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is mention of Thomas Wakerley, married to On the other hand, I do not know of any

Kateren,” daughter of Sir Wm. FitzWilliam. evidence which would warrant our acceptance She married secondly Sir John Skipworth. of the statement that the signal, as written In the book 'Early Lincoln Wills, by A. by Nelson, was worded as Mr. Thompson has Gibbons, there is mention of Sir John de la put it. And not only is this unsupported by Warre, of Wakerley, in Northants, in 1345, any valid evidence, but it is-as appears to who refers to a family of the naine living me-entirely contrary to the spirit as well there. A will of John de Sutton in 1391 as to the letter of anything that Nelsop is also mentions the

My cousin known to have written. J. K. LAUGHTON. Alderman Wakerley, of Leicester, informs me

The correct version is, "England expects that the Wakerleys were lords of the manor

every man will do his duty." There was no of Walton, near Peterborough, of whom was

" that."

“Will” is much more forcible than John Wakerley, high sheriff in 1425. If any to do”; it implies a conviction that each man of your readers could favour me with assist will eagerly respond to the solemn appeal made ance, I would duly thank them and you.

to him. J. G. V. WAKERLEY.

"To do" implies a stern command, Sherwood, Nottingham.

such as might be addressed to hesitating or lukewarm men. I have seen this question discussed in books and newspapers often

' Beplies.

enough. The version I give is in "sailors

vernacular":"that” would spoil it; “to do" NELSON'S SIGNAL.

is too stiff for between decks. W. R. H. (10th S. iv. 321.)

NELSON'S UNIFORM (10th S. iv. 326).—If, as NOTWITHSTANDING MR. C. A. WARD'S is not unlikely, the pictures were varnished positive and italicized assertion that "Eng- with varnish either originally yellow or that land expects that every man will do his turned yellow, the blue of the uniform duty” is not the right form, there is absolutely would appear green, I think. Or perhaps no room to doubt that it is; and I say this, the blue pigment underwent some chemical not on the evidence of a man who-nearly change in itself.

J. T. F. eighty years after the battle-wrote that his Durham. father had told him that he had heard his

Artists' mistakes in colour, such as those grandfather relate, &c.; but on the contemporary evidence of the ships' logs, which spoken of by H. H. H., are unfortunately in some instances give the code numbers.

frequent. I have seen many, the result Any one who wishes to verify them, with the generally of copying from black and white.

HAROLD MALET, Col. flags which denoted them, may see them in the October issue of the Journal of the Royal GIBBON, CH. LVI. NOTE 81: 'Agtponé LEKUS United Service Institution, or in my own (10th S. iv. 167, 272).- MR. R. PIERPOINT'S Nelson Memorial.' It is incorrect to say suggested explanation of the passage in the that the “Signalling Lieutenant"-Pasco – Alexias' quoted by Gibbon appears to me had been disabled. A few hours later Pasco not merely ingenious, but the only one satiswas severely wounded in the battle ; but we factory in every respect. He is to be con. have his distinct authority (Nicolas, vii. 150) gratulated the niore as Anna Comnena's for the statement that Nelson gave the signal sentence of four words has proved hitherto to him; but it was then worded England a stumbling-block to many a profound scholar. confides that every man will do his duty"; But in order to substantiate his interpretaand that confides was changed to expects, tion it is needful to trace back carefully the on his suggestion, in order to save time. one mainly doubtful word, through modern

Independent of Pasco's positive statement, and Byzantine to classic Greek, seeking to there are other very good reasons for accept- ascertain whether there exists a continuity ing this story as correct: first, because or connexion sufficient to establish the mean

England confides"-or The country con- ing of the passage in the way suggested. fides —is a phrase which seems to have run Du Cange, sub v. dotponedékn (thus, in the readily from Nelson's pen (it occurs not un- feminine gender-erroneously, as I think), frequently, in his correspondence); and, confines himself to placing after the words secondly, because it fits in with the words in the 'Alexias' the rendering of Latin which were certainly used, and will not fit translators : "Astriformem securiculam aurea in with those which Mr. WARD prefers. No connexam fibula. Hoeschelius, eidos , Tepe

, είδος περιone could possibly have written "England Separov, esse putat, seu replavyéviov Kópuov,

| δεραίουπεριαυχένιον κόσμον, confides every man to do his duty."

uti loquitur Philo. He is unable to offer

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any other explanation, but adds, "sed hæc Tpané(Lov – Tpané uv, and maīs - maidlov

, . παιδίον. nodum non solvunt.”

taldiv; and later, in modern times, the terThe "tolerable meaning" which Gibbon minal 'v is also omitted. Therefore in Anna "endeavoured to grope out” is equally un- Comnena, we may read αστροπελέκιν for satisfactory, and even more arbitrary. He is a otpoteléklov, from a supposed primitive entirely mistaken in asserting that Portius form dotporéhekus. explaias Kepavyós as "a flash of lightning," The last form is not met with in any as well as in advancing that “Xpvoáplov is a extant classic or early Byzantine text; but golden crown." Spuoádcov is the later Greek there are sufficient indications to warrant the diminutive form of xovoós, and means simply supposition that some such alternative desiggold ; Dedeuévov jeta xovoapiov=bound with nation for Kepavvòs must have been in use in (set in) gold. His rendering, therefore, the spoken language or in the popular songs

a radiated crown of gold,” is altogether of early times. All scholars are aware that fantastic.

the classic texts which have come down to With regard to the ordinary meaning of us have preserved but a portion of the wealth the word áotporedékn (as he spells it), of the Greek tongue in its various ancient Du Cange refers to the 'Corona Preciosa' (the forms and dialects. But that the bolt of earliest dictionary, or rather concise vocabu- Jupiter was spoken of otherwise than Kepavvo's lary, of modern Greek, first published in alone is manifest from the following passages Venice, 1527), to Simon Portius ('Dict. Lat. Gr. in Sophocles (Ed. Col.,' 1515) :barbarum et litterale,' 1635), and to Girolamo Germano (Vocabolario Italiano et Greco,'

στράψαντα χειρός της ανική του βέλη. 1622), all of whom interpret it by “fulmen, And in Aristophanes ('Av.,'1239) :κεραυνός.” Portius adds the verb αστροπελεκώ =κεραυνοβολώ, and the participle αστροπελε

όπως μη σου γένος πανώλεθρον κημένος = κεραυνωθείς. Du Cange might also

Διός μακέλλη παν αναστρέψη δίκη, have referred to Meursius ("Glossarium Gr. in which the thunderbolt is referred to as the barbarum,' 1614), who interprets in the arrow, and as the mattock of Jove. Elsewhere same sense, and gives the word correctly it occurs as Aiòs Múotiế, the scourge of Jove. αστροπελέκιον. I have gone through these the earliest voca- and an axe is not great; and Télekus Alòs or

The distance, however, between a mattock bularies of modern Greek for the purpose Lotporémekus may well have been preserved already stated, and not because of any doubt in the spoken tongue up to early

Byzantine as to the meaning of the word, which is the

times. In this connexion, therefore, we usual one for thunderbolt in the spoken Greek of even to-day. It is a beautiful and encounter no great difficulty. most poetic form of expression. In folk-lore,

It is not equally easy to associate the and in the popular sougs, 8 'A OTPONedékes is vocable in question with the name given to a famous klepht, so surnamed for his thunder- a precious stone. In that acceptation it is bolt - like onslaughts on the Turkish op- Pollux, Suidas, Hesychius, or Photius, nor

not met with in the ancient dictionaries of pressor. Also é 'Artparoyiávons, the light- in the 'Etymologica. Nor does Theophrastus ning John. It should here be stated that, if we suppose The earliest instance I have been able to

(De Lapid.') refer to any stone of that name. a κεραυνος (κεραυνίτης) in the passage under consideration we should discover of Kepavvo's (Kepavvirns) being thus read αστροπέλεκυν, and not αστροπελέκυν, 88

used is that of Clement of Alexandria

(A.D. 200, nine conturies earlier than

a "' foot-note the editor refers to another read. Anna Comnena), who in Pædag. ii. 12

writes : ing, åotporedékiv, which he rejects, which, however, is the correct one. In the Greek « Τοιούτοι ταϊς ηλιθίαις οι λίθοι γυναιξί language the tendency to attenuation is περιδούμενοι τους όρμους, και τους περιδεραίους observable at an early stage, as in the classic έγκατακλειόμενοι, αμέθυσοι, και κεραυνίται, use of βιβλίον for βίβλος. Such diminutive

kai idorides." forms become more and more constant in Byzantine and later Greek; and, moreover, The evidence thus forthcoming of the use We find that by the operation of a well- of Kepavvions as applied to lidos is all the known linguistic law, that of phonetic decay, more important when considered in conthrough laziness in pronouncing, first the nexion with the passage in Pliny (xxxvii. 51) of the diminutive termination is dropped, where we meet with the name cerqunia for 28 in TuposTupiov-Tupív, and tpáneathe first time, though in its Latin form; it is

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a mere transcription in Latin letters* of a worked stones, which were supposed to have Greek word evidently mentioned by the two dropped from the clouds. Greek writers whom Pliny quotes, Zeno- From the foregoing it becomes evident that themis and Sotacus. We have thus sufficient the Byzantines, in accepting a new name warrant for accepting as certain that the for Kepavvòs, or in giving more general designation (η) κεραυνία λίθος or () κεραυνίτης | currency to an already extant alternative dioos was in common use with ancient designation, αστροπελέκης, renamed αστροGreeks. The fact, moreover, that Sotacus TERÉKlov the kepavvions lidos. affirmed that those stones

áresemble axes In conclusion, perhaps I may be permitted [nedékels) in shape” supplies the link con- to note the following curious fact : Marbode necting these terms with the Byzantine (Marbodus or Marbodeus), Bishop of Rennes dotporede klov, if applied to a stone.

(+ 1123), a famous Latinist of his time, ren. Now, this statement of Sotacus, and what dered into Latin verse for the use of Philippe immediately follows in Pliny, i.e., that a Auguste a work on gems, which was said to certain kind of such stones is much in request have been composed originally in Greek by for the practices of magic, it never being Evax, an Arabian physician. This reputed found in any place but one that has been original is not known to exist, but the 'De struck by lightning."; that the thunder- gemmarum lapidumque preciosorum formis stone brontea (55) “falls with thunder"; that naturis atque viribus opusculum,' was first the shower-stone ombria (65). “falls with printed in 1511, and several times since then. showers and lightning much in the same The Lubeck edition of 1575, which pretends manner as ceraunia" -- all this, which the to be the first, bears this title : ‘De gemmis uncritical and credulous Fliny, narrates, scriptum Evacis Regis Arabum ; oiim : with much else of the same value, is, on poeta quodam in Carmine redditum.' It is the face of it, a mixture of fact and included in Migne's 'Patrologia '(vol. clxxi.) superstition, of geology and folk • lore, in accompanied by a quaint old French version, which it is possible to pick up the end of and the Poëmes de Marbode' were recently the web of scientific truth. Clearly, the republished, with a metrical French transla. name of Kepavviens must have been applied tion by S. Ropartz, at Rennes, 1873. In primarily to meteorites, which no doubt gave $ 30 (28), ' De Ceraunio,' the following lines rise at first to all kinds of superstitious occur :beliefs and magical impostures. The fall of Ventorum rabie cum turbidus aestuat aer, meteorites, being a fact of no rare occurrence, Cum tonat horrendum, cum fulgurat igneus aether, was then received as the only available Nubibus illisis, coelo cadit iste lapillus, explanation of the source and nature of Cujus apud Graecos exstat de fulmine nomen. certain other stones, bright, usually polished Illis quippe locis quos constat fulmine tactos,

Iste Ceraunios est Graeco sermone vocatus ; and shaped-to wit the çelts, stone imple- Nam quod nos fulnien, Graeci dixere ceraunon. ments, arrow - heads, and ares, which to Qui caste gerit hunc, a fulmine non ferictur, this day are popularly known in the English Nec domus, aut villae, quibus assuerit lapis ille, &c. language as ax-stone,t storm-stone, thunder. The good bishop might well have taken all stone, thunder-hanumer, thunder-axe, or this bodily from Pliny.

f simply thunderbolt (see Century Dict.'

Since the above was written, MR. PIER. and 'New Eng. Dict.'); It is not difficult to conceive how, by, a confusion POINT has kindly informed me that he has

met with mention of the "ceraunia” stone, of facts and a muddling of ideas, certain besides Pliny, in some of the later. Latin precious stones, iridescent, luminous, and

writers: Claudian('Laus Serenae, '74);Sidonius with a flashing effect, came to be included in Apollinaris ("Carm., v. 49); Aelius Lampria loosely defined category of minerals and dius ('Heliogab.,' c. 33). Columella ( De Re


Rust.,' iii. 2) speaks of a kind of grapes as * So also the names of certain other stones


J. GENNADIUS. enumerated by Pliny (ib. 47, 48, 49, 50, 55, 65, 73), asteria, astrion, astriotes, astrobolos, brontia, The reply signed ROBERT PIERPOINT re ombria, astrapaea, from dotýp, a star, Bpovrú, minds me of my own suggestion for the thunder, oßpos, a shower, a otpath, lightning. Baskish word izarri, meaning marble,

+ Parker Cleaveland (Elem. Treatise of Mineral.,' namely, that it is formed from izar and second ed., Boston, N.E., 1822, pp. 269, 340), referring to the stones mentioned by bliny, supposes they arri, literally, star - stone, alluding to the are varieties of jasper or of the "axe-stone."

shining specks which characterize this # H. Mandrell (* Journey from Aleppo to Jeru. product of the mountains. For the contracgalem," 1897) describes certain stones“ vulgarly

tion there is the model of sagardo=cider, call'd thunder-stones."

formed from sagar=apple, and ardo, a variant




of arnoswine. In Guipuscoa there is a moun

“We have no wish to rake up old stories, nor tain called izarraitz, whence, as we are told unnecessarily wound personal feelings, but when by Agustin

Cardaberaz, the marble used in folly and presumption soar too high, and men and the church of St. Ignatius of Loyola, adjoin- give them a yentle set down there are several indi.

women forget themselves, it is quite necessary to ing his birth-house, was carried. The name viduals capering and vapouring about London just means marble-rock, peña de marmol. Mr. now, who want a little of our wholesome discipline, Sproole, of Exeter College, Oxford, once and we think no season can be better adapted for told me that the reason why the Romans stripping pretenders than this, when the town is called the sea marmor was because the empty, and the weather sufficiently warm to pre

risk of their taking cold. surface of the sea often presents a streaki- "The first person who comes under our eye is ness resembling the markings of marble. Mr. Henry Brougham (whose birth-place has re

E. S. DODGSON. cently been fixed in a garret in Edinburgh), whose

friends and admirers flatter their idol by sanctionBROUGHAM CASTLE (10th S. iv. 229, 293, 329). ing his pretensions to be called Henry Brougham, of -Your correspondent T. says that in replies Esq., as if it were an ancient domain to which

Brougham Hall, in the county of Westmoreland, at the second reference there is some con- Mr. Brougham had succeeded from a long line of fusion as to the identity of Brougham Castle and Brougham Hall. Will he kindly indicate "Mr. Brougham, the grandfather of the late where, and by whom, Brougham Castle and Queen's Attorney-General, was a most amiable Brougham Hall, which he erroneously states man, and was the

owner of a small farm-house “have nothing to do with each other," have Brougham-hall-he was a solicitor and sort of agent

(called, we believe, the Bird's-nest), now nicknamed been mixed up”? It is implied_that the to the Duke of Portland, who greatly esteemed him, connexion of the Broughams with Brougham “Through his Grace's interest Mr. Brougham had dates from the year (1726) in which the Hall an attic apartnient granted him iu Windsor Castle, was bought by the first Lord Brougham's at which time he had also a house in Castle-yard, grandfather. But Brougham is only another


“The eldest son of Mr. Brougham, the same form of Burgham, and of Broracum or nobleman appointed to the sinecure place of SerBranovacum, à Roman station which Gough jeant at Arms to the Lord High Treasurer—a post, has located here. The estate of Burgham or netting somewhat under 1001. per annum. Brougham belonged to the Brougham family

"About fifty years since, this Mr. Brougham (the before the Conquest. This is proved from father of the present Barrister) was engaged with the fact that the earliest possessors had concern with Mr. Howard, who afterwards became

a Mr. Callmell, of Albemarle-street, in a gaming Brougham at the time of the Conquest, and the mirror of Whiggery, and Protestant Duke of continued to hold it afterwards by the tenure Norfolk. A large sum of money was lost by Mr. of drengage (Burke's 'Peerage'). Gilbert de Howard to Messrs. Brougham and Callmell, and Broham, about the fourth year of King

John, diately left London and retired to Edinburgh,

why, we really know not-Mr. Broughan immegranted to Robert de Vipont one-half of the where he married, and

subsequently resided. town of Brougham, together with the ad- “Mr. Broughan his son (the Barrister) had two vowson of the rectory—but no part of the uncles-of one of whom we know nothing-the manor-although the castle, then a single other was beneficed by the Duke of Portland, and tower, which was afterwards enlarged by

is a most worthy and respectable clergyman in

Ireland. Roger Clifford, Vipont's successor, stands

“Mr. Brougham, Sen. had likewise three within the manor of Brougham (ibid.). daughters, one married we believe to the late Mr, Hutchinson, in his 'Excursion to the Lakes, Meux, another to Mr. Lowndes, a solicitor, and the informs us that on the outer gate of Brougham other to the late Mr. Aylmer, also a lawyer. Castle there were discernible in his time the Brougham it is not our intention to speak, nor do

Of the marriage, &c. of the present Mr. arms of the Vallibus, or Vaux family, being we niean in the slightest degree to impugn the chequy and gules." Vaux is, of course, the respectability of his family-we merely mean that second name in the title of the present Lord when Mr. Brougham is talked of as proprietor of Brougham and Vaux.

Brougham Hall, a fine property in the north of J. HOLDEN MACMICHAEL.

England, it is necessary that the world should

know how much of the boasting is founded in In reference to the mixing up” of truth.” Brougham Castle and Brougham Hall men

A. H. ARKLE. tioned by your correspondent T., I subjoin a CROWN STREET, Soho (10th S. iv. 326).-I cutting I happened to find in an old scrap- must confess to some degree of scepticism book (I do not know name or date, but evi- with regard to “Elde Lane" or "Elde Štrate," dently between 1821 and 1830) which appears as it is commonly written, being the ancient to confirm the story. At any rate, it is appellation of Hog Lane, or Crown Street, interesting from a genealogical point of which was partly in Soho and partly in

St. Giles's. It is said to be so called in


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ancient documents, but I suspect these docu- whether situate in Broad Street, or at the ments existed only in Parton's imagination, corner of Rose Street, Soho. or else that he confused the lane with the

W. F. PRIDEAUX. authentic “ Elde Strate” (Old Street), in the ‘LES MISÉRABLES': ITS TOPOGRAPHY (104 parish of St. Giles without Cripplegate.. A S. iv. 309).-H. H. B. is right in his surmises ;

strate” means a paved road, and it is im- the old Rue des Postes was renamed Roe probable that a thoroughfare of this descrip: Lhomond, 27 February, 1867, and Rue Neuve tion would have sunk into the condition of Ste. Geneviève became Rue Tournefort, the country lane that we see depicted by 24 August, 1864. The Collège Rollin was Aggas. It is a practice of topographers to No. 34, Rue des Postes, but in 1823 it was copy from their predecessors without any called Collège Ste. Barbe, and did not take examination of evidence, and after a time the name of Rollin till after the Revolution fiction acquires the force of fact.

of 1830. Rue Copeau is now Rue Lacépède ; This is shown by the statement that Hog and Rue du Petit Banquier is Rue Watteau Lane, about the year 1762, received the name The Rue de Pontoise has existed since 1772, of Crown Street, and was called so after the and still remains. Rue du Battoir—there

Rose and Crown” Tavern at the corner of should be a comma between “Battoir” and Rose Street. It was, I believe, Cunningham “St. Victor” in H. H. B.'s query-retained who first made a suggestion to this effect in its name till 17 January, 1894, since when it his 'Handbook of London.' This suggestion is called Rue de Quatrefages. The Rae has now developed into a statement of fact. St. Victor of the present day is only part of But Hatton, in his 'New View of London,' the old street; a portion has been renamed 1708, i. 270, in describing the boundaries of Rue Jussieu, and a portion is now Rue Linné. St. Giles's parish, calls the thoroughfare Having made Old Paris my special study “Hog Lane or Crown Street," so the name is for fifteen years, I consider myself rather an nearly sixty years older than Cunningham authority on the subject, and shall be glad imagined. That it continued to be known as to give any readers of N. & Q.,' who may Hog Lane is only in accordance with human be searching in our city, any information in nature, which dislikes innovation of this kind.

my power.

ROBERT B. DOUGLAS. Up to the present day I always think of the 64, Rue des Martyrs, Paris. thoroughfare connecting Paddington with Islington as the New Road, in which faith I

RIPLEY ARMS (10th S. iii. 167 ; iv. 314).was brought up: It requires an effort to When Edward Baines wrote his ' History of recall the fact that years ago an inventive the County of York,' 1822, there was in the genius split the road into Marylebone great staircase of Ripley, Castle a superb and Euston. In olden days these mnemonic Venetian window of stained glass, ornamented exercises were still more difficult, as the with a series of escutcheons displaying the streets were not universally labelled. But quarterings and intermarriages of the in 1762, if Cunningham is correct, the local Ingilby family during a period of 443 years authorities jogged people's memories by Is it not probable, if this window still exists

. fixing up a tablet with the inscription, "This that the Ripley arms will be found quartered is Crown Street, 1762," and after that date here with those of the Sir Thomas de Ingilby Hog Lane was forgotten by map-makers.

who, in 1378, married the heiress of the As regards the name, Maitland, History Ripley family, and then came into possession of London,' 1739, p. 760, says :

of the estate? The Ingilby Amcotts arms “The Gallows was erected at the north end of where also those of Ripley, co. York, are said

are given in Burke's

General Armory the Garden Wall belonging to the Hospital opposite to be Per chevron, dovetailed or and vert, the Pound, where at present the Crown Tavern is situate, between the ends of St. Giles's High three lions rampant counterchanged. Crest, Street and Hog Lane."

a demi-lion rampant, reguardant, vert, col. Hatton, in his list of London streets, New lared argent, holding between the paws an View,' i. 22, gives “ Crown Yard, at the N. escutcheon per chevron, or and azure. end of Hog Lane, by St. Giles's Pound." He

J. HOLDEN MACMICHAEL also gives, New View,' i. 70, “Rose and HENRY ALVAREZ, S.J.: HENRY ALWAY Crown Yard, at the northerly side of the (10th S. iv. 126). - In the Winchester College broad part of St. Giles's Street.” It is evident, Register of Scholars the marginal note to therefore, that Crown Street derived its name the name of Henry Alway (elected 1534) is from the “Crown" Tavern at its northern "Sacerdos,” and this note seems to support end, and not from the “Rose and Crown," Mr. WAINEWRIGHT'S conjecture that Henry which was a difforent place of entertainment, Alvarez, S.J., was the same man.

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