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• Neolithic Dew-Ponds.'

LONDON, SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 30, 1905. dress, his rubicund countenance well quali

fying him to play "mine host," while his

daughter, Miss Fetherston, ran upstairs and CONTENTS.-No. 92.


cap and apron, to personate the NOTES :-The Origin of She Stoops to Conquer'-'Byways chambermaid ; and that night Goldsmith in the Classics. 281–Punctuation in MSS. and Printed went to sleep in the full persuasion that Books, 262—"Growing down like a cow's tail"_Beckford the house was an inn. The next morning and Rabelais-Ward Family-Bolles : Conyers—"Towers of silence," 234-Nutting: "The Devil's Nutbag," 265. Mr. Fetherston and his daughter resumed

their real characters, and great was GoldQUERIES :-Sylvain Maréchal - Duchess of CannizarnAnthem by Farrant - Channcy Correspondence, 265 — smith's dismay-great as young Marlow's in Oscar Wilde Bibliography-George Colman's - Man of the the play-to find them seated in full dignity People'-Pigmies and the Cranes-Spanish Folk-lore, 246

"Tinterero" —Bnaith Peculiar Court" Book of Lough- at the breakfast table, and to realize the scur'-Mrs. Mary Williams-First. Railway on the con: mistake he had committed. The story is tinent - W. R. Bexfield, Mus, Doc. — Glauville, Earl of told on the best authority—that of Lady Suffolk-Richards Baronets, 267.

Fetherston, the wife of the present baronet. REPLIES :-Thomas Pounde, S.J., 288 - Gibbon's Greek,

Tony Lumpkin's trick of tying his step272 - George III.'s Cleverness -- Authors of Quotations Wanted— Sacræ Pagina Professor," 273–Spanish Verse father's wig to his chair so that, as old Mr. --Scottish Naval and Military Academy - The fate of Hardcastle remarks, "When I went to make tbe Tracy:"-"Bear Bible," Spanish, 274-Gordon of the West Indies – Roger Ascham: "Schedule"-Translated a bow I popped my bald head in Mrs. Frizzle's Surnames-Faded Daguerreotypes – Dumas : 1t8 Pronun: face,” had its origin also in a similar trick

- ' Signatures Newlands," Chalfont St. Peter Harola II. played on Goldsmith himself by the daughter and the Royal Houses of England, Denmark, and Russia of his friend Lord Clare, when Goldsmith was -Gallows of Alabaster, 276 – Dante's Sonnet to Guido

on a visit to that nobleman. She often Cavalcanti - The Duke's Bagnio in Long Acre - Index of Probates - Villikins and his Dinah. * 277–Thomas å related the incident to her son, Lord Nugent. Becket-Rushbearing-Local Government Records, 278. Goldsmith was one who in his writing

drew largely on his own experiences ; witness NOTES ON BOOKS:-McKerrow's Edition of Nashe • Hakluptus Posthumus'-Wuller's Edition of Cowley- * The Traveller,' •The Deserted Village,' and Calendar of Leiter - Books of the City of London The Vicar of Wakefield. It is this which

gives to them much of their charm-their Notices tu Correspondents.

fidelity to nature. EDWARD MANSON.

8, Old Square, Lincoln's Inn.


(See ante, p. 238.)
"DOCTOR GOLDSMITH," writes Johnson to to the verses on Virgil's use of the words

THE reviewer of Mr. Platt's book refers Boswell,

“Pius," " Pater," and "Dux Trojanus” as “has a new comedy, which is expected in the spring. No name is yet given to it. The chief diversion applied to, Æneas, and asks, Who is the

author of these lines? The author was James arises froni a stratagem by which a lover is made to mistake his future father-in-law's house for an inn. Smith, of 'Rejected Addresses' fanie. See This, you see, borders upon farce. The dialogue Barham's 'Life of Theodore Hook,' p. 162 is quick and gay, and the incidents are so prepared (Bentley, 1877), where the verses in question as not to seem improbable."

are printed. As they are very witty, and Whence Goldsmith took this plot of his has may not be familiar to all readers of N. &Q.,' never been told by any of his biographers. I give them : It was, in fact, derived from an incident

Virgil, whose magic verse enthrallswhich happened to the dramatist himself.

And who in verse is greater?

Goldsmith was travelling in Ireland on foot By turng his wandering hero calls near Edgeworthstown, co. Longford, and was Now Pins, and now Pater. on the look-out for an inn to rest in and pass

But when, prepared the worst to brave,

An action that must pain us, the night. As he proceeded he came to Ardagh

Queen Dido meets him in the cave House, the residence of Mr. (afterwards Sir He dubs him Dux Trojanus. Ralph) Fetherston. It was a square, ugly And well he changes thus the word, building, and Goldsmith, taking it for an On that occasion, sure, inn, made his way in and rather peremptorily

Pius Æneas were absurd

And Pater premature. called for refreshment. Mr. Fetherston (the old Mr. Hardcastle of the piece) saw through

T. F. D. the mistake, and resolved to keep up the The lines referring to Virgil were written farce. He put himself into an innkeeper's by James Smith, the well-known author, in

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conjunction with his brother Horace, of 'Re- Punctuation may be partly inserted later. jected Addresses. They are the following :- Gregory, on being told name was Angles, 1. Virgil, whose epic song enthralls

No marks on i. Also “Hou pro dolor" (And who in song is greater ?),

with no mark after. Throughout his Trojan hero calls

In English MSS. of this century ? someNow Pius, and now Pater.

times occurs. So Pal. Soc., ii. pl. 134, MS. But when, the worst intent to brave, With sentiments that pain us,

A.D. 1405. In Pal. Soc., ii. pl. 59, Florence Queen Dido meets him in the cave,

MS., A.D. 1466, Sallust, the ! is closely ap-
He dubs him Dux Trojanus.

proximating to a simple colon.
And well he alters here the word,
For in this station, sure,

MS. in library of Duke of Portland, Wel.
Pius Æneas were absurd,

beck, being an old catalogue of the library, And Pater premature.

A.D. 1400-5.—The symbol is used throughThe jest is, as your reviewer says, borrowed out as a very light punctuation, something

less than a comma, e.g. froin the sixth T'atler. It is further note.

Here & is 4, whereas in some press marks worthy that this Tatler was written by Steele, who got the said jest in conversation given in 'Facsimiles' by New Pal. Soc., pt. i.) from Addison. And it was this in The l'atler it is 5 of same centuries. Lower down in this that disclosed to Addison the fact that Steele MS, also occurs, which may account for the

mod. 7 side by side with 8. was writing these papers, as Johnson tells in his life of Addison. D. C. TOVEY.

No dotted, no exclamation marks. (My

extract in the plate is not facsimile.) Although the lines of Collins and Pope are Pal. Soc., i. pl. 134.–Polybius, 1416. This not harmonious, Tennyson, I think, was too reads ". So throughout, suggesting that severe in condemning sigmatism.

open Greek MSS. have also had single-dotted iota Ovid's Metamorphoses,' and in the first line (), though it is peculiar to this MS.

Coming which I read (viii. 52) the letter s is repeated after centuries of double-dotting, how can more frequently than in the two English this be regarded as anything but a simplificaverses which Tennyson condemns :

tion or variation of the practice? What but Gnossiaci possem castris insistere regis.

ignorance of the usages of MSS. could permit In the Greek Testament (Mark X. 52) are the anyone to invent an ætiological explanation?

Wycliffe's Old Testament, vellum MS., words: η πίστις σου σέσωκέ σε.

about 1420, has at Judith, cap. viii., a mark The following beautiful lines of Shakspeare after interrogation. But also it has the have the sound of s all through them :

same mark at another place where there Uttering such dulcet and harmonious breath, is a statement preceding.

And the ornaThat the rude sea grew civil at her song; mented colon 11 serves all purposes ; also at And certain stars shot madly from their spheres Ps. cxxxviii. 17, and last verse of Ps. lxxxiv. To hear the sea-naid's music.

The initial 3 in ye is not of the same shape as Much of Ovid has passed into current use the initial of the (b). Nothing is better known than the following: Autograph of Thomas à Kempis, 1441.Omne solum forti patria est.-'Fasti.'

C. Hirsche on p. 10 of the preface to his

edition of the Imitatio Christi' (Berlin, Fas est et ab hoste doceri. • Metamorphoses,' iv. 428.

1891) mentions that the scheme of punctua

tion in this autograph of Thomas à Kempis Tempus edax rerum. “Metamorphoses,' xv. 234. (A.D. 1441) is in crescendo order 12; and &

longer pause still is indicated by a capita Scholars, perhaps, do not care for him so letter to the next word, sometimes with, somemuch as they used to do in former ages. times without the point. Mr. Bernays says:

E. YARDLEY. • He calls the third of these flexa, and says

that the Greek name is cliuis or clivis [sic],

and that it is a musical sign borrowed for PUNCTUATION IN MSS. AND PRINTED

literature." BOOKS.

Why should Thomas a Kempis be supposed (See 10th S. ii. 301, 462; iv. 144.)

to have borrowed a sign from musical notaAs in previous cases, the superior figures tions when he had 13 in every conceivable refer to illustrations at the end of the article. variety, as the common light punctuation

Cotton MS. Tiber A. xiv.-Bede's Historia of the manuscripts used in his time? Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum.' Second half

F. W. G. FOAT, D.Lit. of eighth century or first half of ninth.

(To be continued.)

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! In Saxon manuscripts abbreviations were | Latin, punctuation is absent, but the circumnumerous, and the circumflex was in com- flex is used. In an indenture of 1374 the mon use; the colon, or probably its equiva- observance of "points" is practically nil, lent, thus : • was also used; but neither comma but for an occasional full stop. The circumnor semicolon, unless what I have supposed fex plays its allotted part, and it may be to represent a colon was really a semicolon. observed that the dotting of the “i” is Of course a " period” was used.

frequently a stroke, right to left, thus ). In In Scottish written documents (Latin) of 1415 the circumflex is used, punctuating 1200 we find the period and colon—the period symbols being practically absent in a charter usually, and the circumflex always, indicate of the date named. ing that a word is abridged. In 1236, in a A Homer I have, in Greek, printed in Latin charter, the circumflex serves its usual 1535, has punctuating marks : comma, semipurpose ; while the period is the only punc- colon, and full stop; the contracting symbol tuating mark. In a charter of 1370, also in T take to be the circumflex, but the lettering


I may

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used is to the reader most difficult to make “Heu, quotidie pejus : hæc colonia retroout. In · Le Antichita della Citta de Roma, versus crescit, tanquam coda vituli !" The printed in 1580, a comma, semicolon, colon, and only difference is that in English the calf is full period are used in punctuation, the cir- represented by his mother. I should like .cumflex indicating that a word is abbreviated. very much to know whether this provincial Printing done at Frankfort in 1584 has all Latin expression is still heard in Italy or the punctuating symbols known to us, and in any other Latin country, the circumflex as a contraction mark. In

A. L. MAYHEW. Godwin's Catalogue, printed in 1615, the comma, colon, and semicolon are used, a full the close of Vathek'a phrase which recalls,

BECKFORD AND RABELAIS.—There is towards period being utilized as an abbreviating sign in some measure, a passage in Rabelais which as well as a punctuating one, such as in the for them. In "T: P. Terentii Comoediæ," implacable Carathis sees Vathek and Nou

has already been discussed in N. & Q.' The printed at Leipsic in 1616, comma, colon, ronihar at the moment when the terrorsemicolon, and period are used, the last

stricken girl is clinging to the Caliph :marking an abbreviated word, as does the

Alors Carathis, sans descendre de son chameau, circumflex.

et écumante de rage au spectacle qui s'offrait à sa I have a volume containing questions, &c., chaste vue, éclata sans ménagement. Monstre à relative to book i. of Bonaventura, printed, deux têtes et à quatre jambes, s'écria-t-elle, que I think, in Italy, about the year 1591. The signifie tout ce bel entortillage ? N'as-tu pas honte contraction sign is som imes a full period, d'empoigner ce tendrop au lieu des scep des

. but usually the circumflex, the punctuating sultans préadamites ?'" marks being a colon and period-no semi. The passage will be_found at pp. 158-9 of colon or comma that I can find.

the edition of 1834. For the Rabelaisian and mention that a hyphened word is indicated Shaksperean phrase see gth S. vii. 162. in two ways; thus and a dash from right

WILLIAM E. A. AXON. to left ). It has been said that Caxton had

WARD FAMILY.-I am afraid it is rather the merit of introducing into this country late to reply to a query of forty-five years the Roman punctuation, as used in Italy. If ago; but I find on looking at 'N. & Q'

for this was the case, I do not think it was in 14 January, 1860 (2nd S. ix. 30), a MR. ALEX general use in 1491, the year of Caxton's J. Ellis inquired for information relating to death, with the exception of Haarlem and the Wards of Burton-on-Trent, one of whom Mentz. Is it not a fact that printing existed married Anne Pole (a niece of Cardinal Pole). at Oxford about ten years previous to 1491 ? If Mr. Ellis is still living, I shall be pleased ALFRED CHAS. JONAS.

to give him what information I can on the Thornton Heath.

matter. I may add that I shall be glad to [Printing is acknowledged to have begun at correspond with any reader who may possess Oxford nut later than 1478.]

any genealogical information relating to the

Wards of Burton-on-Trent, and to give in “GROWING DOWN LIKE A cow's TAIL." - I exchange any details I may have. find this phrase set down in 'E.D.D.' as

FRANK WARD. peculiar to Antrim and Down. Most people, 38, Wordsworth Road, Small Heath, I think, would refuse to look upon the phrase

Birminghani. as peculiar to any dialect, and would stoutly [If the A. J. ELLIS mentioned is the well-known maintain that it was in general use wherever linguistic scholar, he died in 1890, as the Supthe English language is spoken.

plenient to the 'D.N.B.' shows.] amused the other day to find that the ex

BOLLES : CONYERS. I have some printed pression is as old as Petronius. And doubt-notes of the family of George Bolles and less it is centuries older. I was reading Dr. Katherine Conyers which were bound up in Bigg's delightful book "The Church's Task a Breeches Bible. They date from 1588, and under the Roman Empire,' p. 67, and there would be interesting to any descendants. I came upon a quotation from Petronius,

ED. DARKE. *Cena,' 44. Dr. Bigg says:

" Let us listen to

14A, Great Marlborough Street, W. the Campanian farmer......He is grumbling about a prolonged drought; the colony, he " TOWERS OF SILENCE."-Sir George. Bird. says, is growing downwards like a cow's tail.” wood, in a letter to The Times, 8 August, Well, I thought, here the learned doctor is attributes the invention of the phrase playfully paraphrasing. This homely Engtowers of silence," applied to the dakhumas lish expression cannot surely be found in (vault, place of the dead, tomb), or bastionPetronius. But there it is, all the same : I like edifices on which the Parsees of the Dis

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