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Y 4.J 89/2:S.HRG.108-707

FED - DOCS S. HRG. 108–707

BEYOND THE PLEDGE OF ALLEGIANCE: HOSTILITY TO RELIGIOUS EXPRESSION IN THE

PUBLIC SQUARE

HEARING

BEFORE THE

SUBCOMMITTEE ON THE CONSTITUTION,
CIVIL RIGHTS AND PROPERTY RIGHTS

OF THE

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY

UNITED STATES SENATE

ONE HUNDRED EIGHTH CONGRESS

SECOND SESSION

JUNE 8, 2004

Serial No. J-108-80

Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary

DEPOSITORY

MAR 1 7 2005

STANFORD UNIVERSITY

IONSSON LIBRAD

U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE

97-033 PDF

WASHINGTON : 2005

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office Internet: bookstore.gpo.gov Phone: toll free (866) 512–1800; DC area (202) 512–1800

Fax: (202) 512–2250 Mail: Stop SSOP, Washington, DC 20402-0001

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY

ORRIN G. HATCH, Utah, Chairman CHARLES E. GRASSLEY, Iowa

PATRICK J. LEAHY, Vermont ARLEN SPECTER, Pennsylvania

EDWARD M. KENNEDY, Massachusetts JON KYL, Arizona

JOSEPH R. BIDEN, JR., Delaware MIKE DEWINE, Ohio

HERBERT KOHL, Wisconsin JEFF SESSIONS, Alabama

DIANNE FEINSTEIN, California LINDSEY O. GRAHAM, South Carolina RUSSELL D. FEINGOLD, Wisconsin LARRY E. CRAIG, Idaho

CHARLES E. SCHUMER, New York SAXBY CHAMBLISS, Georgia

RICHARD J. DURBIN, Illinois
JOHN CORNYN, Texas

JOHN EDWARDS, North Carolina
BRUCE ARTIM, Chief Counsel and Staff Director
BRUCE A. COHEN, Democratic Chief Counsel and Staff Director

SUBCOMMITTEE ON THE CONSTITUTION, CIVIL RIGHTS AND PROPERTY RIGHTS

JOHN CORNYN, Texas, Chairman JON KYL, Arizona

RUSSELL D. FEINGOLD, Wisconsin LINDSEY O. GRAHAM, South Carolina EDWARD M. KENNEDY, Massachusetts LARRY E. CRAIG, Idaho

CHARLES E. SCHUMER, New York SAXBY CHAMBLISS, Georgia

RICHARD J. DURBIN, Illinois
JAMES C. Ho, Majority Chief Counsel
ROBERT F. SCHIFF, Demdcratic Chief Counsel

(II)

CONTENTS

STATEMENTS OF COMMITTEE MEMBERS

Page

41

17
8

24

46

43

18
28
6

22

Clark, William “Barney", Balch Springs, Texas

Edwards, Hon. Chet, a Representative in Congress from the State of Texas

Garnett, Richard W., Associate Professor of Law, Notre Dame Law School,

South Bend, Indiana

Hearn, Nashala, Muskogee, Oklahoma
Landrieu, Hon. Mary, a U.S. Senator from the State of Louisiana
Moore, Roy S., Former Chief Justice, Supreme Court of Alabama, Bir-

mingham, Alabama
Muñoz, Vincent Phillip, Civitas Fellow of Religion and Public Life, American

Enterprise Institute, Washington, D.C., and Assistant Professor of Political

Science, North Carolina State University
Rogers, Melissa, Visiting Professor of Religion and Public Policy, Wake Forest

University Divinity School, Winston-Salem, North Carolina

Rosenauer, Steven, Bradenton, Florida
Shackelford, Kelly, Chief Counsel, Liberty Legal Institute, Plano, Texas
Shelby, Hon. Richard, a U.S. Senator from the State of Alabama
Walker, J. Brent, Executive Director, Baptist Joint Committee on Public
Affairs, Washington, D.C.

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

Responses of Roy Moore to questions submitted by Senator Kennedy

Responses of Vincent Muñoz to questions submitted by Senator Cornyn

Responses of Vincent Muñoz to questions submitted by Senator Kennedy

Responses of Kelly Shackelford to questions submitted by Senator Cornyn

Responses of Kelly Shackelford to questions submitted by Senator Kennedy

SUBMISSIONS FOR THE RECORD

Clark, William “Barney”, Balch Springs, Texas, prepared statement

Edwards, Hon. Chet, a Representative in Congress from the State of Texas,

prepared statement

Garnett, Richard W., Associate Professor of Law, Notre Dame Law School,

South Bend, Indiana, prepared statement

Hearn, Nashala, Muskogee, Oklahoma, prepared statement

Landrieu, Hon. Mary, a U.S. Senator from the State of Louisiana, prepared

statement and attachment

Liberty Legal Institute, Plano, Texas, examples of hostility to religious ex-

pression

Moore, Roy S., Former Chief Justice, Supreme Court of Alabama, Bir-

mingham, Alabama, prepared statement

Page

138

141

Muñoz, Vincent Phillip, Civitas Fellow of Religion and Public Life, American

Enterprise Institute, Washington, D.C., and Assistant Professor of Political

Science, North Carolina State University, prepared statement
People for the American Way Foundation, Elliot M. Mincberg, Vice-President

and Legal Director, Washington, D.C., letter
Rogers, Melissa, Visiting Professor of Religion and Public Policy, Wake Forest

University Divinity School, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, prepared state

ment
Rosenauer, Steven, Bradenton, Florida, prepared statement
Shackelford, Kelly, Chief Counsel, Liberty Legal Institute, Plano, Texas, pre-

pared statement
Shelby, Hon. Richard, a U.S. Senator from the State of Alabama, prepared

statement
Walker, J. Brent, Executive Director, Baptist Joint Committee on Public

Affairs, Washington, D.C., prepared statement

143 162

164

170

172

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