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W. J. Loftie's History of London,' 1883, learn where to find any special book they are i. 345, it is stated that at Hackney some seeking. Unfortunately, where these cataremains of works might still be seen not logues are exchanged, they are kept in the long ago." The work at Tyburn Road was private rooms of the librarians, and readers close to what is now Rathbone Place. Castle do not know of their existence. Street may possibly commemorate another Some of these libraries have printed catawork. On the west a large earth work, logues of their reference” departments

, long known as 6 Oliver's Mount," is now which contain the more valuable, scarce, or represented by Mount Street, Grosvenor exclusive books, besides special collections of Square. See Lieut.-Col. W. G. Ross's 'Military local or other books. In the Kensiogton Engineering during the Great Civil War,' Public Library, for instance, there is an 1888, in the Professional Papers of the Corps Oriental Library collected by the late Sir of R.E.,' pp. 122, 123, and plans vi., xii., Richard Burton. More often, however, these and xiii.

referencelibraries are restricted to manuscript A fragment of a mound or bulwark may or card catalogues. Yet it is specially imporstill be seen at Oxford between Wadham tant that it should be made known to readers College and the River Cherwell. It divides. outside where these particular books are. unless I mistake, the cricket grounds of But the limitation of the penny rate is made Balliol and Merton Colleges the one from the excuse for the parsimonious economy. the other.

A. R. BAYLEY. There are some libraries not exactly public For an account of the earth works thrown learned societies and institutions. The cata.

which print catalogues, such as the great up round Cambridge Castle, seo a paper by logue of the library of the Royal Geographical Prof. Hughes in Proceedings of the Cambridge Society, for instance, is a volume of 833 pages

, Antiquarian Society, vol. viii. p. 197, &c. which is most useful for bibliographical parHe gives measurements of the ramparts and

poses, apart from actual reference to the ditches made by Bowtell in 1802. W. M. P.

library. Such a catalogue as this (it costs

only 2s.6d.) should be in every public library PRINTED CATALOGUES OF PUBLIC LIBRARIES in London, and in the principal ones in (10th S. iv. 388).—The Library of St. Andrews the provinces. Thus the London Library University has a printed catalogue of its recently published its catalogue in a bulky books up to the beginning of last century. volume at 30s., and though this is a pro For some years past a special staff has been prietary institution, the catalogue is useful engaged in preparing a printed catalogue for for general reference. If only these “ books Edinburgh University Library. The Carnegie which are not books," these literary guide Public Library, Edinburgh, has printed cata- posts, were in the various local libraries logues of both its lending and its reference they would much facilitate the work of section. The utility of this form of catalogue students. is obvious. Probably the expenditure has Probably application to the Secretary of prevented it from being generally adopted. the Library Association, 20, Hanover Square

W. B.

W., would elicit what local libraries prin St. Andrews.

catalogues of their lending and referenca KOM OMBO asks what public libraries have departments. printed their catalogues, though apparently

FREDK. A. EDWARDS, F.R.G.S. it is only with regard to national libraries EVANS : SYMONDS : HERING : GARDEN (10% that he seeks information. The number of S. iv. 328, 397). I should be inclined to think public libraries in this country alone-i.e., that the word read by MR. MARVIN & libraries established under the Public Libraries Garden or Gordon” is really

Gosden. Acts-amounts to several hundreds. Up to the The name of Thomas Gosden is well knom year 1900, according to 'The British Library to amateurs of angling literature, as he col Year-Book,' edited by Thomas Greenwood, lected a large library of books on the subję 1900, some 400 towns and districts had many of which were bound and symbolically adopted the Acts. Some of these 400 towns tooled by himself, and also issued a serie and districts have more than one public of illustrations to Walton_and Cotton library -- Hammersmith, for instance, has Complete Angler.'

W. F. PRIDEAUS. three. Most of these public libraries print catalogues of their lending departments, and SPLITTING FIELDS OF ICE (10th S. iv. 33 it would be useful if these catalogues were 395).—MR. MASEFIELD's thoughts on frost of placed in the libraries in other districts and individual and stimulating. It were we made available to readers, who might then however, if he could be a little more explis

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about Thomson than he manages to be at the beams and timber, it was not unsuggestive of the second reference.

One would be glad to inside of some ancient water mill, but for the learn from him (1) where the poet asserts that pendent bell ropes, while in the chaos of woodfrost is noisy in fulfilling its ministry; and work above there was both a chime and a clock.” (2) where he mentions that he “heard, or


St. Dupstan's House, heard of, air growling under ice during a frost."

If MR. CLIPPINGDALE's suggestion were well It is, perhaps, the case that publishers do founded, detached belfries would usually be not issue leather-bound reprints of Thomson's of earlier date than others, which, however, works ; but for this peculiarity of treatment is not the case.

J. T. F. they may probably have substantial reasons Durham. that satisfy themselves. But a poet cannot be considered altogether neglected, apart 274). -The Rev. J. WILLCOCK, in mentioning

NICHOLAS NICKLEBY' (10th S. i. 166, 217, from the question of leather, who was admir- at the first reference a slip of Dickens in ably edited five years ago for “The Canter- this tale, observes that he has never seen it bury Poets" series by Mr. William Bayne, and included, a little earlier, among the English

noticed anywhere. But this oversight was classics published at the Clarendon Press. pointed out by a contributor to Scribner's These are but two of the notable services in an article on Dickensian localities, &c.:

Magazine several years ago (vol. xx. p. 641), rendered in latter days to the author of “The Seasons,' who has besides been the which however seemed scarcely in keeping with

By an oversight-or as a touch of burlesquesubject of a memoir in the series entitled the earnest purpose of the book, Dickens makes * Famous Scots," and who will presently be the exercise of the school to include weeding the enrolled in the distinguished company that garden by No. 2' on the very morning when the constitutes Messrs. Macmillan's 26 English pump was frozen, and Nicholas was requested to Men of Letters." Scholars know what make himself contented with a dry polish in the M. Morel has done for Thomson.

place of a wash.' THOMAS BAYNE.


Castleacre, Swaffham, Norfolk.
DUELLING IN GERMANY (10th S. iv. 388).
Was the code of honour ever consistent any-

SIR ROBERT LYTTON (10th S. iv. 389).-In where? M. P. can hardly expect it to be Lord Lytton's 'Last of the Barons' mention more so in Germany than elsewhere. The

is made in book ix. ch. ix. of a knight of instance to which reference is made is com- Lytton among the adherents of the house of paratively trivial. Within the memory of those Lancaster who were present at Tours at the now living, an officer in the English army meeting of Queen Margaret and the Earl would be cashiered if he refused a challenge, of Warwick.

A foot-note to that chapter and imprisoned if he accepted it; while it says :he killed his adversary he would be liable 'Sir Robert de Lytton (whose grandfather had to be hanged, and bis seconds as well. This, and Agister of the Forests allotted to Queen Joan)

been Coniptroller to the Household of Henry IV. I believe, was the state of the case so late as the forties, if not later. It was probably not and afterwards, according to Perkin Warbeck, one

was one of the most powerful knights of the time, so always. Duelling was at one period, no of the ministers most trusted by Henry VII. He doubt, recognized by law; but there arrives was lord of Lytton in Derbyshire (where his eventually a time when the relics of a dying Knebworth in Herts (the ancient seat and manor

ancestors had been settled since the Conquest), of barbarism come into violent collision with of Plantagenet de Brotherton, Earl of Norfolk and the germs of a growing civilization, and, Earl Marshal), of Myndelesden and Langley,, of sooner or later, one set of forces must retire. Standyarn, Dene, and Brekesborne, in NorthThe problem was solved, and the difficulty amptonshire; and became in the reign of Henry VII. removed, by Queen Victoria.

Privy Councillor, Under-Treasurer, and Keeper of J. FOSTER PALMER.

the great Wardrobe.” DETACHED BELFRIES (10th S. iv. 207, 290, the Sir R. Lytton about whom your corre

I cannot help thinking that this must be 115): – I may supplement what has been said spondent inquires, although there are some of the belfry at Pembridge by the description discrepancies as regards dates. given of it by Mr. A. G. Bradley in his 'In

F. E. R. POLLARD-URQUHART. he March and Borderland':

Castle Pollard, Westmeath. • The lower part is of stone and octagonal; the nain part above is of wood supported by huge

For descent of present Lyttons of Knebillars composed of single tree trunks. Its outside worth see Mr. J. Horace Round's “Studies in ppearance is of the Pagoda type, and it is said to Peerage and Family History, 1901, pp. 25-7. B of fourteenth-century date...... Full of time-worn


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ICELANDIC DICTIONARY (10th S. iv. 229, 331). addition was continued in the Church of Scotland, -Save that it is in German, the 'Altnord- at the meeting of presbyteries, not only in the first isches Glossar' of Th. Möbius (Leipzig, 1866), age of the Reformation, but during the whole of pp. xii, 532, costing about twelve shillings, One minister was appointed at every meeting to

the seventeenth century and part of the eighteenth. is just the thing required. An English: exercise on the following day, and another was (modern-)Icelandic dictionary, 'Ensk-íslenzk appointed to add. Soon after the commencement Orðabók,' by G. T. Zoëga, was published at of the eighteenth century they becane less regular Reykjavik by Sigurður Kristjánsson in 1896, of twenty-one years, from the restoration of presby;

than they had been in former tinies. In the course in pocket size, pp. viii, 482. I ordered my terial church government in 1638 to 1659, I find copy through the Skandinavisk Antiqvariat, that the Presbytery of St. Andrews, at their weekly 49, Gothersgade, Copenhagen, and the price meetings, went regularly through the Gospel came to about five shillings.

according to John, generally having an exercise L. R. M. STRACHAN.

and addition on every verse.' Heidelberg, Germany.

In vol. ii. p. 350, it is stated that DUCHESS OF CANNIZARO (10th S. iv. 265, 316, First Book of Discipline to attend the weekly

"all the men of learning were required by the 358).-She died 3 January, 1841, at Hanover exercise of expounding the Scriptures, in which all Square, and her obituary, notice in. The ministers and expectants within six Scottish miles Gentleman's Magazine of that year is as of every principal town were obliged to take their follows:

turn...... At this exercise all masters and students “She was daughter of Governor Johnstone, to be present by a statute of the university, dated

in the three colleges of St. Andrews were required younger brother of Sir W. Johnstone Poulteney, 7th January, 1561." Bart. She succeeded to her immense fortune in

W. S. consequence of the will of one of her brothers, who had acquired it; and her husband succeeded to LAWSON'S "NEW GUINEA' (10th S. iv. 407). the title of Duke of Canizzaro on the death of his father by a family compact, with the consent of his had a corner in it for “Capt. Lawson.” Can

-My brain has, like MR. EDWARD SMITH'S eldest brother, the Prince Larderia." A. FRANCIS STEUART.

he not give us the author's real name? I

want it for my 'Bibliography of Australasia,' “THIS TOO SHALL PASS AWAY" (10th S. iv. if the author has no objection to its appear368, 435). -A variation of this story occurs in ing there or in 'N. & I can assure him Scott's letter to Byron dated 6 November, that I was by no means annoyed with the 1813, contained in Lockhart's 'Life of Scott.' book, but enjoyed reading about the highest The apophthegm is there attributed to mountain in the world, the enormous frogs: Solomon. Will MR. PLATT have the good and scorpions a foot long! I did all I could ness to send me an impression of his seal ? to help its circulation, and laughed heartily

Geo. WILL. CAMPBELL. at those critics who took it seriously with its The Spinney, Coundon, Coventry.

publisher-Fred. Chapman, of Chapman & "ADD”: “ADDER” (10th S. iv. 406).-The Hall (it was not issued by Sampson Low & sense in which these words were used is Co.), who could do lots of gammoning him.

self. explained in ‘Lectures on the History of the Church of Scotland,' by the Very Rev. John

I have a note that some one said the Lee, D.D., vol. i. p. 213 :

author of the 'Wanderings' was Lieut. Robert Armit.

E. A. PETHERICK. * First Book of Discipline, 1560. It was thought

Streatham. expedient in every town where there were schools, and any resort of learned men, there should be a weekly exercise for the trial and improvement of

DETECTIVES IN FICTION (10th S. iv. 307, those who were employed in the service of the 356, 417).-The description quoted at the last Church. The ministers, and other learned persons, reference, "an Arabic work of the thirteenth in rotation, were to interpret some place of century, entitled Nighiaristan,' Scripture.

requires 'One was first to give his opinion considerable emendation if it is not to be succinctly and soberly, without wandering from his text, or introducing exhortations, admonitions, or

misleading. Firstly, the book is in the reproofs; another was then to add what the first Persian language ; secondly, it was writtea seemed to have omitted, or to confirm what he had about the year 1335; thirdly, the correct said, by apt illustrations, or gently to correct any title is 'Nigāristān'-i.e. The Picture Gal of his mistakes. In certain cases, a third might lery. It is a miscellany of stories and supply, what seemed to have been imperfectly treated by the others. But above the number of poetry upon moral subjects, by Muin-al-Dis three it was not thought expedient to proceed, for


JAS. PLATT, Jun. the sake of avoiding confusion. The warrant for this exercise was taken from that passage in Paul's

Surely no detective in fiction has ever exhortations to the Church of Corinth, 1 Cor. xiv. yet been seen who can compare with him of 29-33...... This practice of having an exercise and Poe's Purloined Letter.' He appears to be

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the model of Sherlock Holmes, though, of nephew, viz., Jonathan Bowes, Doctor of Physick, course, it is possible the ideas are quite who lives at the Fryery at Chelmesford, in Essex. independent, and the author of the latter I was a week at your grandfather's at Earl's Cone may not even have read it, so frequently Bromley Hall.

Priory, and a week at your great-grandfather's at

I was at Sr William Bowes's does thought run in parallel lines. He at Stretlam Castle, and at Si Francis Bowes's at appears in a similar, but, I think, not so per- Thornton in the county of Durham. I knew several fect a form, in Poe's other detective story, of St George Bowes's family of Yorkshire, and I · The Murders in the Rue Morgue.'

have been two months at a time at Madam Bowes's, J. FOSTER PALMER.

at Elford, in Staffordshire. That family sprung

from Sr Jerom Bowes. In the dining room there's 8, Royal Avenue, S.W.

his picture, and five more of his brothers, drawn at

full length; but the name is lost there, but con. “SMITA" IN LATIN (10th S. iv. 409).— tinued a little in the Earl of Berkshire." Marescallus is very late Latin, if it can be called Latin at all. It was borrowed from that the question raised by MR. RELTON

It would appear from the foregoing extracts the Germans. Faber ferrarius is the true engaged the attention of genealogists two Latin term, and from one or other of its hundred years ago and “gets no forrader.” elements come the numerous surnames which

RICHARD WELFORD. in the modern Romance languages correspond Newcastle-upon-Tyne. to our name Smith. Thus in French we have Fabre, Faure, Favre, Le Fèvre, Le "NEWLANDS," CA ALFONT ST. PETER (10th S.iv Feuvre, Le Febvre, Le Fébure ; in Italian, 148, 213, 276).-MR. HARBEN clearly disposes Ferraro and Ferrario; in Catalan, Ferrer; of Thorne's attempt to identify this as the in Portuguese, Ferreiro. Jas. Platt, Jun. seat of Abraham Newland. It is difficult to

realize that the compiler of that useful work, BOWES OF ELFORD (10th S. iv. 408).-Surtees, Handbook to the Environs of London, is History of Durham,' iv. 117, writes as solely responsible for the misstatement, but follows :

there is nothing supporting it in all the “Some respectable families of Bowes, established biographical references to this celebrity. The in the South, in Middlesex, Stafford, and Essex, Life of Abraham Newland,' published 1808, have in vain endeavoured to prove consanguinity is very definite : “Prior to September, 1807, with the ancient house of Streatlam. Their pedi. grees can only be traced through merchants of he had slept for five-and-twenty years at his London to a line of wealthy citizens of York, apartment in the Bank without absenting whose connection with the original stem is lost. himself for a single night.” He took up his Of Sir Martin Bowes, Lord Mayor of London, 1545, residence at No. 38, Highbury Place, on and jeweller to Queen Elizabeth (who expressly 17 September, 1807, and died there 21 Novemcalls himself a native of York), and of Sir Jerome ber in the same year. Nelson (' History of Bowes, the first English ambassador to Russia, some brief genealogical notices will be found in the Islington,' 1829, second edition, p. 170) claims addenda. The collateral descendants of Sir Jerome that he resided at that address for many were of Elford in Suffolk. The line terminated in years. It is worthy of note that his father, Mary, gole daughter and heiress of George Bowes William Newland, was a miller and baker of of Elford, Esq., wife of Craven Howard, Esq., Grove, in Bucks, but removed to Castle grandson of the first Earl of Berkshire. Their son, Henry Bowes Howard, became Earl of Berkshire, Street, Southwark, where Abraham Newland 1706, and tenth Earl of Suffolk in 1745. The Bowes's was born 23 April, 1730. of Thornton are in the same predicament, unable

ALECK ABRAHAMS. to prove their descent from the original stock."

39, Hillmarton Road. Unfortunately, Mr. Surtees did not live to finish his fourth volume, and the promised

PLANS OF LUCCA (10th S. iv. 409).- A capital addenda do not appear. In a foot-note to map of this city (size 21 in. by 14 in.) occurs the foregoing extract he adds that there are in Braun and Hogenberg's 'Urbes Præcipuæ several letters at Streatlam from Mr. Bowes Totius Mundi,' lib. iv. No. 50. The work was of Elford to the Earl of Suffolk, endeavouring published at Cologne in 1572 and following to ascertain the family connexion. He years, the Privilege of lib. iv. being dated further quotes a curious letter from Lieut. 22 November, 1574. I may mention in Joshua Bowes, dated Epsom, July 13, passing that the book is also useful for 1709," to ". Mr. Bowes, at his lodgings at á English places—e.g., a picture, with illustraBrewer's in Marine Square, London," in tions of contemporary English costumes, is which that worthy details his knowledge of given of the “ Palatium Regium in Angliæ family history thus :

Regno, Nonciutz, hoc est, nusquam simile “I have a great value for all the gentlemen of yr dictum,” that is, the Palace of Nonesuch, name, and know more of them than any one person acquired by Henry VIII., but now no longer in England. I know your father, and so did my in existence.


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however, to question that he had brief periods

of sincerity, and his will is eminently touching. NOTES ON BOOKS, &o.

If what is said therein is simulation, he was indeed Mrs. Fitzherbert and George IV. By W. H. Wilo mentary denials of the marriage is, of course, less

an arch-dissembler. Grey's share in the parlia. kins, M.A. 2 vols. (Longmans & Co.)

censurable than that of Sheridan; but he, even, In the rather inadequate and grudging memoir of does not come off with flying colours. Mrs. Fitzherbert contributed to the Dictionary That Thackeray's condemnation of George IV. is of National Biography' it is said that the papers in some respects disingenuous is known. The fact vindicating the fair fame of that lady, placed under is nowhere more clearly shown than in his implied the seals of the Duke of Wellington, Lord Albe- vindication of the Duke of Norfolk-“Jockey of marle, and Lord Ștourton in the hands of Messrs. Norfolk"-an occasional participator in the orgies Coutts, had not been given to the public. These in Brighton. Mr. Wilkins's praise of his heroine we papers, now in the private archives at Windsor may swallow with slight grimace; his attempted Castle, have, by permission of King Edward, been rehabilitation-for to such it amounts-of her royal seen by Mr. Wilkins, the self-constituted bio- consort is less successful, and we are disposed to grapher of Hanoverian princesses, and their con. resent the application to him, with a slight alteratents have now for the first time been rendered tion, of Shelley's noble lines from Adonais, accessible. Thanks to the advantages thus obtained, beginning and to a style which, though still lacking in per

He has outgrown the shadow of our night. fect limpidity, has gained in strength and directness, Mr. Wilkins has been able to give us what we Mr. Wilkins has, however, written a deeply inconsider the book of the season. Little is told us teresting and absorbing book, to which we should but what we were prepared to accept. In many like to devoto more space. It is well got up and cases authority is substituted for surmise, and abundantly illustrated, and is destined to enjoy the feeling is conveyed that we are now in pos- something niore than a temporary popularity. session of absolute facts, and are able to draw clear and defensible conclusions. The length at The Cambridge University Calendar for the Year which the book has been reviewed in all the prin

1905-1906. (Cambridge, Deighton, Bell & Co.; cipal periodicals enables us to dispense with giving London, Bell & Sons.) in full particulars of discovery. It is pleasant, We notice with pleasure the latest of a long series however, to be able to state that the work supplies of volumes. The Calendaris indispensable to a bright and animated description of social life in a the university man, and a valuable book of referperiod of absorbing interest, and may be read from epce to any editor, presenting as it does in little the first page to the last with pleasure and delight. the varied energies and rewards of a famous seat It is not entirely the result of Mr. Wilkins's art that of learning. It contains well over 1,200 pages of his heroine stands out the worthiest of the crowd of information, not the least useful part of which is royal and noble personages to whom we are intro- an alphabetical list of the members of the Univerduced. If we except her initial folly-a folly few sity, with the year of their first degree. The women would, perhaps, be able to resist-her con. admirable printing of the whole deserves special duct seems to have been decorous and, at times, note. We have never detected any serious mistake almost noble, and there is none else of whom the in the Calendar,' often as we have used it. On same can be said. Weak, indulgent, and uncertain p. 768 there is a prize for “General earning," which sentimentalist as he is, George IV. nevertheless should obviously be “General learning,” though in rises, on the whole, in our estimation. Many of these utilitarian days some people seem to think the royal dukes are presented in an amiable that the two processes should be simultaneous. light, and even the Duke of York makes a We have before us also, from our own library, a step in advance. George III. and his queen, 'Calendar' for 1819, which provides an interesting meanwhile, are all unlike the creatures we see contrast with its latest follower. It reaches some in the memoirs of Madame D'Arblay, though the 360 pages only, ending with a list of coaches. The princesses preserve the pleasing traits there assigned London ones appear to regard the “White Horse, them. Sheridan's part in the proceedings appears Fetter Lane, as the regular stopping-place. Trinity almost wholly contemptible, and the difficulties in and St. John's then were far ahead in numbers of the way of finding any acceptable excuse for the the other colleges. Now the first retains its pre tergiversation or mendacity of Fox seem aug. eninence, but St. John's bas fallen, and is about mented. For a display of extreme servility in the equal in undergraduates to Caius and Pembroke, dealings of legislators with monarchs and princes the advance of the latter being one of the features the philosophical student must over be prepared. of modern Cambridge. There is no item so gay in Unworthy is, however, a weak and inadequate the modern. Calendar as "Stourbridge Fair

laid term_to apply to the proceedings on either side of out” and “Proclamation of Stourbridge Fair. the Houses of Parlianient. Very animated is the Scarlet Day" in 1819. account now given of the wooing by the Prince of The "Christian Advocate no longer exists: Wales of Mrs. Fitzherbert, the one woman, it must be indeed, the benefaction was hedged about with said, that that uncertain, volatile, and, in the main, rules too tedious for any one to perform by the contemptible being seems really to have loved. A extraordinary Hulse, whose will is one of the contrast on which Mr. Wilkins does not insist is longest on record. The Professor of Casuistry has suggested between the prince's courtship, of now turned to Moral Philosophy, which is, me her and his earlier wooing of "Perdita” Robin: presume less Jesuitical; there are Professors o

Whether the future king really stabbed Agriculture and Anglo-Saxon, but there are pe himself or made believe so to do remains where it disputations for degrees supported and refuted i

Little in his ordinary life bears out the idea the Senate House. Gunpowder Plot did not, w that he was capable of the action. It is difficult, I fear, produce this year a Latin speech in the Sena:

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