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had been Demies in 1534, the Thomas

MAGDALEN COLLEGE SCHOOL AND THE Bentham in question (afterwards Bishop of


(See ante, pp. 21, 101, 182.)

A LETTER to Cranmer, after mentioning an otherwise unrecorded riotous attack in 1549 upon the College-which lay outside the city walls-protests against certain ordinances brought to the society from the Council in February, 1549/50. These forbade, among other things, the application of any College endowments to the teaching of grammar and ordered that all endowments intended for chaplains, clerks, and choristers should be diverted to "the most necessary uses of good letters." These injunctions the College unanimously resolved to oppose as destructive of the foundation. The Grammar School, they maintain, was an essential part of Waynflete's design, which had been of the greatest benefit not only to the College, but to the University and city of Oxford. The School, indeed, is to Magdalen College as Eton School is to King's College at Cambridge, and the school at Winchester is to New College at Oxford, and they call it "their nursery." The members of the choir are not occupied in music alone, but also in academical study. If they have to dismiss all the members of the College who are endowed as members of the choir, and all who are studying grammar, the society will lose about sixty of its number. The delegates to the Council were supported in their plea by a petition from the Mayor and citizens of Oxford, who represent that the system by which their sons, entering various colleges as scholars or "quiristers," obtain their grammar training at M.C.S. without charge to their families, has been of great advantage to the city in the past, and specially plead for "the continuance of this only school of all the shire." Happily this appeal was in the end successful (Wilson, pp. 91-3).

Gardiner, who had been restored to the see of Winchester soon after Mary's accession, cited the College to attend a visitation on 26 October, 1553. The commissaries (according to Laurence Humfrey), upon their arrival in College, finding no priest to say Mass, no Fellow who would hear it, no boy to respond, and no vestments, were obliged to say Mass themselves without the presence of any spectators. The juniors who refused to attend popish prayers" were whipped; but Bentham, the Dean of Arts, who himself refused to say Mass, refused also to punish others for absence from "popish prayers." About fourteen members of the College were ejected, among whom were two Fellows who

Coventry and Lichfield) and John Mullins (in the next reign Archdeacon of London and Canon of St. Paul's).

A Demy of 1555 and sometime chorister, Owen Ragsdale by name, endowed in 1582 the Free School of Rothwell, Northants, and founded in the same parish a hospital for twelve old men and a warden. In 1558 (too late to take effect) Queen Mary recommended, among others, Thomas Marshall, Archdeacon of Lincoln and sometime Demy and Fellow, to be elected President. He had been unsuccessfully recommended twenty-three years earlier for the same office by Cromwell. On 3 September, 1566, Queen Elizabeth went on foot to St. Mary's Church, during her visit to Oxford, to hear disputations in natural and moral philosophy. Before her coming there were divers copies of verses in Latin, Greek, and Hebrew set upon the doors and walls, one copy being written by Robert Temple, then Demy, and afterwards Prebendary of Bristol.

Thomas Harriot, the mathematician and astronomer who, according to Marlowe, could "juggle better than Moses," was born at Oxford in 1560, probably in the parish of St. Mary. He graduated B.A. of St. Mary Hall twenty years later. George Chapman, in sending his translation of the 'Iliad' to him "for censure, addresses Harriot as master of all essential and true knowledge." Born in 1565, John Guillim, the celebrated Herald, went from Hereford Cathedral School to a grammar School at Oxford before matriculating at Brasenose. Can these two have been at M.C.S.?



About the year 1580 we begin to find cases of Demies entering College at a more advanced age than formerly had been the custom. As they gradually approximate to the ordinary undergraduate elsewhere, their connexion with the School would, no doubt, become proportionately weaker. In 1585, Humfrey being President, some light is thrown upon the condition of junior members of the College by statements drawn up by four of the Fellows and by injunctions delivered by Bishop Cooper in his subsequent visitation. The grammar teaching, on which the founder had so much insisted, is inefficient; the Master performs his work-so far as it is performed-by deputies, being himself non-resident. One complainant remarks concerning the choir: "Jam presbiterorum nulli, clericorum 4, chorustarum perpauci, cum cantu et nota celebrare possunt divina." Poor scholars are admitted in large numbers,

"living idlie, bound to no exercise, no account taken of their proceding in learning; whereby they bothe remaine here and become after unprofitable burdens to the Colledg, commonwealth, and church, proving in the end ether ignorant ministers or


Masters of Arts, and Bachelors of Law to retain “ poor scholars" as servitors, provided that they lodge "caution" for those whom they employ. As late as 1851, reform being in the air, a College committee proposed to These " Mis'poor scholars" were in some cases revive the " poor scholar" element. the attendants of the wealthier commoners: reading an early document, they looked upon Florio, the translator of Montaigne, for these servitors as an essential part of the example, entered as Italian teacher and founder's plan. They proposed to build for attendant of Emanuel Barnes, son of the these contemplated members of the College Bishop of Durham and elder brother of a new quadrangle, to accommodate 60 men, Barnabe Barnes the poet. In other cases each having a single room, and that the they attached themselves to members of the recently erected schoolroom should be conCollege, acting as their servants, and receiv-verted into a dining-hall, where they should ing some instruction in return; while the free teaching of the Grammar School, and the lectures of the Readers, gave them opportunities of which some at least availed themselves. But their connexion with the College was slight, and the system, not recognized by the statutes, was liable to great abuse. They are therefore for the future not to exceed thirteen, and these are to be attached, not to any one who chooses to retain them, but to the thirteen Senior Fellows, who are enjoined to make a careful choice. A decree of December, 1591, under Nicholas Bond, Humfrey's successor, enacts that the "poor scholars" are to attend the Grammar School. In the Long Vacation of 1612 Magdalen has as many as 76 scholars." In 1628 the College had ordered that no one should be admitted to the place of a poor scholar without the President's approval. But in 1635 the visitor, Bishop Curll, writes:—



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A list drawn up in the following year shows there were 66 66 poor scholars," of whom 45 are entered as depending upon particular persons, 11 as of the alms-basket," and 10 ascertain others." For the future none are to be allowed "to serve any of the foundation without being admitted, and having their names entered in a book by the President. They are then to be required to attend the Grammar School; or, if their learning has passed the range of its teaching, to attend lectures and perform all disputations and exercises required of members of the foundation. In 1664 Bishop Morley's visitation gives permission to all Doctors,

have all their meals in common. They were to be placed under the charge of a special vicegerent and two tutors, and to pay the College, for board, lodging, and tuition, a fixed sum of 60l. a year each. A sum was also to be set aside for exhibitions to be given to deserving members of this new class. Here again we find an instance of an endeavour to divert one of the school buildings from its proper uses. But in the sequel this aspiration of the reforming party was to be realized elsewhere, and the later foundation of Keble College is a living witness to their good intentions (Wilson, 127-9, 136, 141, 150, 183, 245).

But to return to the end of the sixteenth century in 1586 Thomas Godstow, a Fellow and former Demy, was imprisoned by Lord Norreys for deer-stealing in the royal forest of Shotover. His friends, who had shared his poaching exploits, attacked the "Bear" Inn, near All Saints' Church, where Lord Norreys was staying for the July Quarter Sessions, but were beaten back by his retainers to St. Mary's.

"Whereupon a great outcrie being raised, the Vice-Chancellor [Dr. Bernard], Proctors, and others are called, who, rushing suddenly in among the Scholars, appeased and sent them away with fair words, yet some of them were hurt, and Binks, the Lord's keeper, sorely wounded."

By direction of the Vice-Chancellor, all scholars were confined to their colleges, and Lord Norreys prepared to leave the town.

"But the Scholars of Magdalen, being not able to pocket these affronts, went up privately to the top of their tower, and, waiting till he should pass by towards Ricot, sent down a shower of stones that they had picked up, upon him and his retinew, wounding some and endangering others of their storm, divers had got boards, others tables on their lives. It is said that upon the foresight of this heads to keep them from it, and that if the Lord had not been in his coach or chariot, he would certainly have been killed."-Wood's 'Annals.' It is not surprising that

"the result came to pass, that some of the offenders were severely punished, others expelled, and the

Lord with much ado pacified by the sages of the

The College records take no notice of this
riot; but on 12 August Godstow received
leave of absence for a year, and at the next
election his Fellowship was vacant. Lord |
Norreys, son of Anne Boleyn's alleged lover,
was father of a family of famous soldiers,
two of whom afterwards Sir Henry and
Sir Thomas Norreys-had matriculated at
Magdalen in 1571, being seventeen and
fifteen years old respectively.

William Pilsworth, sometime Demy and contemporary of Godstow, died Bishop of Kildare. Richard Ferrant or Farrant, Demy in 1578, was probably son of the famous composer of the same names. A Demy of the same year, William Sterrell, appears to have acted, in after life, under many feigned names as a Government spy. A Demy of 1589, Anthony Greenway, called also Anthony Tilney, and Father Anthony after becoming a Jesuit, entered the School when eleven years old, and remained in the College (so he tells us) for nine.

About the year 1614, or earlier, new rooms were added above the School building for the use of Magdalen Hall, then in a very flourishing condition. About this time the redoubtable Harry Marten, the regicide, a native of Oxford, was-according to Wood -being "instructed in grammar learning in Oxon " before becoming "a gentlemancommoner of University College." Was he at Magdalen School? From the last-mentioned year until 1617 Francis White, M.A., of Magdalen Hall, formerly Demy, and later vicar of Ashbury, was Master of the School. Heylyn, in his 'Diary,' mentions that White composed one or more plays, which were acted in the President's lodgings. We may suppose his "little eyases" would assist in the production of their pedagogue's pieces : "Since we be turn'd cracks," says Mercury to Cupid in 'Cynthia's Revels,' "let's study to be like cracks; practise their language and behaviours, and not with a dead imitation: act freely, carelessly, and capriciously, as if our veins ran with quicksilver, and not utter a phrase, but what shall come forth steep'd in the very brine of conceit, and sparkle like salt in fire." For sixteen years from 1632 one John Hyde was usher of M.C.S. He was probably third son of Sir George Hyde, of Denchworth, and had been a contemporary at Magdalen Hall of his celebrated kinsman Edward Hyde, afterwards Earl of Clarendon. In 1633 Henry Chittie, a former Demy, bequeathed his books to the College, some of which were given to the School. A. R. BAYLEY.

(To be continued.)

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"KABAFUTOED."-It is worth while to put on record an early instance of the use of this coined word. Kabafutoed" will, no doubt, obtain a vogue if only on account of its historical allusiveness. Part of a leader in The North China Daily News for 22 July runs :

"It may be taken for granted that Saghalien will be completely kabafutoed, and Vladivostock entirely surrounded, before the serious discussion of the terms of peace begins."

While on this subject I should like to protest against a belief I have noticed in your columns that 'Hobson-Jobson' is a reference work for all Eastern parlance of the English stamp. There could hardly be a greater mistake. When we consider that, besides India, there are Burmah, Penang and Singapore, Hongkong and Shanghai, to say nothing of Japan, and the protean and macaronic jargon used, but seldom understood, by the passengers on board the P. & O. liners, it will be readily understood that the man who acts on the supposition that Yule and Burnell have cast their mantle over all the East is inviting philological trouble. DUH Ан Соо. Hongkew.

"TEST MATCH."-The following statement was made by Mr. P. F. Warner in his weekly cricket column in The Westminster Gazette of 19 August:

"Until the year 1894 no one had ever heard of a "Test match, but during the memorable tour of A. E. Stoddart's team in Australia in the winter of that year the word was first coined, and ever since that time we have been accustomed thus to speak of an England v. Australia match." It is interesting, of course, to note that Mr. Warner "captained " the team which went to Australia last year, and is thus an authority on the subject. CLIFTON ROBBINS.

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"CHRIST'S HOSPITAL."-Two contributors at 10th S. iii. 430-1, under the heading The "Old Bell" Inn, Holborn Hill,' write as above. This would appear to be wrong. In "The Autobiography of Leigh Hunt' (Smith, Elder & Co., 1861), p. 52, occurs Christ Hospital (for this is its proper name, and not Christ's Hospital)." Naturally, Christ Hospital is the form used by Leigh Hunt throughout. DUн Ан Соo. Hongkew.


WE must request correspondents desiring information on family matters of only private interest to affix their names and addresses to their queries, in order that answers may be sent to them direct.

PORTRAIT OF THE YOUNGER RICH.-At the dispersal of the effects of the "Sublime Society of Beef Steaks" at Christie's in 1869 an engraved portrait of Rich the founder, in his dress as a harlequin, was sold for 21. 4s. I am writing a history of Covent Garden Theatre, built by Rich, and shall be very glad if any one can tell me where a copy of this print can be seen. I have tried the British Museum Print Collection without su ccess. I have also tried in many other directions, but all to no purpose. I shall es teem it a very great favour if you can help me through the medium of your valuable publication.

H. SAXE WYNDHAM. The Guildhall School of Music, E.C.

REV. JOHN DURANT.-I am interested in, and collecting materials for, a history


Congregationalism in Kent, and shall be glad of particulars concerning the Rev. John Durant, who was minister of the Independent Church at Canterbury from 1645 till 1679. Granger's 'Biographical History of England' states that he was born about 1620, ordained probably at Cambridge, and died about 1686 or 1687. I have seen three of his published works, but none of these contains a memoir or any biographical facts. Any information or reference to sources from which it may be gathered will be welcome, and if any of your readers have a portrait of him I shall be pleased to secure one. J. WATKINSON. The Quinta, Herne Bay.

CORISANDE.-Can any one tell me the used for a Christian name, and it appears, I derivation of Corisande? It is occasionally believe, in Lord Beaconsfield's 'Lothair.' If it is used by other writers, please name them.

J. D.

PUZZLE PICTURES. Where can I obtain such suitable for children? T. W. [At any Sunday-school or educational repository or large toyshop.]

EARTHQUAKE IN CALABRIA. Now that there has been an earthquake in Calabria can any one tell me the author of the following lines?—

As Dutchmen hear of earthquakes in Calabria, And never stop to cry,

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KIT'S COTY HOUSE.-This curious name of the well-known cromlech near Aylesford, Kent, may be of early British or Celtic origin. In the 'History and Antiquities of St. David's' (Jones & Freeman, 1856) it is said that Cyttiau'r Gwyddelod means "huts of the Gael." In the Welsh language c is always hard. In modern Welsh cut means a hovel, shed, or hut"; and cotty means a cottage." The word house is, of course, AngloSaxon (hus) and conveys the same idea. Has any other and more likely origin of the old and popular name ever been suggested or accepted? W. R. HOLLAND.

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5th S. ix. 427; x. 49, 133, 289.] [For the origin of the name see the discussion at

"CATERPILLERS OF THE COMMONWEALTH." of choice seems to weigh in favour of Virgil. -The title-page of Stephen Gosson's 'School And rightly so, as I think. Vergil is hyperof Abuse' (1579) is worded as follows:- pedantic. J. B. McGoVERN.

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"[Leicester]......his father was that Dudley which our histories couple with Empson, and both be much infamed for the caterpillars of the commonwealth during the reign of Henry VII.," &c.

In 1631 Weever also employs the same words with reference to the same people.

Can any of your readers inform me :1. The earliest occasion when these words were coupled.

2. Whether the phrase was, in the sixteenth century, a catch word of the time?

3. Whether Shakespeare's use of it can reasonably be attributed to his familiarity with Gosson's work?

4. Whether the histories of the period. previous to the publication of 'Richard II.' (1597), were in the habit of employing the phrase with reference to these or any other courtiers, as Naunton implies they did?

Shakespeare uses the word "caterpiller" in the same sense in other places, and in a most striking manner in 2 Henry VI.,' IV. iv. 36, when the passage is compared with Gosson's title, and when it is borne in mind that Gosson's work was an attack upon the stage. It seems probable that Shakespeare was having a hit back in making a Kentish man call scholars, lawyers, courtiers, and gentlemen "false caterpillers."


170, Church Street, Stoke Newington, N. RAWDON.-Who was Miss Rawdon, who married Samuel Hautenville, of Dublin, in the eighteenth century? She was related to the Earl of Moira.

St. Stephen's Rectory, C.-on-M., Manchester. CAREY OR CARY.-Capt. John Bailie, of Innishargie, co. Down (b. 1663, d. 1687), married Catherine Carey or Cary (d. 1691). Did the said Catherine belong to the Falkland, Hunsdon, or Monmouth families of Carey, or to the branch that migrated to Donegal in the seventeenth century? Any information as to her parentage will be gratefully received. KATHLEEN WARD.

Castle Ward, Downpatrick, Ireland.

MINNISINKS.-Every one is familiar with Longfellow's short poem 'The Burial of the Minnisink,' descriptive of Indian life. In what part of North America did these Indians live? They are not mentioned among the races or tribes enumerated in the 'Encyclopædia Britannica.' W. D. SPRINGETT.

St. Matthew's Vicarage, 67, Brixton Hill, S.W.

MEREDAY, CHRISTIAN NAME.-I have come across the singular name Mereday. Whence comes it? R. B-R

ALMANSA.-Who was he? He has no niche in that temple of fame the 'D.N.B.,' but he is referred to in a, to me, singularly disappointing book, 'Toledo and Madrid: their Records and Romances.' The author asserts, with reference to Charles I.'s abortive Spanish match :

"Oddly enough, the record which says most upon the subject, and is obviously the most reliable. is least consulted of any. I mean the letters of Almansa, which continued to be written at intervals throughout our countryman's sojourn at Madrid."

-P. 170.


Unless Almansa be a pseudonym for Howel here is another source for delectation on the part of DON FLORENCIO DE UHAGON, who not long ago (10th S. iii. 48) was interesting himself and us in the details of Charles's romantic expedition. ST. SWITHIN.

artem (Mrs.) HAUTENVILLE COPE. 13, Hyde Park Mansions, W.

VIRGIL OR VERGIL?-Which of these two is the more correct spelling of the great Mantuan's name? So far back as 1489 Angelo Poliziano (commonly known as Politian) discussed the rival claims of the two spellings in his wonderful Miscellanea,' and the evidence in favour of Vergilius. Sub judice adhuc lis est; but the preponderance

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JOHN VAUS, GRAMMARIAN.-A copy of the first edition of "Rudimenta puerorum in Vaus grammaticam per Joannem Scotum," printed in Paris by Badius Ascensius in 1522, was in the library of the late David Laing, and was sold at Sotheby's, 12 December, 1879, but has not been traced. I fail to find the edition in any public library.

The second edition (Paris, Badius Ascensius, 1531) and the third edition (Paris, Robert Masselin, 1553) are in the library of the University of Aberdeen. The fourth edition

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