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MONCK: MONKE: MONK.-There is an entry in the register of the church of St. Mary Magdalene, Bridgnorth, under date 27 February, 1695, "Job son of Joan Monck was buried." The name of Joan or Joane is not

infrequent in the pedigrees relating to the various branches of the family of Monck which I have so far seen; but the name of Job is not found therein. To what branch does this entry probably belong? I should be grateful to any of your expert genealogical correspondents who might afford a clue.

J. W. B. CHARLES GOUGH was admitted on the foundation at Westminster School in 1710, aged fourteen. Can any readers of 'N. & Q.' give me information of his subsequent career? G. F. R. B.

HYPHENS AFTER STREET NAMES.-A vogue has crept in for employing the hyphen as a link with road, street, and so forth. But is such use of the character justifiable? That colossal indicator The London Directory does not adopt the plan. Why, then, should the notion prevail elsewhere? CECIL CLARKE.

Junior Athenæum Club, W.

[Mr. Howard Collins in 'Author and Printer,' under capitalization and street, recommends capital letters for Road, Street, &c., following a name; but adds, "in journalism, hyphen and lower-case usual, as Regent-street."]

RABI'AH, SON OF MUKADDAM.-Will some Arabic scholar tell "; a country cousin," who lives far away from reference libraries, how the name of this hero and that of his father are pronounced? What value have the vowels? and on which syllable does the accent fall? P. K. M.

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PIG: SWINE: HOG. (10th S. iv. 407.)



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IN Fifeshire "swine" is the generic term, and is both singular and plural. “Pigs" are sucklings, and become respectively hogs and "sows" when the litter is dispersed. A brood sow may be distinguished from a feeding sow, but this is not inevitable. An outlandish who once descended upon a rural district of the county, and entered into conversation with a cottager about her soo" when the animal in reality was a hog, prompted free commentary and general merriment among the natives. Even in this community, however, those who have adequately profited by the regulations of the School Board consider pig" the refined term to use as a general name.


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In Lincolnshire, Yorkshire, and Durham 'pig" is the usual term for a pig of any age, size, or weight. I have known it said of a very fat one, "It's all pig anearly," meaning that there would be very little to throw away. In a letter written by a Lincolnshire lady, 12 December, 1827, she refers to the killed, to provide "pig-cheer" (as it is called) management of a pig" to be bought ready for Christmas (fry, sausages, pork pies, mince pies, &c.). Canon Greenwell, who was born in 1820, has no recollection of "pig" in Durham except as above. "Boar and '30W are terms used only for distinction; "hog" and "swine" not at all, in the folk speech. J. T. F.


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In Norfolk, at any rate in the fifties, "pig" was always used as the generic term; "SOW always for the female, of which "swine," but, I think, more often "sows," was the plural. "Swine was never used in the singular. It struck me as very peculiar when I first saw it used in the singular in one of Burns's poems. "Hog," I think, was always the male, or rather the eunuch, in process of fatting. "Boar was the term generally used for the perfect male. J. FOSTER PALMER.

8, Royal Avenue, S.W.

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Both these, however, might refer to piglings; but how about Peter Pindar's 'Stanza on the

Death of Lady Mount Edgecumb's Favourite
Pig, Cupid' It runs :-

Oh dry that tear, so round and big;
Nor waste in sighs your precious wind!
Death only takes a single Pig;
Your lord and son are still behind.


The fat pigs sold in the markets about Christmas time, as well as those which the cottager feeds up for the main part of his Christmas cheer, are, I believe, in most parts of the Midlands called "porker-pigs," while those fed for other killing times are "baconpigs." The main difference between a porkerpig and a bacon-pig is that while the former is sold in pieces, the latter is salted as "sides of bacon," which when cut in slices makes "streaky-bacon suitable for breakfast, as well as for that most favourite combination "eggs and bacon." A porker is fed up rapidly, while a bacon-pig is more slowly fed. and with more changes in the diet, in order to produce the "streaky rasher."


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1s. 6d. Home,' a favourite Ballad, by ditto, 18.Arise Fair Maid,' by M. Corri, 1s.-The Bomb

Skatche,' by Pittman, ls.”

If a copy of 'Lord Nelson's Victory and Death,' thus sung and composed by Braham and rendered at Drury Lane in November, 1805, is extant, it would be of much interest to compare it with the same singer and composer's immortal 'Death of Nelson.' which is always understood to have been first given at the Lyceum in 1811 in an opera, Americans,' written by the lessee, Samuel James Arnold. ALFRED F. ROBBINS,

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'ULM AND TRAFALGAR (10th S. iv. 407).In The Year of Trafalgar,' by Henry New bolt, this poem is given at length, and is ascribed to the Right Hon. George Canning, M.P. It contains 121 lines, commencing "While Austria's yielded armies." J. T. B.

Canning is the author of this poem :"Very few persons know that the poem called 'Ulm and Trafalgar' was written by Canning. He composed it (as George Ellis told me) in about two days, while he walked up and down the room. Indeed, very few persons know that such a poem exists." Table-Talk of Samuel Rogers,' 1856,

p. 159.

I should like to point out that though Johnson seemed to know the word " pig "The editor (Alexander Dyce) adds the followonly as meaning the young of a swine, he ing foot-note: "A short poem printed for himself appears to have used the word in Ridgeway, 1806, 4to." "Ulin and Trafalgar' the wider sense which DR. MURRAY is look- has been reprinted during the present year. ing for. R. L. MORETON.


In vol. ii. of Boswell's 'Johnson,' 1904

(Frowde) edition, p. 612, replying, to Miss Seward, who had been telling him of a "wonderful learned pig," Johnson replied, "Then the Pigs are a race unjustly calum


Possibly the whole paragraph is a little doubtful as to the sense in which the word is used; but any ordinary reader would certainly understand he was speaking of the animal in the generic sense.


"THE DEATH OF NELSON' (10th S. iv. 365, 412). The following advertisement, which appeared in The Observer of 17 November, 1805, at the moment all England was ringing with the glorious yet tragic news of Trafalgar, should be of importance in this connexion :"MUSIC.-Published yesterday, LORD NELSON'S VICTORY AND DEATH, sung and composed by Mr. Braham, at the Theatre Royal, Drury-lane, in the Melo-Dramatic Piece, written by R. Cumberland, Esq., price 1s. 6d. Lord Nelson's Elegy, as spoken by Mr. Wroughton, and written by the same Author, by D. Corri, 1s. 'Love and Glory,' for the Piano-forte, by ditto,

have to thank MR. LYNN for his suggestion "PHOTOGRAPHY" (10th S. iv. 367, 435).-I as to the probable source of Sir John Herschel's terminology. Unfortunately, the passage to which he refers in 'The Penny Cyclopædia' is only another of the ignes fatui in pursuing which I have wasted so much precious time while trying to run down which arise from the habit that historians the first appearance of "photography," and and biographers have of carrying back current nomenclature to times when it did not exist. It is true that on 7 January, 1839, M. Arago made a communication to the Académie des Sciences sur la fixation des images formées au foyer de la chambre obscure, la découverte de M. Daguerre"; but neither he nor M. Biot, who at the same time associated himself with M. Arago in a brief communication, spoke of "photography," or "photogeny," or heliography," or anything other than "the discovery of M. Daguerre," as may be seen in the Comptes Rendus of the Académie, tome viii., January to June, 1839. Under date of 4 February there is a Récla mation de Priorité' by Mr. Fox Talbot, and


'Itin.' respecting the peere at that place. He also gives at the same place a quotation from a memorial presented to Henry VIII. about 1545, referring to the maintenance of the peyr at Whitby.

Charlton, in his 'History,' p. 289, also gives the same quotation, but dates it about A. H. ARKLE.

May not the Old Dutch word bere, a batterafter ing ram, so called, like the Latin aper, the animal, and modern Dutch beer, as an architectural term, applied to a mole or bank made of bricks, or large stones, to break the violence of the sea, perhaps throw light upon the obscure history of pier, and its earlier spelling pere or peere, as pointed out by DR. MURRAY? As for the initial p, its supposed connexion with Old French piere and Latin petra might have influenced and altered the spelling peere, pere, instead of bere. For the Old Dutch word bere, cf. 'MiddelNederlandsch Woordenboek,' by Verwijs and Verdam, vol. i. p. 914 ('s Gravenhage, 1882).


a discussion of his claims by MM. Arago and Biot; but no mention of "photography." At the meeting of 4 March, M. Biot read the substance of a letter from Talbot, in which the "photogenic drawings" of the latter are rendered by dessins photogéniques"; on 8 April Talbot's process is termed by a Frenchman " procédé photo-1541. génique," and in the numerous articles from that date to the end of June Talbot's term becomes common. Herschel read his epochmaking paper before the Royal Society on 14 March, and the echo of it appears at length in the Comptes Rendus of 6 May, p. 714, in the expression art photographique. But this seems to be merely a casual instance, for the word photographie does not appear in the index to the volume, and even Photogénie appears merely with a cross-reference to Chambre obscure and Papier sensitif. under which all the photographic articles are classed. "Photography" was thus not recognized by the Académie up to the end of June; but on 3 July M. Arago made his great report to the Chamber of Deputies, recommending the proposal of a pension to KINGSWAY AND ALDWYCH (10th S. iv. 361, Daguerre for his discovery, and in this he 410, 433).-MR. ABRAHAMS somewhat arbiadopts Herschel's nomenclature of photo- trarily, though ambiguously, finds fault with graphie for the subject generally, and his my contribution as containing " report abounds in such expressions as and inaccurate deductions." This charge is recherches photographiques, copie photogra- not easily digested. It was not my intention phique, dessins photographiques, méthode to write a precise or perfect relation of what photographique, image photographique, &c. had been done during my long acquaintance Needless to say that in volume ix. of the with London in the widening of streets and Comptes Rendus the index has Photographie, the opening of spaces. But if MR. ABRAHAMS and that from the date of Arago's speech in can cite no truer example of error than that the Chamber the word rapidly became as which he imputes to my reference to Northgenerally adopted in French as it already umberland House, I shall be content with was in English. The suggestion, then, that what I have written. For surely it is fact Herschel probably adopted the term from that the old mansion was found [to be] Arago is exactly the converse of the fact. "" an obstacle to forming communication Heliographie and Daguerreotype were in-between Charing Cross and the Embankvented in France, but photogeny and photo- ment, and therefore was cleared away. The graphy may be seen in the act of passing fact might, perhaps, have been more prefrom English into French in the Comples cisely expressed; but is it the expression Rendus of 1839. J. A. H. MURRAY. only that the critic finds "altogether impossible," so convincingly "impossible" that he thinks" no further comment necessary"? These terms are ambiguous, but can scarcely be read as complimentary. W. L. RUTTON.

I think it would be well to ask Sir J. W. Swan, F.R.S., who was a scientific pioneer of the art. DAGUERRE.

A search in 'N. & Q.,' indexed as 'Silver Lustre Ware' or 'Photography, its Origin,' might be of service to DR. MURRAY.


DOVER PIER (10th S. iv. 387).-Possibly the under-noted references may be of some use to DR. MURRAY respecting the early use of the word pier.

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In Young's History of Whitby,' vol. ii. p. 530, there is a quotation from Leland's


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VIRGIL OR VERGIL? (10th S. iv. 248, 309.)— It is strange that this controversy should be revived in our day. If Politian's arguments were so overwhelming at the close of the fifteenth century, why was the second spelling of the poet's name not at once adopted? For this reason: Politian had as his antagonist Pierius, who showed that there were numerous lapidary inscriptions in favour


Ver ago perpetuum, hic primo ver tempore mon


Unde tenet nomen Vergiliana domus,
Quæ tam immota diu casuraque tempore nullo
Stabit, quam viridi fronde perennis ero."

of the ordinary spelling, which was therefore earnest, as any one can see from the lines I retained. The Greek language does not help quote:us much. PROF. STRONG, quoting Teuffel, says that Bepyíλtos is "almost invariably" Βεργίλιος found. But Suidas has Ovepyíltos, and "Stephanus scribit in dictione Mantuana Bipyilios," as Carolus Ruæus, the learned editor of the Delphin edition of the poet's works, tells us, from whom I borrow these details. The same writer agrees with Pierius that the vowels e and i were often interchanged by the ancients. Quintilian informs us that Deana is found for Diana, Menerva for Minerva, "leber" and "magester for liber and magister. Just as we have Verginius for Virginius in some codices, so Vergilius is occasionally used for Virgilius. But in all these instances the i at length prevailed.*


I think this derivation is comparable with that of Ménage, satirized by a French epigrammatist in the following quatrain :— Alphana vient d'equus, sans doute, Mais il faut avouer aussi Qu'en venant de là jusqu'ici Il a bien changé sur la route. Textor's Officina,' а book which through numerous editions in the sixteenth century, has everywhere Virgilius. See, especially, the chapter 'De Poetis Græcis et Latinis' (vol. ii. p. 251, ed. 1574). Cornelius The derivation of the name is not known. Schrevelius, in his edition of the poet's Some fancy it comes from a laurel branch Opera Omnia, cum Notis Selectissimis (virga laurea), which his mother saw in a Variorum' (Lugd. Batav., 1666), has a note dream during her pregnancy; others that it Verthe first page which runs thus: arose from his maiden-like bashfulness (virgilium et non Virgilium scribendum esse, ex ginalis verecundia), in consequence of which monumentis veterum, Angelus Politianus, he was at Naples surnamed Parthenias, from "Hapeévos, virgo," which legend does not imply that his mother was one, as a correspondent seems to think (ante, p. 309). The attempt to connect the name with ver, the spring, has no better foundation, it would


Notwithstanding the fact that "Vergilius" occurs "in the oldest Medicean MSS., and in the Vatican MS." (Roman Literature,' edited by Rev. H. Thompson, p. 66; see also E. M. Thompson's Handbook of Greek and Latin Palæography,' pp. 185-88-89, in which facsimiles are given which show how slight was the difference between e and i), and in spite of the arguments of Politian, the spelling of the poet's name, which he tried to change and which was therefore the usual one before his time, has been Virgilius, with few exceptions, up to our own days.

Polydore Vergil is one of the writers who accepted the teaching of Politian, for he spells not only the poet's name but his own with an e in his volumes De Rerum Inventoribus' and 'De Prodigiis.' He claimed descent from the "ancient and noble Vergilian family," whose crest was a laurel with two lizards. In the third book of the first work he has a poem in praise of the laurel, which, being sempervirent, enjoys a perpetual spring (ver), and is therefore a fitting emblem of his illustrious house, about which I can find no information. He is quite in

See Peile's 'Introduction to Greek and Latin Etymology,' p. 264, third ed. London, 1875.

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Misc. C. 77, ostendit." He, however, adheres to the ordinary spelling with nearly all editors both before and after his time. In his 'Testimonia de Virgilio et ejus Scriptis,' prefixed to the volume, he makes no reference to Horace, who mentions his friend's name ten times in his works. Some of the authors quoted by Schrevelius merely refer to the poet's Eneid'; others speak of him as Maro; but among those who call him Virgilius are Velleius, Macrobius, Quintilian, Tacitus, St. Jerome, St. Augustine, Lactantius, and a writer in the fifth book of the Anthology,' who has Buoyidios.

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In Lowndes's 'Manual' there is a long list of editions and translations of Virgil's dif ferent poems, which extends from about the middle of the sixteenth century until 1834 (Pickering's ed.); but there is only one mentioned (p. 1873), a version in Greek of the second book of the 'Eneid' " per Georgivm Etherigevm. Oxoniensem, Medicum, Græcæ Linguæ Professorem. Lond. apud Regin. Wolfium. 1553," which has the instead of the i.


I have Heyne's edition. London, 1826, the Delphin, 1834, Anthon's, Young's, and others among which is the "Oxford Pocket Text," 1886, and in not one of these do I find Politian's spelling adopted. It was only in the latter part of the nineteenth century, nearly four hundred years after the Italian scholar's death, that some one was convinced

Ed. 1644, pp. 185-6, Lvgdvni Batavorvm, apud Franciscvm Hegervm.


by his arguments and, greatly daring, wrote Vergilius. The example was followed by the Cambridge University Press (see "Pitt Press Series ") in its edition of the poet by Mr. A. Sidgwick. In the catalogue appended to Bacon's Essays' in that series we find Vergil as the English form, while it is given as Virgil in the Index of Proper Names.' In that charming book F. St. John Thackeray's 'Anthologia Latina' (editio altera, 1869), I have never liked his heading 'Vergilius 'to his specimens of that poet. It has always been considered by me to be "affectations," to use Sir Hugh Evans's word. But when I found hiemps in Horace's ode beginning

Solvitur acris hiems grata vice veris et Favoni, I devoutly hoped he would not undertake a recension of the Vulgate, and especially that part of it entitled Canticum Canticorum,' where it is written: "Jam enim hiems transiit; imber abiit, et recessit. Flores apparuerunt in terra nostra, tempus putationis advenit; vox turturis audita est in terra nostra," and the rest of that beautiful poem, which only the cynicism of a Voltaire could vilely interpret.

when he was admonished, he said that hee now had vsed Mumpsimus thirtie yeares, and would not leaue his olde Mumpsimus for their new Sumpsimus."Ed. 1614, p. 286.

For more than fifty years I have known the poet as Virgilius in Latin and Virgil in English, and so shall I continue to name him while body and soul are in conjunction. there be any stronger epithet to apply to its "Vergilius" I look upon as pedantic, and if English equivalent I would use it.


HAIR-POWDERING CLOSETS (10th S. iv. 349, 417).-I have seen a hair-powdering closet at 43, Kensington Square, W., and I am told that many others of the old houses in that square contain a similar closet. C. MASON.

29, Emperor's Gate, S.W.

I also have two of the powder closets in my house, which was built during Anne's or George I.'s reign, and which remains almost in its original condition, with very fine oak staircase and panelled hall.

Town House, Haslemere.


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So far as I gather, no fresh evidence has the Old English compound toll-setl, which "THOLSELS" (10th S. iv. 387).-This is from been discovered which adds strength to Politian's argument of four hundred years Matthew ix. 9, and may be defined as meanis used in the Anglo-Saxon version of ago when he tried to change what was the ing a custom-house. The first element is, of usual spelling of the poet's name. It is pleasant to learn that the great scholar who course, our word toll. Compare the Scotch iso often contributes to these Tolbooth," which originally meant a pages, and adorns them with his ripe learning, is now custom-house, though later employed in the convinced that the spelling of the poet's sense of prison. JAS. PLATT, Jun. name as he finds it in the works of our old writers, whose study has been the chief object of his laborious life, is the correct one in English. But those venerable founders of our literature took the name from the MSS. and books to which they had access, so I regard their testimony as a proof that Virgilius in Latin was the only spelling which they knew. If it could be shown that Politian was right in his contention, then, I think, we should spell the word as we pronounce it.

It is not, however, such a serious matter is that which Camden mentions in his Remaines,' where, in his chapter on 'Wise Speeches,' he says :—

"The same King Henry [VIII.], finding fault with the disagreenient of Preachers, would often ay: Some are too stiffe in their old Mumpsimus, nd other too busie and curious in their new Sumpimus.' Happely borrowing these phrases from hat which Master Pace his Secretarie reporteth in is booke 'De Fructu Doctrinæ,' of an olde Priest n that age, which alwaies read in his Portasse, Mumpsimus Domine, for Sumpsimus: whereof

This query must remind many readers of the quaint old "Tolsey " which adorns the wide and picturesque High Street of the ancient town of Burford, Oxfordshire. Would not "Tholsel," like the English "Tolsey" and the Scottish Tolbooth," be simply a place where dues and tolls-market and manorial-were paid, a toll-booth ?


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Sir John Gilbert says (' History of Dublin, vol. i. p. 162) that these buildings are styled in ancient records "tolcetum, le tholseys," but more generally "theolonium," and that the latter name was, in the case of the King against the city of Waterford, in 1608, declared to mean a toll or petty duty payable by purchasers in markets and fairs.



CIVIL WAR EARTHWORKS (10th S. iv. 328, 394).-Remains of earthworks exist both at Donnington Castle and Basing House. In

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