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in pig-styes.”. An extract from Curwen, i. not as yet been able to see a 'Supplement' 181, shows the Irish peasant sharing his of Skeat, but I should think it is possibly cabin with his four-footed benefactor :- from Portuguese-Malay, as are many other

"On stooping to enter at the door I was stopped, words in the “ Taal.” and found that permission from another was

ARNOLD PICKFORD RAWSON. necessary before I could be admitted.

A pig,

Rhodes University College, South Africa. which was fastened to a stake driven into the floor, with length of rope sufficient to permit hin the

The invariable South African pronunciaenjoyment of sun and air, demanded some courtesy, tion is "shambuck ” with the accent equally which I showed him, and was suffered to enter. divided, whether used as a noun or a verb. A more classical authority, still before 1840,

FRANK SCHLOESSER. is Shelley, who was not always an angel beating in the void his luminous wings in This work is by Voltaire, and is to be found

'ZAPATA'S QUESTIONS' (10th S. iv. 449).vain. Edipus Tyrannus; or, Swellfoot the in the British Museum. There is also 'The Tyrant' (1820), is not the most ethereal of Questions of Zapata,' &c. (translated from his works. The older meaning of the word the French by a lady), pp. 28. pig" is found surviving when the ;- First Hetherington (1840 ?] 8vo.

London, Sow” says, “My Pigs, 'tis vain to tug.” But

FRANCIS G. HALEY. the generic sense predominates. The Chorus

National Liberal Club. of Swino sing

we pigs”; we hear of jury of the pigs,” “the glorious constitution

'Les Questions de Zapata' is one of Volof the pigs”; and Zephaniah is now a "hog- taire's works, and consists of sixty-seven butcher" and now "pig-butcher."

quories on Biblical and theological subjects. L. R. M. STRACHAN.

It was included in the 'Recueil Nécessaire,' Heidelberg, Gerniany.

and has often been reprinted both in French

and English. It is, of course, included in is six or eight months old, when it becomes Bengesco's Voltaire bibliography (No. 1737).

WILLIAM E. A. Axon. a boar, a bog, or a sow. Swine, the plural Manchester. of sow, is_not used here except by the Agricultural Department, who in public notices

CHARLES LAMB (10th S. iv. 445).

COL. use a swine as the equivalent of a sow, a PRIDEAUX will find the explanation of the misuse of the word. A bacon hog may be reference to Lamb's continental tour, to of any weight over five score. Smaller which the writer he quotes from calls attenanimals would be quarter-pork when dead, tion, in The London Magazine for August, but whether so called from being quartered 1822. In the Lion's Head' for that month by the butcher, or from being a quarter of a the first paragraph refers to Re-prints of year old, I cannot say. The spare-rib and Elia,' which it was intended should now and griskin of a bacon hog or sow are called pig- then be inserted. The first one, which meat, whether large or small. The divisions appeared in the same number, was "The of an orange are called pigs. Ingots of iron Confessions of a Drunkard,' and this was arę pig-iron, and a guinea-pig is a pig to the followed in the next issue by 'A Bachelor's end of life.

JOHN P. STILWELL. Complaint of the Behaviour of Married Hilfield, Yateley, Hants.

People. The paragraph above referred to

runs as follows:-How about the learned pig at fairs and races-really a full-grown swine, i.e., sow ?

"Many are the sayings of Elia, painful and A. HALL.


his lucubrations, set forth for the most part (such his modesty!) without a name, scattered

about in obscure periodicals and forgotten miscel“SJAMBOK". ITS PRONUNCIATION (10th S. lanies. From the dust of some of these, it is our iv. 204, 332). - The pronunciation of this word intention, occasionally, to revive a Tract or two,

that shall seem worthy of a better fate; especially as given in the supplement of Webster'

at a time like the present, when the pen of our indusviz., shámbok" -is the way the word is trious contributor, engaged in a laborious digest of commonly pronounced by the English-speak. his Continental Tour, may haply want the leisure to ing people in South Africa. The Dutch expatiate in more miscellaneous speculations." people and the Kaffirs pronounce it as (The italics are mine.) The continental tour

sambók," the j being silent, this being the referred to his recent visit to France. He correct way, I believe.

appears only to have visited Versailles, where The Kaffir word is Isa-b6-ukwe, the bo he stayed with the Kenneys and enjoyed a being pronounced like "bau" in baulk and “ few short days of connubial felicity” with the u being silent.

Kenney's child wife Sophy, and Paris, where As to the etymology of the word I have he met and supped with Talma the actor.


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It is a more difficult matter to say who other readers of 'Ņ. & Q.' may give their it was that concealed himself under the un- opinions. Personally, upon the whole I am pleasant-sounding pen-name

"Enort." But inclined still to think this the more natural, whoever he was, he certainly was, as Col. as well as more poetic, meaning, and to make PRIDEAUX states, a very inaccurate writer, answer to MR. BAYNE's questions, for not only is Lamb's tragedy, misnamed, first reference.” Surely if the poet had meant but the extract from 'Oxford in the Vacation' the growling of the remnant of the stream is also incorrectly quoted. Lamb did not only, he would not have said “the whole write "I will have him (Dyer) bound in imprison'd river." But perhaps we drift Russia," which would have been absurd--and from the splitting fields of ice into word Lamb was never absurd in his essays-but splitting. “I longed to new.coat him," &c.

By my final paragraph I intended merely COL. PRIDEAUX is greatly to be congratu- to express a passing regret that Thomson lated on possessing two such treasures as he does not reach the greater public by means mentions. To have even a copy of “ Elia” is of those popular series which, alluring prisomewhat, and when he informs us that it is marily by pretty covers, lead their purchasers in boards, uncut, and with the first title-page afterwards (I hope) to penetrate within. If (by which I presume he means the rare half- indirectly. I have sent any reader to purchase title) it makes one rub one's eyes. But not Thomson in one of the editions mentioned by content with this, when he further states MR. BAYNE, I am well content to have been that it is a presentation copy, it inclines one guilty of quoting without sufficient cause. to the opinion that this is a very unequal | MR. BAYNE surely agrees that Thomson is not sort of world. S. BUTTERWORTH. appreciated as he deserves.


No doubt some readers have recalled to 395, 454). — Readers who are interested in this mind Coleridge's lines in The Ancient question may like to have attention directed

Mariner':to a passage in Lowell's essay entitled 'A Good 'Word for Winter,' from which we

The ice was here, the ice was there,

The ice was all around; learn that he did not understand Words

It cracked and growled, and roared and howled, worth's lines in the 'Prelude' to be descrip- Like noises in a swound. tive of a thaw; for wo find him declaring

NORTH MIDLAND. that “ the most impressive sound in nature is either the fall of a tree in a forest during

DETACHED BELFRIES (10th S. iv. 207, 290, the hush of summer noon, or “the stifled 415, 455).-J. T. F.'s criticism of my theory is shriek of the lake yonder as the frost throttles just, but not, I think, conclusive. Innovait.” After quoting Wordsworth's lines Lowell tions do not immediately become universal. commends Thoreau's use of the term "whoop" Electricity is a novel mode of illuminating a to designate the sound referred to, and then house, but houses are still being built which himself pronounces it to be a noise like are lighted by gas. S. D. CLIPPINGDALE. none other, as if Demogorgon were moaning

AUTHORS OF QUOTATIONS WANTED (10th S. inarticulately from under the earth.”

iv. 468).—The lines beginning F. JARRATT.

Yet all these were, My second reference, of course, only illus

When no man did them know, trated and supported MR. BAYNE's original are to be found in the third stanza of the contention. As to my first quotation, it is introduction to the second book of Spenser's very possible that I owe him an apology for 'Faerie Queene.' WALTER W. SKEAT. misinterpreting. But it seemed to me that

[Several other correspondents kindly supply the in writing

reference.] Till, seized from shore to shore The whole imprison'd river growls below, ‘HUGH TREVOR' (10th S. iv. 429) is by Thomson meant not that the water left Thomas Holcroft.

RALPH THOMAS, unfrozen went growling on beneath the ice (which I take to be Mr. BAYNE'S rendering)

HORSE-PEW=HORSE-BLOCK (10th S. iv. 27, but that, upon being seized, the spirit of the

132, 334).–For "

near Cessisi,” at last referwhole river, like an angered beast, “growled

read near Assisi. below," under the frost's action.


Glasgow. Lowell's words, I thought that the allusion

I was to "the stifled shriek of the lake (here, • ARABIAN NIGHTS' (10th S. iv. 409).-I am stream) as the frost throttles it." Perhaps able to inform MR. JAMES PLATT that there




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is no edition of the · Alif Laila' with vowel this skull, with the invariable results of points throughout. The Calcutta edition, dreadful screams proceeding from the grave, edited by Sir W. H. Macnaghten, which is unaccountable disturbances about the house, usually considered the best, has all the verse and other equally unpleasant occurrences. portions vocalized, but the prose_ is un. At the other (p. 252) MR.J. H. INGRAM speaks pointed. I have not seen the Bombay of it as the “ well-known 'screaming skull! edition referred to by Mr. PLATT, but I am of Bettiscombe House, near Bridport, Dorset," informed by the Librarian of the India Office and reminds us that his work on the Haunted that in this respect it exactly follows the Homes and Family Traditions of Great Calcutta edition. Metrical considerations Britain' (second series) contains an account render it desirable that the verse should be of it. I have not my copy of that work by vocalized, but the prose portions are written me, but MR. INGRAM tells us that his account in such easy Arabic that vowel-pointing, is based on the full description given to him which would add enormously to the expense by Miss Garnett, who had paid a visit to the and trouble of printing, is not at all neces- old manor house at Bettiscombe in 1883. Now sary. In 1875 I held an appointment in the may I be allowed, as probably the first person Indian Foreign Office, and the rules for civil who made the story of the Bettiscombe and military examinations being then under skull" known in print - and that in the revision, the Government of India adopted pages of N. & Q.' over thirty years ago my suggestion that the ‘Alif Laila' should (4th S. x. 183)—to protest against the skull at be included among the text-books for candi. Bettiscombe being included in the list of dates. This gave rise to a certain demand Screaming Skulls"? for the book, and I imagine was the raison If I remember rightly it was from seeing in d'être of the Bombay issue.

MR. INGRAM's interesting work Miss Garnett's W. F. PRIDEAUX.

account, in which she very vividly described SUICIDES BURIED

her visit to Bettiscombe (which must, I

THE OPEN FIELDS (10th S. iv. 346, 397, 475). Surely

the passage I think, have been exceptionally trying to (

, from Erckmann - Chatrian's Histoire d'un

"the good woman of the house" !), and the Paysan,' quoted by Mr. H. T. SMITH, has no

reputation of the skull for screaming, that I relation with the burial of suicides. The

was moved (in 1891) to send to the pages of speaker,

bigoted old blacksmith

the Somerset and Dorset Notes and Queries Valentin, was alluding to the ecclesiastical a healthy and thriving descendant of its disabilities imposed on the Calvinists, and great progenitor a long discussion of this the sentence applies only to the question N. & Q. - but which from its entirely local

subject-too long, I thought, for the pages of of burial in consecrated or unconsecrated ground — a question, alas! which is still character would be more acceptaðle to vexatious enough to those who have to ad- Western readers. But as that excellent little minister and provide cemeteries.

periodical may not be accessible to your E. E. STREET.

general readers, perhaps I may be allowed to

recapitulate a little of what I said. I stated I think MR. H. T. SMITH takes an unkind that my information had been mainly view of the intention underlying the burial derived from a Dorset lady who in her of suicides at cross-roads. In the old days a younger days had often visited and stayed at crucifix was usually erected at cross-roads, the old manor house at Bettiscombe, and and it seems the better opinion believe who had learnt and treasured up the legend that suicides were buried there that, though as she had first heard it before tine and exiled from the churchyard, they might yet publicity, had lent a somewhat heightened lie under the shelter and protection of the and conjectural aspect to the tradition. I Cross.

WM. CR. Bd. there stated that I had some twenty years

before sent to N. & Q.'a somewhat general “THE SCREAMING SKULL(10tb S. iv. 107, account of the superstition, treating it 194, 252, 331).-At the second and third refer- simply as a matter of folk-lore, and not even ences are allusions to a supposed “Screaming stating where the skull was kept. This Skull" at Bettiscombe House, near Bridport, short account appeared at 4th S. x. 183. in Dorset, in one of which (p. 194) Mr. Upon the late DR. GOODFORD, formerly MORETON states that “the skull is said to Provost of Eton, _ inquiring for further have been that of a negro murdered by his particulars (p. 436), I gave certain additional master, a Roman Catholic priest,” and in information (p. 509). It is true that I which it is said that “ several attempts had mentioned that the skull had been probeen made to bury or otherwise dispose of nounced to be that of a negro, but not one

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word was ever said or believed as to its No one in any way connected with my possessing any screaming attributes. Miss family died within twelve months, and, as Garnett's statement to that effect was the the bird is a nun, I can only suppose my first that ever I had heard, nor had I been boy will have to go out into the world as a told that the owner of the skull had ever missionary.

HERBERT SOUTHAM. been the servant of a Roman Catholic priest, with its resulting tragedy.

RABî'ax, SON OF MUKADDAM (10th S. iv. If it be a negro skull-as to which I had 449):—The value of the Arabic vowels, acdoubts, but, though only the upper half of cording to the best classical usage, the the skull remains, that should not be same as in Italian. There are many variadifficult to decide by an expert, I have now tions in the local dialects. Each of the above a much

more interesting and romantic names consists of three syllables, the stress solution of its ownership in connexion with falling in each case on the middle syllable. the Pinney family, which has afforded me Thus, Rabî'ah rimes with Leah, and many pleasant hours of research in the West Mukaddam sounds very much like the Scotch Indies. The result of this research has since surname Macadam. Jas. PLATT, Jun. appeared in the pages of the Somerset and Dorset Notes and Queries at some consider

No Englishman can pronounce the first of able length (vol. viii. p. 308, 1903), and a final these names as an Arab does, as it contains paper on the subject has just come out Germanic tongues. The nearest pronuncia

a letter which is unknown to the Indo(vol. ix. p. 315) in the September quarterly tion would be Rubeeyah," the u as in rub; part for the current year. These I felt were and the accent on the ee. Mukaddam should all too long-if not too local—to communicate be pronounced - Mookuddum," the oo being to ‘N. & Q. In conclusion I may say that I have the pronounced as in foot, and the u in each

case as in rub. The accent is on the second assurance of those who know the legend in

W. F. PRIDEAUX. its earliest form and on the spot that there

syllable. was not at that time the slightest suggestion

THAT SAME of the skull ever having been known to

(10th S. iv. 448):- Is not The legend in its original and true A Dublin car-driver, speaking of an

That same an Irish form of expression} form may be all the tamer for this denial ; quaintance, said, " He professes the Catholic but, knowing, the subject as I do, I am jealous that the tradition should continue to faith, though small credit he is to that same.

NORTH MIDLAND. be pure, and unadulterated by-it may beaccretions from other and not dissimilar The quotation “that same" is from Lamb's

Like your distinguished corre- essay on All Fools' Day': “We have all & spondent PROF. SKEAT, I cannot abide these touch of that same-you understand mea guesswork innovations, and I only wish that speck of the motley. It is to be noted the I had, like him, a stronger way of showing it. original reference is somewhat different. J. S. UDAL, F.S.A.


HYPHENS AFTER STREET NAMES (10th S. LINCOLNSHIRE Deato FOLK-LORE (10th S. iv. 449).—This is not a new practice. On the iv. 465). - What applies to Lincolnshire does contrary, it is less common than it was not appear to have held good for Shropshire formerly I have lately had occasion to conin 1904, though in this county we have sult some old newspapers, ranging in date many folk - tales concerning the visits of from 1779 to 1816. The hyphenizing custom birds and the fatal results of the same.

during this period was scarcely ever departed My youngest child, a boy, was born in

from. Here are a few examples froin a August last year, and a few hours after- newspaper of 1815: Crook - house, Spicerwards a pigeon, a stranger to the district, lane, Groat-market, St. James's-square. flew into the bedroom, and was with difficulty

JOHN OXBERRY. put out of the window.

Gateshead. The next day it appeared again by way of I am glad to see MR. CECIL CLARKE'S note the nursery window, and as it evidently had The use of hyphens should be almost entirely come to stay, it was given good quarters in abolished. This is one of the numerous a large outside aviary.

points I have commented on in my biblioIt is now living, a contented easy life, graphy Swimming, 1904; see pp. 27, 28, prospering in equal manner with my young 339, 392, 428; and I have also mentioned hopeful.

the subject in N. & Q. I advocated no




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and your

capitals for street, road, &c., in my · Aggra- and was borne by some of the Himyaritic vating Ladies,' 1880. RALPH THOMAS. kings. In its Sabæan form it is spelt

Yetha' - amar, which

“Yetha' has WELSH POEM (10th S. iv. 208, 392).- Dean commanded.” Yetha' was the

the tutelary Ramsay, in his Reminiscences of Scottish god of Aden, in Himyaritic times. ProbLife and Character,' gives an anecdote illus

ably Aaron's' wife, Elisheba, whose name trating the effective vowel usage of the is Sabaan, was a native of South Arabia. Scottish dialect. If not showing a success in Further reference may be made to two papers continued vowel utterance equal to that of of mine that were published in the second the Welsh poem quoted, it has, nevertheless, volume of the Transactions of the Society of an aptness not less genuine. An interview Biblical Archæology, 1873, entitled On some between a haberdasher and a customer is set Recent Discoveries in South-Western Arabia' forth thus:

and •Note on M. Lenormant's "Lettre sur C. Ae oo'? H. Ay, ae oo'.

l'Inscription dédicatoire Himyaritique du C. Aae oo'?

Temple du dieu Yata à Abian.”i
H. Ay, a' ae oo'.

W. F. PRIDEAUX. This may be anglicized as follows ::

DUELLING IN GERMANY (10th S. iv. 388, C. One wool?

455).-Law and custom need not agree; at H. Yes, one wool. C. All one wool?

any rate, they do not always do so. Duelling is H. Yes, all one wool.

an old inheritance, and as much may be said W. B. for it as against it. To-day the coward is

better off than the brave man, and formerly I think there must be

in D. M. R.'s third line. Ought not the second whereas to-day one is at the mercy of law.

one could fight for one's right oneself, word to be weua, not weuae”? The final

In a duel e seems to be redundant. It is an ingenious

mongers and supercilious judges. composition, apparently made up entirely of off quickly; whereas in our peaceful days

one might lose one's life, but the affair came vowels, the Welsh w(=00) being one. Really, however, all the words having to do with one's health into the bargain ;

one may lose one's cause, one's fortune, and

law“ weaving" and "web" begin in their primi- suit drags on for years. So far as I am tive form with a g-gwau, gwe, gweau, aware boxing in the public road was never also gwiw, "proper," and gauaf;, “winter," lawful in England; yet is the time so long they being dropped by one of the laws of past when

such honest meetings took place Welsh mutation.

C. S. JERRAM. Oxford.

in the open every day in your country?

Unfortunately it is no longer generally [As we heard this in Edinburgh more than half

true “that severe social condemnation falls a century ago, the first two lines were A oo'?

on any one who refuses to face his antagonist's Ay, a oo',

pistol.” This only holds good with officers ż.e. “ All wool?” “Yes, all wool."]

in the army and navy. G. KRUEGER.

Berlin, "THOLSELS" (10th S. iv. 387, 453). — MR. PLATT is correct when he writes of "Tolbooth” SAMUEL WHITCHURCH, POET (10th S. iv. as a Scotch term, if he means that it has been 429).—He was an ironmonger at Bath and a and is current across the Border ; but if his correspondent of the old Monthly Magazine. intention is to give the impression that it is A list of his works will be found in the 'Bionot also an English word, he is in error, as graphical Dictionary of Living Authors the following references bear witness :- (1816), and also in Allibone. G. F. R. B.

Dawson, History of Skipton,' p. 203.
Canon Raine, ' Hemingborough,' 10, 149.

SIR LAWRENCE DUNDAS (10th S. iv. 448) Cambridge.-Walford, Fairs, 78.

was the second son of Thomas Dundas, of Durhạm.—Thoresby, ' Diary,' i. 140.

Fingask, by his wife Bethia, daughter of Ripon.-The Antiquary, July, 1896, 214. John Baillie, of Castlecarry, Shropshire. Cambridge. — 'Luard® Memorial : Grace. According to Collins :Book A,' p. 213

“In 1756 he attended his Royal Highness the Bradford.— Depositions from York Castle' Duke of Cumberland from London, and had the (Surtees Soc.), p. 118. EDWARD PEACOCK.

charge of supplying all the troops in Scotland

during the Duke's command...... In 1748 his Royal ITHAMAR (10th S. iv. 387, 438).—The interest Highness ordered him to attend in Flanders, and of this name consists in the fact that it was under his command. In 1759 he engaged in several

appointed him Commissary-General to the army undoubtedly a South-Arabian appellation, large and extensive contracts with the Lords of His

&c. ;

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