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W. J. Loftie's History of London,' 1883, learn where to find any special book they are i. 345, it is stated that at Hackney some seeking. Unfortunately, where these cataremains of works might still be seen not logues are exchanged, they are kept in the long ago." The work at Tyburn Road was private rooms of the librarians, and readers -close to what is now Rathbone Place. Castle do not know of their existence. Street may possibly commemorate another work. On the west a large earthwork, long known as "Oliver's Mount," is now represented by Mount Street, Grosvenor Square. See Lieut.-Col. W. G. Ross's 'Military Engineering during the Great Civil War,' 1888, in the Professional Papers of the Corps of R.E.,' pp. 122, 123, and plans vi., xii., and xiii.

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A fragment of a mound or bulwark may still be seen at Oxford between Wadham College and the River Cherwell. It divides. unless I mistake, the cricket grounds of Balliol and Merton Colleges the one from the other. A. R. BAYLEY.

For an account of the earthworks thrown up round Cambridge Castle, see a paper by Prof. Hughes in Proceedings of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society, vol. viii. p. 197, &c. He gives measurements of the ramparts and ditches made by Bowtell in 1802. W. M. P.

PRINTED CATALOGUES OF PUBLIC LIBRARIES (10th S. iv. 388).-The Library of St. Andrews University has a printed catalogue of its books up to the beginning of last century. For some years past a special staff has been engaged in preparing a printed catalogue for Edinburgh University Library. The Carnegie Public Library, Edinburgh, has printed catalogues of both its lending and its reference section. The utility of this form of catalogue is obvious. Probably the expenditure has prevented it from being generally adopted. W. B. St. Andrews.

KOM OMBO asks what public libraries have printed their catalogues, though apparently it is only with regard to national libraries that he seeks information. The number of public libraries in this country alone-i.e., libraries established under the Public Libraries Acts-amounts to several hundreds. Up to the year 1900, according to 'The British Library Year-Book,' edited by Thomas Greenwood, 1900, some 400 towns and districts had adopted the Acts. Some of these 400 towns and districts have more than one public library-Hammersmith, for instance, has three. Most of these public libraries print catalogues of their lending departments, and it would be useful if these catalogues were placed in the libraries in other districts and made available to readers, who might then

Some of these libraries have printed cata logues of their "reference" departments, which contain the more valuable, scarce, or exclusive books, besides special collections of local or other books. In the Kensington Public Library, for instance, there is an Oriental Library collected by the late Sir Richard Burton. More often, however, these reference libraries are restricted to manuscript or card catalogues. Yet it is specially important that it should be made known to readers outside where these particular hooks are. But the limitation of the penny rate is made the excuse for the parsimonious economy.

There are some libraries not exactly public learned societies and institutions. which print catalogues, such as the great The catalogue of the library of the Royal Geographical Society, for instance, is a volume of 833 pages, which is most useful for bibliographical pur poses, apart from actual reference to the library. Such a catalogue as this (it costs only 2s. 6d.) should be in every public library in London, and in the principal ones in the provinces. Thus the London Library recently published its catalogue in a bulky volume at 30s., and though this is a pro prietary institution, the catalogue is useful for general reference. If only these "books which are not books," these literary guide posts, were in the various local libraries they would much facilitate the work d students.

Probably application to the Secretary of the Library Association, 20, Hanover Square W., would elicit what local libraries print catalogues of their lending and reference departments.

FREDK. A. EDWARDS, F.R.G.S.

EVANS SYMONDS: HERING: GARDEN (10 S. iv. 328, 397).—I should be inclined to think that the word read by MR. MARVIN & "Garden or Gordon" is really "Gosden' The name of Thomas Gosden is well know to amateurs of angling literature, as he co lected a large library of books on the subjec many of which were bound and symbolically tooled by himself, and also issued a seri of illustrations to Walton and Cotton Complete Angler.' W. F. PRIDEAUX.

SPLITTING FIELDS OF ICE (10th S. iv. 3 395).-MR. MASEFIELD'S thoughts on frost individual and stimulating. It were wa however, if he could be a little more expli

about Thomson than he manages to be at the second reference. One would be glad to learn from him (1) where the poet asserts that frost is noisy in fulfilling its ministry; and (2) where he mentions that he "heard, or heard of, air growling under ice during a frost."

It is, perhaps, the case that publishers do not issue leather-bound reprints of Thomson's works; but for this peculiarity of treatment they may probably have substantial reasons that satisfy themselves. But a poet cannot be considered altogether neglected, apart from the question of leather, who was admirably edited five years ago for "The Canterbury Poets" series by Mr. William Bayne, and included, a little earlier, among the English classics published at the Clarendon Press. These are but two of the notable services rendered in latter days to the author of 'The Seasons,' who has besides been the subject of a memoir in the series entitled Famous Scots," and who will presently be enrolled in the distinguished company that constitutes Messrs. Macmillan's English Men of Letters." Scholars know what M. Morel has done for Thomson.

66

THOMAS BAYNE.

DUELLING IN GERMANY (10th S. iv. 388).— Was the code of honour ever consistent anywhere? M. P. can hardly expect it to be more so in Germany than elsewhere. The instance to which reference is made is comparatively trivial. Within the memory of those now living, an officer in the English army would be cashiered if he refused a challenge, and imprisoned if he accepted it; while if he killed his adversary he would be liable to be hanged, and his seconds as well. This, I believe, was the state of the case so late as the forties, if not later. It was probably not so always. Duelling was at one period, no doubt, recognized by law; but there arrives eventually a time when the relics of a dying barbarism come into violent collision with the germs of a growing civilization, and, sooner or later, one set of forces must retire. The problem was solved, and the difficulty removed, by Queen Victoria.

J. FOSTER PALMER.

DETACHED BELFRIES (10th S. iv. 207, 290, 115). I may supplement what has been said of the belfry at Pembridge by the description given of it by Mr. A. G. Bradley in his ‘In he March and Borderland': :

The lower part is of stone and octagonal; the main part above is of wood supported by huge illars composed of single tree trunks. Its outside ppearance is of the Pagoda type, and it is said to e of fourteenth-century date......Full of time-worn

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If MR. CLIPPINGDALE'S suggestion were well founded, detached belfries would usually be of earlier date than others, which, however, is not the case. J. T. F. Durham.

'NICHOLAS NICKLEBY' (10th S. i. 166, 217, 274). The REV. J. WILLCOCK, in mentioning at the first reference a slip of Dickens in this tale, observes that he has never seen it noticed anywhere. But this oversight was pointed out by a contributor to Scribner's Magazine several years ago (vol. xx. p. 641), in an article on Dickensian localities, &c.:

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which however seemed scarcely in keeping with By an oversight-or as a touch of burlesque— the earnest purpose of the book, Dickens makes the exercise of the school to include weeding the garden by No. 2' on the very morning when the pump was frozen, and Nicholas was requested to make himself contented with a dry polish in the place of a wash."

FREDERICK B. FIRMAN, M.A. Castleacre, Swaffham, Norfolk.

SIR ROBERT LYTTON (10th S. iv. 389).—In Lord Lytton's 'Last of the Barons' mention is made in book ix. ch. ix. of a knight of Lytton among the adherents of the house of Lancaster who were present at Tours at the meeting of Queen Margaret and the Earl of Warwick. A foot-note to that chapter says:

"Sir Robert de Lytton (whose grandfather had and Agister of the Forests allotted to Queen Joan) been Comptroller to the Household of Henry IV. was one of the most powerful knights of the time, and afterwards, according to Perkin Warbeck, one of the ministers most trusted by Henry VII. He was lord of Lytton in Derbyshire (where his Knebworth in Herts (the ancient seat and manor ancestors had been settled since the Conquest), of of Plantagenet de Brotherton, Earl of Norfolk and Earl Marshal), of Myndelesden and Langley, of Standyarn, Dene, and Brekesborne, in Northamptonshire; and became in the reign of Henry VII. Privy Councillor, Under-Treasurer, and Keeper of the great Wardrobe."

the Sir R. Lytton about whom your correI cannot help thinking that this must be spondent inquires, although there are some discrepancies as regards dates.

F. E. R. POLLARD-URQUHART.
Castle Pollard, Westmeath.

worth see Mr. J. Horace Round's 'Studies in
For descent of present Lyttons of Kneb-
Peerage and Family History,' 1901, pp. 25-7.
A. R. BAYLEY.

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ICELANDIC DICTIONARY (10th S. iv. 229, 331). addition was continued in the Church of Scotland, -Save that it is in German, the 'Altnord-at the meeting of presbyteries, not only in the first isches Glossar' of Th. Möbius (Leipzig, 1866), pp. xii, 532, costing about twelve shillings, is just the thing required. An English(modern-)Icelandic dictionary, 'Ensk-íslenzk Orðabók by G. T. Zoëga, was published at Reykjavik by Sigurður Kristjánsson in 1896, in pocket size, pp. viii, 482. I ordered my copy through the Skandinavisk Antiqvariat, 49, Gothersgade, Copenhagen, and the price came to about five shillings.

Heidelberg, Germany.

L. R. M. STRACHAN.

DUCHESS OF CANNIZARO (10th S. iv. 265, 316, 358). She died 3 January, 1841, at Hanover Square, and her obituary notice in The Gentleman's Magazine of that year is as follows:

"She was daughter of Governor Johnstone, younger brother of Sir W. Johnstone Poulteney. Bart. She succeeded to her immense fortune in consequence of the will of one of her brothers, who had acquired it; and her husband succeeded to the title of Duke of Canizzaro on the death of his father by a family compact, with the consent of his eldest brother, the Prince Larderia."

A. FRANCIS STEUART.

"THIS TOO SHALL PASS AWAY" (10th S. iv. 368, 435).-A variation of this story occurs in Scott's letter to Byron dated 6 November, 1813, contained in Lockhart's 'Life of Scott.' The apophthegm is there attributed to Solomon. Will MR. PLATT have the goodness to send me an impression of his seal?

GEO. WILL. CAMPBELL.

The Spinney, Coundon, Coventry. "ADD": "ADDER" (10th S. iv. 406).-The sense in which these words were used is explained in 'Lectures on the History of the Church of Scotland,' by the Very Rev. John Lee, D.D., vol. i. p. 213:

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First Book of Discipline, 1560. It was thought expedient in every town where there were schools, and any resort of learned men, there should be a weekly exercise for the trial and improvement of those who were employed in the service of the Church. The ministers, and other learned persons, in rotation, were to interpret some place of Scripture. One was first to give his opinion succinctly and soberly, without wandering from his text, or introducing exhortations, admonitions, or reproofs; another was then to add what the first seemed to have omitted, or to confirm what he had said, by apt illustrations, or gently to correct any of his mistakes. In certain cases, a third might supply what seemed to have been imperfectly treated by the others. But above the number of three it was not thought expedient to proceed, for the sake of avoiding confusion. The warrant for this exercise was taken from that passage in Paul's exhortations to the Church of Corinth, 1 Cor. xiv. 29-33......This practice of having an exercise and

age of the Reformation, but during the whole of the seventeenth century and part of the eighteenth. One minister was appointed at every meeting to exercise on the following day, and another was appointed to add. Soon after the commencement of the eighteenth century they became less regular than they had been in former times. In the course terial church government in 1638 to 1659, I find of twenty-one years, from the restoration of presbythat the Presbytery of St. Andrews, at their weekly meetings, went regularly through the Gospel according to John, generally having an exercise and addition on every verse.'

In vol. ii. p. 350, it is stated that First Book of Discipline to attend the weekly "all the men of learning were required by the exercise of expounding the Scriptures, in which all ministers and expectants within six Scottish miles of every principal town were obliged to take their turn......At this exercise all masters and students in the three colleges of St. Andrews were required to be present by a statute of the university, dated 7th January, 1561."

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W. S.

LAWSON'S NEW GUINEA' (10th S. iv. 407). -My brain has, like MR. EDWARD SMITH'S, had a corner in it for "Capt. Lawson." Can he not give us the author's real name? I want it for my 'Bibliography of Australasia,' if the author has no objection to its appearing there or in 'N. & Q' I can assure him that I was by no means annoyed with the book, but enjoyed reading about the highest mountain in the world, the enormous frogs and scorpions a foot long! I did all I could to help its circulation, and laughed heartily at those critics who took it seriously with its publisher-Fred. Chapman, of Chapman & Hall (it was not issued by Sampson Low & Co.), who could do lots of gammoning him

self.

I have a note that some one said the
author of the 'Wanderings' was Lieut. Robert
Armit.
E. A. PETHERICK.
Streatham.

DETECTIVES IN FICTION (10th S. iv. 307, 356, 417).-The description quoted at the last reference, "an Arabic work of the thirteenth century, entitled 'Nighiaristan,'" requires considerable emendation if it is not to be misleading. Firstly, the book is in the Persian language; secondly, it was written about the year 1335; thirdly, the correct title is Nigaristan'-.e. The Picture Ga lery.' It is a miscellany of stories and poetry upon moral subjects, by Muin-al-Din Juvaini.

JAS. PLATT, Jun.

Surely no detective in fiction has ever yet been seen who can compare with him of Poe's 'Purloined Letter.' He appears to be

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"SMITH" IN LATIN (10th S. iv. 409).— Marescallus is very late Latin, if it can be called Latin at all. It was borrowed from the Germans. Faber ferrarius is the true Latin term, and from one or other of its elements come the numerous surnames which in the modern Romance languages correspond to our name Smith. Thus in French we have Fabre, Faure, Favre, Le Fèvre, Le Feuvre, Le Febvre, Le Fébure; in Italian, Ferraro and Ferrario; in Catalan, Ferrer; in Portuguese, Ferreiro. JAS. PLATT, Jun.

BOWES OF ELFORD (10th S. iv. 408).-Surtees, 'History of Durham,' iv. 117, writes as follows:

"Some respectable families of Bowes, established in the South, in Middlesex, Stafford, and Essex, have in vain endeavoured to prove consanguinity with the ancient house of Streatlam. Their pedi; grees can only be traced through merchants of London to a line of wealthy citizens of York, whose connection with the original stem is lost. Of Sir Martin Bowes, Lord Mayor of London, 1545, calls himself a native of York), and of Sir Jerome and jeweller to Queen Elizabeth (who expressly 1 Bowes, the first English ambassador to Russia, some brief genealogical notices will be found in the addenda. The collateral descendants of Sir Jerome were of Elford in Suffolk. The line terminated in Mary, sole daughter and heiress of George Bowes of Elford, Esq., wife of Craven Howard, Esq., grandson of the first Earl of Berkshire. Their son, Henry Bowes Howard, became Earl of Berkshire, 1706, and tenth Earl of Suffolk in 1745. The Bowes's of Thornton are in the same predicament, unable to prove their descent from the original stock."

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Unfortunately, Mr. Surtees did not live to finish his fourth volume, and the promised addenda do not appear. In a foot-note to the foregoing extract he adds that there are several letters at Streatlam from Mr. Bowes of Elford to the Earl of Suffolk, endeavouring to ascertain the family connexion. He further quotes a curious letter from Lieut. Joshua Bowes, dated Epsom, July 13, 1709," to "Mr. Bowes, at his lodgings at a Brewer's in Marine Square, London." in which that worthy details his knowledge of family history thus:

66

"I have a great value for all the gentlemen of yr name, and know more of them than any one person in England. I knew your father, and so did my

nephew, viz., Jonathan Bowes, Doctor of Physick, who lives at the Fryery at Chelmesford, in Essex. I was a week at your grandfather's at Earl's Cone Bromley Hall. Priory, and a week at your great-grandfather's at I was at Sr William Bowes's at Stretlam Castle, and at St Francis Bowes's at Thornton in the county of Durham. I knew several of Sr George Bowes's family of Yorkshire, and I have been two months at a time at Madam Bowes's, at Elford, in Staffordshire. That family sprung from Sr Jerom Bowes. In the dining room there's his picture, and five more of his brothers, drawn at full length; but the name is lost there, but continued a little in the Earl of Berkshire."

It would appear from the foregoing extracts that the question raised by MR. RELTON engaged the attention of genealogists two hundred years ago and "gets no forrader." RICHARD WELFORD.

Newcastle-upon-Tyne.

"NEWLANDS," CHALFONT ST. PETER (10th S. iv 148, 213, 276).-MR. HARBEN clearly disposes of Thorne's attempt to identify this as the seat of Abraham Newland. It is difficult to realize that the compiler of that useful work, 'Handbook to the Environs of London,' is solely responsible for the misstatement, but there is nothing supporting it in all the biographical references to this celebrity. The 'Life of Abraham Newland,' published 1808, is very definite: "Prior to September, 1807, he had slept for five-and-twenty years at his apartment in the Bank without absenting himself for a single night." He took up his residence at No. 38, Highbury Place, on ber in the same year. 17 September, 1807, and died there 21 NovemNelson ('History of Islington,' 1829, second edition, p. 170) claims that he resided at that address for many years. It is worthy of note that his father, William Newland, was a miller and baker of Grove, in Bucks, but removed to Castle Street, Southwark, where Abraham Newland was born 23 April, 1730.

39, Hillmarton Road.

ALECK ABRAHAMS.

PLANS OF LUCCA (10th S. iv. 409).—A capital map of this city (size 21 in. by 14 in.) occurs in Braun and Hogenberg's 'Urbes Præcipuæ Totius Mundi,' lib. iv. No. 50. The work was published at Cologne in 1572 and following years. the Privilege of lib. iv. being dated 22 November, 1574. I may mention in passing that the book is also useful for English places-e.g., a picture, with illustrations of contemporary English costumes, is given of the "Palatium Regium in Angliæ Regno, Nonciutz, hoc est, nusquam simile dictum," that is, the Palace of Nonesuch, acquired by Henry VIII., but now no longer in existence. W. R. B. PRIDEAUX.

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Miscellaneous.

however, to question that he had brief periods of sincerity, and his will is eminently touching If what is said therein is simulation, he was indeed an arch-dissembler. Grey's share in the parliaWil-mentary denials of the marriage is, of course, less censurable than that of Sheridan; but he, even, does not come off with flying colours.

NOTES ON BOOKS, &c. Mrs. Fitzherbert and George IV. By W. H. kins, M.A. 2 vols. (Longmans & Co.) IN the rather inadequate and grudging memoir of Mrs. Fitzherbert contributed to the Dictionary of National Biography' it is said that the papers vindicating the fair fame of that lady, placed under the seals of the Duke of Wellington, Lord Albemarle, and Lord Stourton in the hands of Messrs. Coutts, had not been given to the public. These papers, now in the private archives at Windsor Castle, have, by permission of King Edward, been seen by Mr. Wilkins, the self-constituted biographer of Hanoverian princesses, and their contents have now for the first time been rendered accessible. Thanks to the advantages thus obtained, and to a style which, though still lacking in perfect limpidity, has gained in strength and directness, Mr. Wilkins has been able to give us what we consider the book of the season. Little is told us but what we were prepared to accept. In many cases authority is substituted for surmise, and the feeling is conveyed that we are now in possession of absolute facts, and are able to draw clear and defensible conclusions. The length at which the book has been reviewed in all the principal periodicals enables us to dispense with giving in full particulars of discovery. It is pleasant, however, to be able to state that the work supplies a bright and animated description of social life in a period of absorbing interest, and may be read from the first page to the last with pleasure and delight. It is not entirely the result of Mr. Wilkins's art that his heroine stands out the worthiest of the crowd of royal and noble personages to whom we are introduced. If we except her initial folly-a folly few women would, perhaps, be able to resist-her conduct seems to have been decorous and, at times, almost noble, and there is none else of whom the same can be said. Weak, indulgent, and uncertain sentimentalist as he is, George IV. nevertheless rises, on the whole, in our estimation. Many of the royal dukes are presented in an amiable light, and even the Duke of York makes a step in advance. George III. and his queen, meanwhile, are all unlike the creatures we see in the memoirs of Madame D'Arblay, though the princesses preserve the pleasing traits there assigned them. Sheridan's part in the proceedings appears almost wholly contemptible, and the difficulties in the way of finding any acceptable excuse for the tergiversation or mendacity of Fox seem augmented. For a display of extreme servility in the dealings of legislators with monarchs and princes the philosophical student must ever be prepared. Unworthy is, however, a weak and inadequate term to apply to the proceedings on either side of the Houses of Parliament. Very animated is the account now given of the wooing by the Prince of Wales of Mrs. Fitzherbert, the one woman, it must be said, that that uncertain, volatile, and, in the main, contemptible being seems really to have loved. A contrast on which Mr. Wilkins does not insist is suggested between the prince's courtship of her and his earlier wooing of "Perdita" Robinson. Whether the future king really stabbed himself or made believe so to do remains where it Little in his ordinary life bears out the idea that he was capable of the action. It is difficult,

was.

That Thackeray's condemnation of George IV. is in some respects disingenuous is known. The fact is nowhere more clearly shown than in his implied vindication of the Duke of Norfolk-" Jockey of Norfolk"-an occasional participator in the orgies in Brighton. Mr. Wilkins's praise of his heroine we may swallow with a slight grimace; his attempted rehabilitation-for to such it amounts-of her royal consort is less successful, and we are disposed to resent the application to him, with a slight alteration, of Shelley's noble lines from Adonais,' beginning

He has outgrown the shadow of our night. Mr. Wilkins has, however, written a deeply interesting and absorbing book, to which we should like to devote more space. It is well got up and abundantly illustrated, and is destined to enjoy something more than a temporary popularity.

The Cambridge University Calendar for the Year 1905-1906. (Cambridge, Deighton, Bell & Co.; London, Bell & Sons.)

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WE notice with pleasure the latest of a long series of volumes. The Calendar' is indispensable to the university man, and a valuable book of reference to any editor, presenting as it does in little the varied energies and rewards of a famous seat of learning. It contains well over 1,200 pages of information, not the least useful part of which is an alphabetical list of the members of the University, with the year of their first degree. The admirable printing of the whole deserves special note. We have never detected any serious mistake in the Calendar,' often as we have used it. On p. 768 there is a prize for "General earning," which should obviously be "General learning," though in these utilitarian days some people seem to think that the two processes should be simultaneous.

The

We have before us also, from our own library, 'Calendar for 1819, which provides an interesting contrast with its latest follower. It reaches some 360 pages only, ending with a list of coaches. London ones appear to regard the "White Horse," Fetter Lane, as the regular stopping-place. Trinity and St. John's then were far ahead in numbers of the other colleges. Now the first retains its preeminence, but St. John's has fallen, and is about equal in undergraduates to Caius and Pembroke, the advance of the latter being one of the features of modern Cambridge. There is no item so gay in the modern Calendar' as "Stourbridge Fair laid out" and Proclamation of Stourbridge Fair. Scarlet Day" in 1819.

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The "Christian Advocate" no longer exists: indeed, the benefaction was hedged about with rules too tedious for any one to perform by the extraordinary Hulse, whose will is one of the longest on record. The Professor of Casuistry has now turned to Moral Philosophy, which is, we presume less Jesuitical; there are Professors of Agriculture and Anglo-Saxon, but there are ne disputations for degrees supported and refuted i the Senate House. Gunpowder Plot did not, w fear, produce this year a Latin speech in the Senate

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