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WE must request correspondents desiring information on family matters of only private interest to affix their names and addresses to their queries, in order that answers may be sent to them direct.

DIRECTORY OF FOREIGN PEERS.-I desire to compile a directory of foreign peers resident in Great Britain and Ireland, and shall be glad if all those to whom my proposed work would apply will kindly send me particulars of the titles and decorations they may hold, with dates of creation, arms, genealogical details (i.e., dates of births, marriages, and deaths), giving, where possible, the remotest ancestor, and the history and traditions of the family.

BARON SETON OF ANDRIA. Seton Cottage, Victoria Road, Great Yarmouth. THOMAS HOOD AND DOUGLAS JERROLD.At the 1868 Exhibition of National Portraits at the South Kensington Museum the following three portraits were exhibited. I should feel grateful if any reader of N. & Q.' could tell me where those portraits now are:

No. 593. Thomas Hood. To waist; small size; seated in arm-chair; full face. Millboard, 12 by 9in. [No artist's name given; lent by Tom Hood.]

No. 594. Thomas Hood. Three-quarter size, seated to 1. near writing table, pencil in hand. Canvas, 50 by 40 in. [No artist's name given, but apparently the one taken at Ostend by Lewis in 1838. Lent by Dr. William Elliot.]

parish of St. Bartholomew the Great, E.C.,
according to direction from the Chamber-
lain's Office," in 1732, and was
annually until 1825? The amount distributed
was 77., in small amounts of about 2s. 6d., to
poor persons in the parish.

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STEER FAMILY.-In 4th S. x. 168, 303, there Hunter's references to this family. are Familie Minorum Gentium' gives a pedi gree of Steer. Where were the nine children of William Steer, of London, and afterwards of Northampton, by his wife Anne, daughter of Samuel Rastall, baptized? Their daughter Ann married 31 January, 1782, William Drury

afterwards Drury-Lowe-of Locko Park, Derbyshire. She is given as dying, in 1848. at the age of 104. The date and church of baptism would be interesting. Where was her brother Charles Steer, who died 13 September, 1810, and who is said to have been of Chichester, buried? Can any of the blanks in Hunter be filled in? Who now represents this family?



JOHN BOWLE, D.D.-Is there in existence any portrait of John Bowle, D.D., Dean of Salisbury 1620-30, and Bishop of Rochester 1630-37? If so, where can it be seen? A. R. MALDEN.


No. 597. Douglas Jerrold. Bust, seated to 1. pro"" Canvas, file; signed at back; painted 1839. 24 by 20. [By William Bewick; lent by Mrs. Noseda.]




any of your readers kindly inform me, in
their opinion, the most accurate way of
ascertaining the population of a country
parish in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and
eighteenth centuries? Where can the returns
of Archbishop Sheldon's religious census be
R. L. E.

"GOD'S BLESSING FARM."-Having observed in a paragraph of a local newspaper, under the head of Wimborne Minster, the singular name of "God's Blessing Farm," I shall be glad if your readers can throw any light upon the way in which the name acquired.


A. M. H.

KING'S MONEY.-Could you give me any information concerning the origin of "the King's money," sometimes described as "the King's letter money' and "the King's bounty," which was first distributed in the

Who wrote
Rhyming Reminiscences
Couplets. By Geoffrey Grin, Gent.," Lon-
don, 1826? The author was apparently an


E.B. In the churchyard of Laleham is an inscription to "the wife of George Hartwell, of this parish, E.B." Can any of your

readers tell me what E.B. means?

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W. B-M.

ADMIRAL JOHN GREY AND THE RELIEF OF In two families descended from DERRY. Admiral Grey there is a tradition that he took a leading part in the breaking of the boom at Derry. I always thought that had been done by Micaiah Browning. Is there any foundation for the Grey tradition? Any particulars about this officer's career, or about his ancestors, will be very acceptable.


TALE OF RUSSIAN LIFE.-Can any of your readers aid me in finding the title of a book I read with much interest about sixty odd years ago, although I should not perhaps care so much about it now? It was a tale of Russian social life, not a translation. The author


was, I think, or had been, in our naval service. I do not remember the plot or any of the incidents, but have a vivid memory of the names of some of the characters-among others, the Boyard Youriwich Millolaski; Fedka Chomiak, a peasant; a Zaporelska Cossack; and a Zemski Jariska (Russian tax collector). Perhaps some one conversant with Russian stories may be able to identify the book. S. E. W.

W. COLE, CAMBRIDGE ANTIQUARY.-Can any reader tell me which of the works of William Cole, the Cambridge antiquary, contains copies of old Cambridgeshire (and other) wills; also where his works are to be seen? I have looked in the British Museum Catalogue, but can find nothing to guide me. R. M. HEBREW TRADITIONS. Can any of your readers give Rabbinic authority for the following traditions ?—

1. The mark of Cain was his skin becoming black.

2. The wife of Ham was a descendant of Cain, and some of his children were black. 3. The water at the poles was frozen to expedite the drying up of the Deluge.

Y. N.

SLAVERY.-Could you refer me to any works giving information on the following headings? 1. The relation between slavery and commerce. 2. The fact that the achievements of Greece in art were possible because slaves conducted her commerce. 3. The relation of Egypt's commercial prosperity to slavery. KRUG.


Skeat, to whom all students of English are under such a vast debt of obligation, kindly expound this difficulty for me in your columns? It may be stated thus: When did the final e, pronounced in Chaucer's day, cease to be sounded in English? What of the final e, for example, in 'The King's Quair'? STUDENT.

SIR PHILIP JENNINGS CLERKE, BART. According to Burke's 'Extinct Baronetcies he was of Duddlestone, Salop, was created a baronet 26 October, 1774, and died 22 April, 1788. I should be glad to obtain the date of his birth and the particulars of his parentage and career. G. F. R. B.

BASIL MONTAGU. This octogenarian scholar (1770-1851), who had known a good many of the most interesting people of his time, is stated in Charles Knight's 'Cyclo


pædia of Biography' to have left, amongst his hundred volumes of MSS., both memoir of himself and his contemporaries, and a diary. Is it known in whose possession these autobiographical records now are? The account of Montagu in the 'D.N.B.' is silent about them. CYRIL.

WESTLAND MARSTON.-Some years ago it was stated to me by a near relative of Dr. Westland Marston, the eminent dramatic poet, who died fifteen years ago, that the poet owed his descent to the same ancestor as "Sarah Hoggins," the village maiden of Bolas Magna, in Shropshire, who married the Marquis of Exeter, and was the heroine of Tennyson's 'Lord of Burleigh.' I should be greatly obliged by any information as to the accuracy of this statement. JOSEPH RODGERS.

12, St. Hilda's, Whitby.

SHINGLE BERRIES. In a letter of my mentions to a Liverpool correspondent "about grandfather W. Fowler, 30 August, 1810, he 2 January, 1811, he writes: "The shingle half a pint of the red shingle berries"; and on berries are exactly what I wanted......much obliged......for necklace and berries." rather think that W. F. wanted the "berries" for a necklace for his daughter Rebecca. I have not found the term in any glossary or dictionary that I have consulted. What are "shingle berries"? J. T. F. Durham.

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SAMUEL WHITCHURCH, POET. Can any reader of N. & Q.' help me to particulars of Samuel Whitchurch, a poet who flourished, or at any rate wrote, at the beginning of the last century? He and one of his poems, several times by Joseph Lancaster in letters The Battle of Instruction,' are mentioned written in 1811 and 1812. DAVID SALMON.

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OPEN-AIR PULPITS.-Lately at the Hotel Brufani, Perugia, I overheard an American lady exclaiming, "That lovely open-air pulpit -I never saw one before. I really must go and see it again!" She was referring to St. Bernardino's pulpit outside the Duomo. It occurred to me that a full list of open-air pulpits known to exist or to have existed in Britain would be very interesting, if no such list has been already compiled. May I ask for information on this subject?


PARKER'S CONSECRATION AND "SUFFRAGAN" BISHOPS.-On 9 September, 1559, a commission was issued to the Bishops of Durham, Bath, and Peterborough, together with Kitchin, Bishop of Llandaff, and Barlow, the record of whose consecration is missing, and Scory, who was consecrated by Cranmer in 1551, commanding them to consecrate Parker Archbishop of Canterbury. The three first mentioned refused to conform to Protestantism, and Kitchin, though conforming, refused to act. Accordingly, another commission was issued on 6 December, 1559, to Kitchin, Barlow, and Scory, with Coverdale, consecrated by Cranmer in 1551, John Hodgkins, Bishop of Bedford, and John Salisbury, Bishop of Thetford. In the event Parker was consecrated by Barlow, Scory, Coverdale, and Hodgkins, Kitchin still refusing. Why was Stanley, Bishop of Sodor and Man (who_conformed), not commanded to consecrate Parker? And why did John Salisbury not join? As it happened, no bishop with a see consecrated Parker, and only one auxiliary bishop. Besides (1) Hodgkins and (2) Salisbury, who both undoubtedly conformed, there were alive in England (3) Lewis Thomas, Bishop of Shrewsbury, who died 1560/1; (4) Thomas Sparke, Bishop of Berwick, who conformed, and died in possession of his preferments 22 February, 1571; and (5) Robert Pursglove, Bishop of Hull, who refused to conform. The probability is that (6) William Finch, Bishop of Taunton, who died in 1559, had died before either commission was issued. The late Dr. F. G. Lee, in his book 'The Church under Queen Elizabeth,' at p. 31, seems to have thought that three other auxiliary bishops were available, viz. (7, 8, and 9) the Bishops of Ipswich, Marlborough, and

Shaftesbury; but Thomas Manning, or Sudborne, Bishop of Ipswich, does not appear after 1542, in which year he resigned the College of Mottingham; Thomas Morley, or Bickley, Bishop of Marlborough, seems to have died in 1553 (Wilts Archaeological Magazine, v. 41); and of Thomas Bradley, or Stephens, Bishop of Shaftesbury, no record appears to exist, except that of his consecration. When did he die? Were any other suffragan" (ie., auxiliary) bishops alive at the accession of Queen Elizabeth?


(10th S. iv. 387.)

TOKENS came into use in the Presbyterian Church almost immediately after the Reformation. They are mentioned in the Session Records of St. Andrews under date 7 May, 1572. They were struck in Edinburgh by order of the Dean of Guild before 1579. From that time onwards they have been in constant use in the Church of Scotland, and they have been adopted by the other Presbyterian Churches in succession, not only in Scotland, but in America and in the British colonies. Though the token is still in use in many churches, it is gradually being superseded by a printed card. Formerly they were oftener called "tickets" than "tokens"; but even what were called tickets were generally made of lead, brass, or other alloy, and even of leather. For these particulars I am indebted to an article by the Rev. Dr. Paul, of Edinburgh, printed in the History of the Berwickshire Naturalists' Club,' vol. xvi, 1899, p. 109, with four illustrative plates of Border Church tokens. The oldest dated Scottish token known to Dr. Paul is of 1648. The writer adds that it is a mistake to suppose that the custom belongs solely to Presbyterianism or even to Protestantism. Certificates or tokens were used by the Roman Catholic Church in some parts of Europe after the Council of Trent. There is also evidence of their use in the Church of England in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.


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This subject has been very fully dealt with by the Rev. Thomas Burns, F.R.S.E., in the fourth chapter of his Old Scottish Com munion Plate' (Edinburgh, 1892). At p. 447 he says:

"There can be little doubt that the token h

been in use since the Reformation......That the tokes


in the infant days of the Reformed Church consisted of a written or stamped card called a ticket is very probable......There can be no doubt, however, that at a very early date the use of a metallic token was also introduced......When the metallic token was introduced, the practice of having a written card was not altogether abolished......For a time both the written card and metallic token were used.......and in the course of time the card was permanently superseded by the metallic token...... This is probably the explanation why the terms 'ticket' and token' are so frequently used to designate the same passport, and that in later days the same term 'ticket' was applied to what was in reality a metallic token."

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From Kirk-Session Records quoted by Mr. Burns it appears that metallic tokens were in use in the parish church of St. Andrews in 1590. In Glasgow in 1593 the tokens were made of lead, but in 1603 of tin. Brass tokens were in use in some parishes. The chapter includes five full-page plates of tokens, which bear (1) the initial letter of the parish, (2) the year, (3) the minister's initials, (4) ornaments, (5) miscellaneous marks. A foot-note on p. 458 refers to N. & Q.,' 5th S.

xi. 515.

There is a collection of old tokens in the library of the Church of Scotland, General Assembly Hall, Castlehill, Edinburgh. The library is open every Wednesday forenoon throughout the year.

Communion tokens were occasionally in use in Episcopal churches in Scotland, and they sometimes bore a cross; but a cross is also to be found on some Church of Scotland tokens. Ingleby Wood's 'Scottish Pewterware and Pewterers' should be consulted.

W. S.

TRAFALGAR (10th S. iv. 385).-In connexion with the pronunciation of this name it may be worth mentioning that I lately had a communication from Earl Nelson stating that his late son's title (Viscount Trafalgar) was accented on the last syllable (the new heir is styled Viscount Merton). Byron's line is thus shown to be correct, whilst, as all who know anything of the language are aware, a Spanish word ending in a consonant takes regularly the accent at its close, unless specially marked to the contrary. But the English mispronunciation, which it would be vain to attempt to reform in the case of squares and streets, must have prevailed from the very outset, for a surgeon of Nelson's own veterans, whom I knew in my youth, and who had a weakness for verse-writing, once printed a composition containing the faulty line :

I was at anchor in Trafalgar Bay.


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Rossetti, in his fine sonnet on the death of Nelson, accents this word on the ultimate syllable, but Browning, in his Home Thoughts from the Sea,' on the penultimate.


DR. KREBS seems surprised to hear this word pronounced with the accent on the last syllable. But is not this recognized as the correct pronunciation? I have always understood so. It is true that of late years I have usually heard the word accented on the penultimate, but, if my memory serves me, the other pronunciation was very prevalent, although not universally so, among educated people thirty or forty years ago, and was recognized as right, though sometimes thought rather pedantic, and avoided for this reason.


AMATEUR DRAMATIC CLUBS (10th S. iv. 388). -The Theatrical Journal, 1840-73, edited by William Bestow, gives the particulars your correspondent requires. The early efforts on the boards of private theatres of some who may now be considered stars in the theatrical firmament are chronicled in this publication, which, despite disregard of style and type, contains much information not to be met with elsewhere. A complete set is very scarce; the last I saw was catalogued in the sale of the late Sir William Fraser's books. ROBERT WALTERS.

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Ware Priory.

I have a number of odd issues of The Theatrical Times, originally published as a penny weekly in 1846. It was devoted to the professional and amateur stage. My first number is for Saturday, 15 May, 1847. There is an advertisement on the last page: To Theatrical Amateurs: The Kemble Club Literary and Dramatic Society are seeking for fresh members," &c. The committee rooms were at Ashley's Hotel-only about fifteen years demolished Maiden Lane, Covent Garden. In the issue for Saturday, 26 June, there is a long account of two performances at the Dramatic Institution, Gray's Inn Road. The Bijou is mentioned, where Miss Herbert Alexandra's class at Bays


water "provided patrons with a dramatic treat." The first mention of club is in the same number in which the Bijou occurs, and this is the only one up to that date. Another paper, The Theatrical Journal, of 4 November, 1868, mentions the Imperial Dramatic Club, located evidently at the Lecture Hall, Carter Street, Walworth. At the end of this publication, however, a list of amateur clubs is given: "The Burton," Essex," Garrick (established fifteen years), "Milton," "Tower Hamlets Rifle Brigade," "The Shakespearian," Thalia," "Fitz-Roy," and "Alexandra" (Liverpool). They are all called Dramatic clubs, and there S. J. A. F.


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PRISONER SUCKLED BY HIS DAUGHTER (10th S. iv. 307, 353).-According to an old copperplate engraving by Alex. Voet, jun. (in my possession), issued about 1640 (date of artist's death), this subject was painted by Paul Rubens. The inscription beneath is as follows: "En pia_nata, svvm, proprio fovet vbere patrem. Ille senex, dvro, carcere pressvs erat."

Some years ago I observed in a Liverpool broker's shop a very fine copy of the original painting. The vendor informed me that it was practically unsaleable on account of the unpleasant nature of the subject.

139, Canning Street, Liverpool.


This subject was at one time much in favour with painters and poets. To the list of pictures already given let me add 'Kindesliebe (Cimon und Pera),' by Peter Paul Rubens, in the Rijks Museum at Amsterdam. It would, I think, be interesting to enlarge the inquiry to include literary treatments of the subject.


Garrick produced (26 February, 1772) & tragedy, 'The Grecian Daughter,' by Arthur Murphy, in which the heroine saves her father's life (behind the scenes) in this unusual manner. Murphy, in a postscript to the published play, says it is founded on passage in Valerius Maximus (lib. v. c. 4, 'De Pietate in Parentes'), which narrates how a Roman woman, whose jailer had instructions to starve her to death, was thus saved by the ministrations of her daughter. The Latin author refers to a Greek tale, "in which the heroine performs the same act of piety to a father in the decline of life." Murphy continues, "The painters long since seized the subject, and by them it has been called Roman Charity." In order to improve his play, by giving it " an air of real history," Murphy made the father, Evander, a king

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of Syracuse, deposed and imprisoned by Dionysius the younger, and rescued by his son-in-law, Timoleon. After this outrage on historical fact, we are not surprised to find Dionysius the younger saddled with the misdeeds of the elder tyrant of that name, and, in the last act, killed by the imaginary daughter of the imaginary king. I have given Murphy's reference to Valerius Maximus without verifying it. I hope it is more accurate than his history. Towards the end of his 'Postscript,' he admits an obligation for "no more than three lines" to the Zelmire' of Belloy; also that "the subject of his tragedy has been touched in some foreign pieces." The 'Biographia Dramatica'

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"The first idea of writing this play is said to have been suggested to Mr. Murphy by a picture which he noticed as he was waiting in the room of a celebrated painter. In this picture the sentinel, as he witnesses the interesting scene of the daughter suckling her parent, bursts into tears." According to the same dictionary, Tom D'Urfey's 'The Grecian Heroine; or, the Fate of Tyranny' (published_1721), had Timoleon among its characters. I have not a copy at hand to refer to, but think it not improbable that it illustrates the same story, and may have furnished Murphy with his "air of real history."

In my own time I have only known this affecting fable_do duty in a waxworks exhibition in Briggate, Leeds, which I patronized one evening more than twenty years ago. There I found the incident, which the dramatist had to leave to the imagination, done to the life without any reticence. The showwoman regarded it with pride as one of her finest exhibits. According to the descriptive handbook (which, because of its quaint style, I preserved), the story is as follows:

daughter's father], a high and powerful gentleman, "Antony Molina [odd name for a Grecian was detected among many others, during a period of civil commotion, of plotting against the king. He was ordered to be cast into prison and starved to death. His daughter got permission to see him entered the cell. She suckled her father for twelve once a day. She was searched every day as she months, when the king became acquainted with it. He softened his wrath so much, that he instantly granted the aged Molina a pardon, reinstated him in his former possessions, and settled a thousand a year upon his virtuous and affectionate daughter." E. RIMBAULT DIBDIN.

MR. J. SMITH has seen a picture of the 'Caritas Romana,' a bas-relief over the door of the prison at the base of the Belfry at Ghent. This is popularly known as the 'Mammelokker,' and was put up when

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