dome supported on
Roche" in a catalogue of the same year of columns. The dome is perforated by a num. those resident in College, wherein he comes ber of circular openings; on the chequered twenty-third among the subgraduati (Boase's floor appears a circular bath, apparently some
Register of Oxford University,' pp. xxii, 10 ft. in diameter, on the raised edge of which 240). He is, unless I mistake, the Walter are seated two female figures, the upper part Roche who matriculated at C.C.C. on 16 Feb., of whose bodies is nude, while the lower 1554/5 (from Lancast., says Boase); was extremities are clothed. The height of the
; Devon Scholaris or Probationary Fellow 1558; building is stated to be 40 ft., length 32 ft., and B.A. 1559. He, like his founder, became breadth 28 ft. Above this is a representation master of the Stratford-on-Avon Grammar of the royal arms, and at each side appears School in 1570, and was succeeded in 1577 | the cipher J. R., under which are the words by Thomas Hunt. But he, apparently, conBut he, apparently, con “The King's Bagnio." Then follows letter
' tinued to live in that town; for, moving
press as under: into a house in Chapel Street in 1582, he replaced the tiles with old-fashioned thatch the King's Most Excellent Majesty ; from His late
Upon the great Encouragement I received from (Sidney Lee's 'Stratford-on-Avon, p. 131). Majesty of Ever Blessed Memory; from the Nobility În all probability during his years of teaching and Gentry, and from many Eminent Physicians there he had among his pupils a small boy and others of great Learning and Travell, 1 erected named William Shakespeare. It is, at least, a Bagnio in Long-Acre, known by the Name of the certain that Shakespeare had studied to some King's-Bagnio ; and by His Majesty, the Nobility
and Gentry highly Approved. purpose his Lily's Latin grammar-a book
And by Experience of Thousands, found to be familiar to Magdalen men (cf. Love's of great Use and Benefit for all Man-kind; not. Labour's Lost,' IV.. ii., V. i. ; 'Shrew,' III. i.; only to such as are in perfect Health, to continue *Merry Wives,' IV. i.; J. Churton Collins's it and prevent Distempers : but of wonderful and
Studies in Shakespeare,' pp. 12, 14 ; S. Lee's sure Relief, to all Aged, Weak, and Consumptive *Life of Shakespeare, p. 12; Stratford, Persons of both sex, and to all in General, who are
afflicted with any Chronical Diseases ; Bed-rid perp. 176). In 1604 we find the name of Francis sons, and such as by Rheumatisms, Ach, &c., have Garbrand-doubtless akin to the Thomas had no Use of their Limbs, have been Restored to mentioned later, several of whose family admiration. Now for that, the constant price hath were at Magdalen. About the year 1609, or hitherto been Five Shillings and Sixpence.
all manner of persons may receive so earlier, occurs the name of Tobias Giles,
great a Benefit with less Charge, I have thought perhaps a relative of Nathaniel the composer; it, notwithstanding the great Expense of Building, sometime a Magdalen chorister. In 1648 and daily Charge attending it, to retrench the Nathaniel Vincent, aged ten, was appointed Prizes, and do hereby declare, that from, and after .chorister of C.C.C. by the Parliamentary the Date hereof, That if two come together in visitors. He became an eminent Noncon Company, they shall pay but Eight Shillings ; if formist divine, and, as such, enjoyed the rare Person comes three times in 14 Days, he shall have
three, but Eleven Shillings; that if one single honour of being praised by Anthony Wood the like Advantage.
Tuesdays and Fridays for Women, and the other With Burton's " te reverenter habeto " (15), Days for Men. From the King's-Bagnio,
compare “Hos reverenter adi” (Paling. xii. March 25, 1686.
570). The combination of reverenter and Sir William Jennens, K, habere is probably due to Ausonius's "For.: Sworn Servant to His Majesty for the Bagnio. tunam reverenter habe" (epigr. ii. 7, Peiper ; I have called this the Duke's, and not the in the Anatomy' (vol. i. 439 ; 178, I, ii, v, Y.:
vulg. viii. 7), which is quoted more than once King's Bagnio because the former was its original designation, as is proved by a silver 236 ; 360, II. iii. vii.). Cf. Johnson's remark
“f. r. h., if fortunate and rich," and vol. ii. admission ticket, likewise of extreme rarity; (Boswell, 10 April, 1778), "No, sir, Garrick also in my possession. It is that mentioned on p. 538 of vol. i. of Medallic Illustrations
fortunam reverenter habet." (London, 1885), and is thus described :
P. 11, 1. 26; 1, l. 27, "Copernicus." Cf. ii.
60; 253, II. ii. iii. : Howsoever, it (the View of an oval vapour bath supported upon earth's motion] is revived since by Copercolumns, a person undergoing the shampooing pro- nicus, not as a truth, but a supposition, as he cess. Leg. THE DUKES BÅGNIO IN LONG ACRE: TVESDAY, FRYDAY. WOMEN. Rev. J. D. Y. (James, Duke confesseth himself in the Preface to Pope of York] in cypher, crowned, upon brass let into Nicholas. See sign. (***) 3 in the 1617 ed. the centre of a silver medal; around, the Garter. of Co's · Astronomia Instaurata, Libris sex Size 1:1."
comprehensa, qui de Revolutionibus Orbium The representation of the building on the Coelestium
inscribuntur, &c., about threeticket exactly corresponds in all important fourths through his 'Præfatio, which is
. particulars to that in the engraving. It is addressed to Pope Paul III. (Alexander thus quite clear that the Bagnio was erected Farnese, 1534-49). See also lib. i. cap. v. and for James, Duke of York, and that its name cap.
xi. of the same work. "Pope Nicholas" accession. The 'Medallic Illustrations gives (ed. was changed to "The King's Bagnio" on his is a curious error. C.'s preface is entitled
1617) 'Ad Sanctissimum Dominum a conjectural date of 1667 for the ticket, Paulum III. Pontificem Maximum, Nicolai which I should think too early. Cunning Copernici Præfatio,' &c. The 1617 ed. was ham says the Bagnio was built about 1676, edited and annotated by Nicolaus Mulerius, and rebuilt and enlarged in 1694. Lord while the author's preface was preceded by Mohun left this Bagņio in a hackney coach an epistle from Nicolaus Schonbergius Carto fight his famous duel in Hyde Park
with dinalis Capuanus to Nicolaus Copernicus. No the Duke of Hamilton. The Bagnio in wonder that Nicholas supplanted Paul ! Newgate Street was first opened in 1679. * Brunus." See, e.g., De Innumerabilibus, I should be much obliged by other refer- Immenso, & Infigurabili,
seu De Uniuerso & ences to the history of the building which Mundis,' lib. i. cap. 4, cap. 11, 1. 51, “Mundoforms the subject of the present note.
rum innumeri numori quos margine nulla J. ELIOT HODGKIN. im- | mane capit_spacium”; lib. vi. cap. 1,
&c. Presumably Burton had heard of Bruno's
disputations on the Copernican system during BURTON'S ANATOMY OF MELANCHOLY: his visits to Oxford à few years before his (See geh S. xi. 181, 222, 263, 322, 441; xii. 2, 62, 162, own matriculation. 301, 362, 442; 10th S. i. 42, 163, 203, 282; ii. 124, P. 13, n. 1; 2, n. q,
“ Sabellicus exempl. 223, 442; iii. 203.)
lib. 10. The title of S.'s book is · Marci Vol. I. (Shilleto), p.5; sig. (8 3) recto (ed. 6), Antonii Coccii Sabellici Exemplorum Libri • Democritus Junior ad Librum suum.
For Decem.' Shilleto's ed., by inserting a comma points of connexion in these lines with Palin- before “lib.," gives the erroneous impression genius and Ovid, see gth S. xii. 362. In two that Burton is referring to book 10. The places Burton has borrowed from Gerbelius passage is in lib. ii. cap. 1 (De Contemptu (" that good old man," as he calls him else- Divitiarum ') :where, ii. 104 ; 281, II. ii. iv.). See the twenty “Democritus, qui non modo cætera aspernatus, elegiac lines headed Nicolaus Gerbelius sed luminibus etiam se privavit, ut intentius omnia Græciæ suæ Vale,' and opening “Vine, uale contemplaretur, digņus sane qui plus unus viderit, fælix mea Græcia," printed on the title-page quam universa Græcia." of G.'s ‘Pro Declaratione Picturæ siue Descrip- In the next section (De Anaxagora) occur tionis Græciæe Sophiani, Libri Septem. L. 3 the words "sublimi vir ingenio,” which Burbegins in precisely the same way as Burton's ton here transfers to the account of Demo5(“I blandas inter Charites "), while “Da critus. veniam Authori, dices.” in B.'s 35 is very near P. 13, 1. 4; 2, 29, Nihil......scripsit." to “D. u. A. dicas” (1. 7 in G.).
Sabell. Ex. II.'1:"Nihil est in toto opificio
nature de quo (ut præclare de eo scribitur) Burton refers again to this " most memornon fuerit illi curæ scribere."
able example,” i. 474 ; 200, I. ïïi. ii. ii. P. 17, 1. 17; 5,13,“tum maxime cum novitas P. 19, 1.14 ; 6, 12, "Experto crede Roberto.”
4 excitať palatum.' See Alciatus's Epist. to. To the note at 9th S. xi. 441 may be added Paulus Jovius at the beginning of the Paris that this proverbial phrase is found in several (1553) ed. of vol. i. of the latter's Historice of the books which Burton used. See Nevi. sui Temporis,' "Scis quam auidus sim libro- zanus, 'Sylva Nuptialis,' iv. 92, l. 35 of the rum helluo, & tum maxime quum nouitas verses ; Mizaldus, Cent. iii. 59, which ends, excitat palatum."
“Experto, ut dicunt, crede Roberto. This P.17, 11. 18-21; 5, 11. 14-17,“ Many men.....
section of Mizaldus is quoted in Wecker, lie down." Since giving (9th S. xii. 363) the De Secretis,' lib. v. cap. 4. exact references in Gellius (mod. texts), Pliny,
P. 19, n. 9; 6, n. 1, "sliada post Homerum." and Seneca I have made the interesting diso Burton has utilized Justus Baronius on the covery that Burton was indebted for the previous page (ed. 6), and cites him by name whole of this passage to Justus Baronius's on the present. So it is at least extremely
Præscriptiones adversus Hæreticos.' See the probable that the proverb was suggested by preface Ad Lectorem :
its occurrence in cap. i. (p. 5) of Baronius's
'Pro Præscriptionibus suis adversus Iohan. * Avlvs Gellius coronidem Noctibus suis. Atticis Rainoldum Anglo Calvinianum Vindiciæ, impositurus, multos ait, in insigniendis libris miras sequi inscriptionum festiuitates. Et C. Plinius printed at the end of the 1605 ed. of his plerosque inquit ita in hac ponipa excellere, ut
Præscriptiones': multos ad vadimonium deserendum compellant: seu “ Accessit altera ratio quod non solum ea causa, ut Senecæ uerbis utar, patri obstetricem parturienti de qua nobis litem moues,
ad nauseam a diuersis ita filiæ accersenti moram iniicere possint.”-Sig. (b) 2, tractata ac pertractata est, ut si quid amplius de recto, 2nd ed., 1605.
ea commentari aggrederer, Iliada post Homerum Burton's marginal references in Gellius and scribere,, atque otio literisque turpiter abuti Pliny are taken from Baronius's margin.
viderer.” Baronius omitted the number of Seneca's Burton's next quotation from Baronius is epistle; so, naturally, does Burton. The within three pages of this in the · Vindiciæ.' latter's statement that Pliny “quotes out of
EDWARD BENSLY. Şeneca " is due to a misunderstanding of his
Via Lombardia, Rome. original. This is an instructive example. I
(7'o be continued.) may add that I have marked very many passages (chiefly in the case of verso quota
THE BIRTHDAY OF GEORGE III.-The foltions) in which Burton undoubtedly drew lowing contribution to The Times of a wellfrom secondary sources.
known correspondent of 'N. & Q.' opens out. P. 17, 1. 23; 5, 18, “Anthonie Zara...... in four sections, members, subsections," &c.
an interesting point :Zara's 'Anatomia Ingeniorum' is divided College, on Saturday, there have been many refer
SIR, -In the accounts of the celebration at Eton into four sectiones, each containing from eight ences to June 4 as the birthday of King George III., to eighteen membra, while each sectio opens and the ode of the Poet Laureate of 1805, which with a separate caput unicum.
was reprinted in your columns, shows, of course, P. 18, 1., 16, and n. 12 ; 5, 38, and n. a, that at that time June 4 was regarded, as it still is, “Thucydides...... Qui novit...... nesciret.” This
as the anniversary of his Majesty's birth.
I should like your permission to point out what is Valla's translation (1513), with exprimit does not appear to be generally known-namely, instead of explicat.
that the King was actually born, not on June 4, P. 18, 1. 20, and n. 22; 6, 1. 1 and n. f,
but on the same day as Queen Victoria, May 24. “Felix Plater......O[b]servat. l. i.”
Whatever books of reference niay say on the point,
Cap. the actual date is placed beyond doubt by the * In Mentis Alienatione Observationes,' Sect. quaintly - worded official record in the London * Animi perturbatione, ex imaginatione læsa,' Gazette of Friday, May 26, 1738 :-"On Wednesday &c., over one-seventh through lib. i. It was last, at Half an Hour past seven in the Morning, only a single frog (not, as Burton, “ frogs") Her Royal Highness the Princess of Wales was that the patient imagined to be living inside Christened by the name of George, which was occa
safely delivered of a Prince, who was immediately him. He had "studied physick seven years sioned by some dangerous Symptoms that appeared to some purpose, graduating as doctor of at first, though they are now happily over, and the medicine at Basel cum laude." Plater's Princess likewise is in a very good way." account of the case is good reading. The
One can only account for the discrepancy beheadstrong delusion, after surviving most tween the actual and assigned date of the birthday heroic purges, yielded at last to arguments took the place of the Julian the famous "eleven
by supposing that when the Gregorian Calendar drawn from the natural history of reptiles. J days" were added to the real birthday of the