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which a year or two years' experience may prove freight. Now, sir, does not that gentleman recto be injurious. We are met here with this old collect this fact, that the Erie railroad was only war-cry, “Monopolies! Monopolies!" I do not completed a year or two before the consolidation understand its application to this matter; but if of the Central, and that we could not feel, and any gentleman chooses to buy or invest in a rail. had no opportunity of feeling the effect of the road, he does so in full view of the certainty that competition of the Erie upon the prices and there will be more and competing railroads. If charges of freight upon the Central before conour case were like that of New Jersey, where a solidation? It was only about the time that the certain company has an exclusive right to carry consolidation of the Central took place that the passengers and freight across that State between effect of the Erie could be felt upon the charges the two chief cities of the union, that would be a for freight between New York city and Buffalo; monopoly; but where certain gentlemen choose and I contend that it the competition to buy railroads, or to consolidate railroads, and existing between the Erie road and the Centhe people have the right to build another rail. tral road that has kept the charges for road on each side of this one, I see no feature of freight and passengers down, and not the effect monopoly. If one gentleman has a great deal of the consolidation. If we go on and leave ibe more money than others, that is a monopoly in a matter open, so that the Erie and the Central certain senso, in that he can wield more money, can be consoildated together with the Hudson and probably make more; but I do not under- River and the Harlem, you destroy that compestand that there is any monopoly in the fact that tition, and the man who owns them all can fix Mr. Vanderbilt has several millions. If I were his own prices and his own charges. forbidden by law to make or earn money, than he The question was put on the amendment of might be said to have a monopoly; but so long Mr. Archer, and it was declared lost. as the liberty to make money is as open to me as Mr. PAIGE-I move to amend the proposition to him, I do not complain. He can buy more of the gentleman from Albany (Mr. A. J. Parker] railroad shares than can, and pay for them; by making the amount twenty millions. but I am at liberty to build new roads or pay for Mr. A. J. PARKER-I will accept that amendold ones, and I cannot see how the word ment. monopoly has any application to the case in The question was then announced on the amend. hand. I do hope that none of these schemes ment of Mr. A. J. Parker as amended. which seems to me to be prompted by jealousies Mr. ROBERTSON-If it is the intention of the and rivalries, will be fastened on our Constitu- friends of this proposed measure to press it to a tion.

vote to-night-in a thin house, without a quorum Mr. ARCHER—I did not propose to take any part of members present-I should like to say a few in what seems to me to be a controversy between words upon the question. With a view to ascer. rival interests; but I wish, sir, to bring before tain that, sir, I move that the committee rise, rethis committee the principle in which, it seems to port progress, and ask leave to sit again. me, the people of the State generally have a deep The question was put on the motion of Mr. and an abiding interest—that no corporation shall Robertson, and it was declared lost, on a division, be permitted, by purchase or otherwise, to absorb by a vote of 37 to 43. or control any other corporation of a competing SEVERAL DELEGATES- There is no quocharacter. Now, for one, sir, I have no dread rum voting. of the formation of a continuous line of railroad The CHAIRMAN—There being no quorum or telegraph through the State. But, sir, the present, the President will resume the chair. danger, it seems to me, is here—that, when a Whereupon the committee rose, and the PRESvery large amount of wealth has been aggregated IDENT resumed the chair in Convention. together, it may, by purchase, by lease, or by Mr. CHESEBRO, from the Committee of tlie some other means, overshadow or prevent the Whole, reported that the committee had under formation of a rival to itself. I have no fears of consideration the joint report of the Committees the influence of the Central railroad upon the on Currency, Banking and Insurance and on Cor. politics or upon the future prosperity of the porations other than Municipal, and that, on a State, if the people shall be left free to make division being laken, it was found that no quorum another and a rival road. Hence I would put was present. this clause, or something similar, into the Consti. The PRESIDENT directed the Secretary to call tution, to preserve forover to the people an entire the roll of the Convention, which was done, and freedom from any overshadowing monopoly- it was found that the following delegates were preventing one great corporation from breaking presept: in upon, absorbing, and putting out of existence, Messrs. C. L. Allen, Al'ord, Andrew-3, Archer, 80 to speak, that which would grow up into a Axtell, Barker, Barto, Beadle, Berk with, Bell, wholesome competition to itself. And there is Bickford, E. P. Brooke, J. Brooks, Carpenter. Cas. no danger to be apprehended to the liberty or the sidy, Champlain, Chesebro, Church, Conger, Corbetty safoty of the people, while free competition is Corning, Curtis, C.C. Dwight, Ely, Endress, Evarts, allowed.

Folger, Fowler, Gerry, Goodrich, Greeley, Hale, Mr. SCHOONMAKER—I simply desire to reply Hand, Hardenburgh, Harris, Hiscock, Hitchcock, to a portio'i of the remarks made by the gentle. Houston, Hutchins, Kinney, Krum, Lapham, A. man from Westchester (Mr. Greeley). He speaks Lawrence, Lee, Ludington, Magee, Mattice, Merof the consolidation of the Central, and of the.rill

, Merwin, Monell, More, Morris, Nelson, Opeffect of that consolidation being the lowering of dyke, Paige, A. J. Parker, C. E. Parker, Pierrethe fare and the lowering of the charges on pont, President, Prindle, Prosser, Rathbun,

Robertson, Root, Rumsey, Schell

, Schoonmaker, in the amendment of 1854. The unanimous report Seaver, Seymour, Silvester, Sheldon, Strong, S. of the Committee on Finance, just submitted, recTownsend, Van Cott, Wakeman, Wales, Williams, ommends 'the re-enactment of the prolibition, Young-78.

contained in the present Constitution, and in that Mr. ALVORD-I move that the Convention do we entirely concur. now adjourn.

With respect to the resolution referred to your The question was put on the motion of Mr. committee, "to inquire into the expediency of Alvord, and it was declared carried.

providing by an amendment to the Constitution So the Convention adjourned.

for the leasing for a term of years the Champlain

canal or any other of the lateral State canals," TUESDAY, August 20, 1867. etc, your committee are of opinion that no such The Convention met at ten o'clock A. M. disposition is practicable.

Prayer was offered by Rev. JAMES P. The lateral canals should be treated as parts of MAGEE.

an entire system, which, as a whole, is self-susThe Jonrnal of yesterday was read by the taining and highly remunerative to the State, and SECRETARY, and approved.

no part of the same can be abandoned without Mr. LEE-I was requested by Mr. Gould res doing injustice to localities and incurring the seriterday morning on leaving his house, he being ous and merited displeasure of large portions of unwell, to ask leave of absence for him indeti- the people. A majority of the railroads which nitely.

have been constructed in the same or similar There being no objection, leave was granted. localities, have proved disastrous and non-paying Mr. M. H. LAWRENCE-I wish to ask leave investments to the proprietors; yet no one, in the of absence for Mr. Gross. I have received a let-sections interested, would tolerate the idea of ter from him stating that he is unwell, and that their abandonment. he would like to have his leave of absence ex Assuming that the canals are to remain State tended until Thursday.

property, the important question arises, what There being no objection, leave was granted. shall be the future policy of the State in regard

Mr. CASSIDY-I desire to ask leave of absence to this vast system of internal pavigation and for Mr. Corning for two days.

commerce with other States, through their agency? There being no objection, leave was granted. Shall they be preserved, improved and made as

Mr. SEYMOUR-I wish to ask leave of absence remunerative and beneficial to the public as the for Mr. Lowrey, of Brooklyu, for three days. The legitimale use of their resources will admit conexcuse is the sickness of his father.

sistently with existing obligations, and without There being no objection, leave was granted. resorting to taxation for that purpose; or shall

Mr. C. C. DWIGHT-I am compelled to ask they be denied all further improvement, their leave of absence for myself for three days, after diminished revenues handed over to other objects, the session of to-day.

and the faith and honor of the State sacrificed ? There being no objection, leave was granted. To adopt at this late day a system which will

Mr. BARKER-I ask for leave of absence for prevent the further improvement of the canals out my colleague, Mr. A. F. Allen, of Chautauqua, for of their own earnings, when such improvements the remainder of this week.

are found necessary, and such earnings sufficient There being no objection, leave was granted. for the purpose, and which would divert the grow

Mr. COCHRAN-I request leave of absence for ing commerce of the Northwest to other chanmyself from this session until next Thursday morn- nels, would be the height of financial folly and an ing.

inexcusable denial, on the part of this great There being no objection, leave was granted. State, of those obligations to the other States,

Mr. PRINDLE presented six petitions of resi- which arise from our geograplıical and commerdents of the county of Chenango, containing twocial position. hundred and fifty-nine names, asking the separate It is a truism that our conduct should at least submission of a clause prohibiting the sale of in-be as liberal and considerate with reference to toxicating liquors as a beverage.

the future as would be that of an individual in Which was referred to the Committee on similar circumstances. Adulterated Liquors.

Entertaining these views, your committee have Mr. CASSIDY presented a petition on the same devoted much of their time to the question as to subject.

what improvements, if any, are necessary, and Which took a like reference.

whether the revenues will be sufficient for the Mr. LAPHAM. from the Committee on Canals, purpose of such improvements without resort to submitted the following explanation, to accompany taxation, and without any abandonment of the the report heretofore made from that committee: pledges of the existing Constitution. · Your committee, in view of the great import Your committee found these questions very ance of the subjects thus considered, present a fully considered and discussed in the reports upon statement of the reasons which have governed the subject made by the Canal Committee to the their action in submitting the foregoing article for Legislature during its last session, and in the offiadoption by the Convention.

cial reports of canal officers for several years Yonr committee assume that the canals are to past. remain the property of the State. Such was the They have also taken the examination of engi. determination of the Convention of 1846. The neers, public officers and practical operators, who people ratified the decision by adopting the pres were deemed to possess the most reliable knowl. ent. Constitution. That expression was renewed 'edge upon the subject.

From these sources it appears that in the en. fifty to two hundred feet long, and say twentylargement of the Erie canal about seventy miles three feet wide, have been in successful operation of the eastern section, being the first portion en thereon for the last twelve or fifteen years. larged, was constructed with what are termed Their average speed, including lockages, being wall-benches, and is from six to ten feet narrow three miles per hour, at which they are limited er on the bottom than the remainder of the chan- by the regulations upon the canal." nel. The reverse should be the case, and the This change will diminish the cost of transporeastern the wider portion, to accommodate the station, give to the public the full use of the enaccumulation of boats as they come in from the larged channel of the canals, and secure to us the other canals and approach the Hudson river. The rapidly increasing commerce of the West and removal of these wall-benches, so as to make this Northwest. Already the opening gates of other portion of the canal as wide at least as the re-avenues are turning on their hinges, and upless maining portion, is indispensable to secure the we act promptly and wisely the flood may pass full navigable capacity of the Erie canal. in other directions.

They are also of opinion that the present locks We must depend mainly upon this commerce upon the Erie, Oswego and Cayuga and Seneca for our future revenues. The history of canal canals do not furnish to the canals more than one transportation abundantly proves this. quarter of such navigable capacity. The locks In 1837 there was only 56,255 tons from the will not admit of the passage of boats carrying over West reaching tide-water, while from within the about two hundred tons, and for considerable por. State the quantity was 321,251 tons. In 1866 tions of the seasons of navigation they are not suffi- the amount from within the State had diminished cient to accommodate the business now offered. to 287,948 tons, while that from the West had in

The published estimates and tables, based upon creased to 2,235,716 tons. This was the largest an equal distribution of lockages through the en quantity ever received, save in the exceptional tire season of such navigation, show that not years of 1862 and 1863, when the greatest delays over seventy-five or eighty per cent of the ca. occurred in the navigation of the canal. With pacity of the locks has yet been reached. these exceptions the increase has been gradual

But these estimates are fallacious in practice, and almost uniform from the cpening of the Erio as the main business is crowded into a much canal to the present time, as will appear by the shorter period of time. The lockages cannot, in following table, giving the tonnage arriving at practice, be so distributed, and when boats are tide-water by the Erie canal for the last thirty crowding for lockage, the time of passing will years, and the portions from within the State and always be more or less delayed by irregularities from the Western States and Canada. which unavoidably will occur. In the mode in which the business is now done,


From this

YEARS. the locks are taxed, during the season from harvest

Total tons. States, tons.

State, tons. to near the close of navigation, to their full capacity, and at times, beyond that. This is shown to have


56,255 321, 251 been the case for several years, resulting at times

587,506 1839

83,233 336,016 419,249 in serions and protracted delays in navigation. 1839,

121,671 261,596 386, 267 To obviate this and to secure to the public the 1840,

158, 148 309, 167 467,315 1841,

224,176 308,314 532,520 use of the navigable capacity of the canals, it is


221,477 258, 672 480, 149 proposed to construct a single tier of locks of 1843,

256,376 378,969 635, 345 sufficient size to pass boats twenty-three feet in 1814

308,025 491, 791 799,816 width and two hundred feet in length, capable of


304,551 655,039 959,590 1846

506,830 600, 662 1,107,270 carrying six hundred tons. The boats now in 1847,

912,840 618,412 1,431,252 use can be passed through such locks with the 1848,.

650, 154 534,183 1,184, 337 same facility as through those at present existing.


768, 659 498,068 1,266, 724 1850,

773,858 598,001 1,371, 859 The materials, where there are double locks, are 1851,

966,993 541,684 1,508,677 nearly, perhaps quite, sufficient for the new struc- 1852

1,151, 978 492,721 1,644,699 tures. To do an equal amount of business the


1,213, 690 637,748 1,851, 438 1854,

1,100,526 602,167 number of lockages will be diminished; carriers 1855,

1,702, 693

1,092, 876 327,839 1,420,715 will be enabled to take freight at reduced prices, 1856,

1,212,550 874, 550 1,587, 130 and steam can be used as a propelling power.

918,998 197, 201 1,117,199 1858,

1,273,099 223,588 The following extract from the report of the Com.

1,496,697 1859

1,036, 634 414,699 1,451,333 mittee on Canals, to which reference has been made, 1860,

1,896,975 379,086 2, 276,061 and which has been furnished to the members of


2, 158, 425 291,184 2,449, 609

1862 the Convention, is pertinent in this connection :

2,594,837 322, 257 2,917, 094 1863,

2,279, 252 368,437 2,647,689 "If any are of the opinion that the proposed 1864

1,907, 136 239, 498 2,146,634 work is of doubtful utility, after what has already 1865,

1,903, 642 173,538 2,077, 180 been stated herein, the committee respectfully

2,235,716 287, 948 2,523, 664 refer all such to the Delaware and Raritan canal, So the statistics show a like gratifying increase in the State of New Jersey, a canal of about the upon the tootage of all the canals during the same same sized prism as the Erie; with locks two period. In 1837 there was carried upon all the hundred and twenty feet long, and twenty-four canals 1,171,296 tops, valued at only $55,809,288, feet wide, two boats the size of those now in use and producing a revenue in tolls of $1,292,623, upon our canals will pass one of those locks at while in 1866 we reached the enormous amount the same time, full as quickly as one will through of 5,775,220 tons, valued at $270 963,676, and our locks; and steamers from one hundred and producing a revenue in tolls of $4,436,639.



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The following table will show the remarkable | What is to be done with all this property when steadiness and uniformity of this increase : transported to New York by rail ? The Atlantic

docks and the immense expenditure which has YEAR. Tons. Value. Tolls.

been made to furnish facilities for this commerce, by water, what is to be done with those? The

increased expense by rail is another insuperable 1837,

1,171,296 $55, 809,288 $1,292, 623 objection. The actual cost to the railroad from 1838,

1,333, 011 65, 746,559 1839,

1,435, 713 73,399,764 1,616,382 Buffalo to New York for the past three years, as 1840,

1,416,046 66,303,892 1,775, 747 appears by the returns made under oath, op be1841..

1,521, 661 92, 202,929 2,034, 882 half of the New York Central railroad company, 1842,

1,236,931 60, 016,608 1,749, 196 1843, 1,513, 439

has been double all the charges upon the Erie

76,276, 909 2,081,590 1844,

1,816, 586 90, 921, 152 2,446,374 canal, and in excess of the water carriage from 1845,

1,985,011 100, 553, 245 2,646,181 Chicago to New York. 1816,

2,268, 662 115,612, 109 2,756, 106 1947, 1,869,810 151,563, 428 3,635,381

The following is a statement of such cost and 1818,

2,796,230 140,086, 157 3,252 212 charges : 1849,

2,894, 732 144, 732, 285 3, 268, 226 1950,

3,076,617 156,397,929 3,273,899 1851,

3,582,733 159, 981,801 3,329,727 1852,

3,863, 441 196,603,517 3,118, 244 1853.

4, 247, 852 207,119,570 3, 204, 718 1854,

4,165, 862 210,284, 312 2,773,566 1855,

4,022,617 204,390, 147 2,805,077 1856,

4,116,082 218,327, 062 2,748, 203 1857,

3,343,061 136,997,018 2,045, 641 1858,

3,665, 192 138, 568, 844 2,110,754 1859,

3,781,684 132,160,758 1,723, 945 1860,

4,650, 214 170, 849, 198 3,079,597 1861,

4,507,635 130, 115,893 3,908, 785 1862,

5,598, 785 203, 234,331 5,188,943 1863.

5,557, 692 240,046, 461 4,645, 207 1864,

4,852,941 274,400,639 3,983,982 1865,

4,729, 654 256, 257,104 3,839,955 1866,

5,775, 220 270,968,676 4,436, 639 In 1866 3,305,607 tons reached tide-water from the Erie and Champlain canals. This was more than the foreign exports or imports at the city of New York. The rapid settlement and growth of the new States, and the rapidly increasing products of the States of the Northwest demand more ample facilities for transportation. It is clear that an increase of the capacity of the locks and aqueducts and the removal of the wall-benches are all that is requisite to furnish such facilities. If we fail to do this, that increasing commerce will be forced to seek other channels; but, if we exercise that wisdom and foresight which characterized the conduct of the distinguished men with whom the canal system originated, the Erie canal may continue to be what they designed and hoped it would always remain-the great artery of commerce from the lakes to the ocean.

Why should not such improvements be made upon the canals as time and experience have proved to be necessary, and as our means will allow? In truth, the position is now openly advocated that they should not be improved. The opponents of such improvement intrench themselves behind the position that the work is wholly un. necessary.

It is a strange position to advance that in the construction and operation of railroads, in river and ocean navigation, various improvements and vast expenditures are annually found necessary to supply the public wants and promote economy and convenience, but no such necessity exists in respect to the canals. They must stand still. Had the destinies of the Empire State always rested in the hands of such advocates, the Erie canal would never have been constructed.

The suggestion that this increasing business can be done by constructing railroads needs but a moment's notice. It is entirely impracticable.


The reports also show that the cost of repairs | ducts and bridges, the estimates heretofore made upon the track of railroads is equal to about ten are, in substance, adopted. per cent upon the cost of the road track, while A survey and estimate of the cost of enlarging the cost of superintendence and repairs upon the the locks and making improvements, as proposed, Erie canal, with all the waste of money which were made in 1863. An experienced engineer, has occurred, is only about one-tenth of that who assisted in making them, as the agent of the sun, or less than one per cent.

general government, was examined as a witness It will be an unfortunate day for the people of before us. From his evidence, it appears that the this State when they adopt and act upon the idea work was projected with a view of affording a that the canals have "fulfilled their mission," passage for gun-boats to the lakes. The pian and that "we have outgrown their more import- was to construct a series of new locks, all of new ant use." The Central road, during the periods material, of the highest finish used in structures aforesaid, carried all the freight its cars would of that character, leaving one tier of the present hold or its motive power propel, at the time when locks for permanent use. Ir arriving at the cost freights were pressing, and yet the quantity, ex- of twelve millions for such work, the cost prices cept animals, was only about one-fifth part of of 1860 were adopted aud fifty per cent added that taken by the canal, and including live stock thereto. less than one-third.

Three items of the same, for deepening the The Auditor has reported to this Convention in canal one foot, for land damages and removal of response to a resolution of inquiry the aggregate buildings, and engineering and contingencies cost of all the canals and feeders, both productive make $3,417,421. By changing the masonry and unproductive, with all cost of maintenance from the full finish therein contemplated to what and repairs, and interest at seven per cent upon all is termed rough dress or hammered masonry, and such expenditure. (Manual, vol. 2, 450, 451.) The by using the materials on hand, which are beentire cost and interest foots at $200,093,502.25. lieved to be ampie, where there are double locks,

The entire income, with interest, has been that estimate is greatly reduced. The materials $202,619,510.08. This leaves the canals debtors equal about one-half the cost of masonry. to the State in the sum of $7,473,992.27. As

Recapitulation. guming this statement to be correct, it follows For Champlain canal,

$800,000 00 that what are now termed canal debts have been Enlarging locks.....

4,000,000 (10

800,000 00 arbitrarily fixed as such. In no estimate or state. Enlarging aqueducts and bridges,

Additional water and basios,

400,000 00 ment which has fallen under our observation, Removal of wall-benches, etc.,.. 1,644,314 00 except in this of the Auditor, have the canals been credited with the $200,000 per annum

Estimated total cost,...

$6,644,314 00 which has been paid for the support of the State government out of their revenues since 1846.

The canal debts for payment of which provision This account of receipts and expenditures, and is made, are as follows:

$3,265,000 00 interest on each, appears to be the true mode of Canal enlargement debt,.

10,807, 000 00 determining the extent to which the canals are in- Floating debt,.

1,700,000 00 debted to the State. In either view of the subject the question may


$15,772,000 00 well be asked, what system of public works of The following statement shows the mode in equal magnitude can compare with our canal sys- which the cbligation to pay the above debts may tem in the remuneration they have furnished for be sacredly observed, the interest on the general the expenditures made in their construction and fund debt paid, the contemplated improvements maintenance ?

made, and upon the basis of $3,000,000 net rev. The canals we propose to have improved are enue in each year, which is about the average of creditors to the amount of over thirty-eight mil. the last seven years: lions of dollars.

Cash on hand May 1, 1867, applicable to the In determining the question whether the pro- payment of said debts, and the general fund debt, posed improvement can be made without taxation, as stated by the Auditor as follows: your committee have provided in the foregoing in the sinking fand, under section 12 of article for the payment of the principal and inter article 7,

$324,982 02 est as they fall due of the canal debt, the enlarge- In the sinking fund, under section 3 of ment debt, the floating debt, and the interest on In the sinking find, under section 1 of

608,852 33 the general fund debt. The appropriation al

article 7,..

1,076,900 00 ready made for the Champlain canal is supposed to be sufficient for the work, as now authorized Interest May 1, 1887, to January 1, 1868, at

$2,010,734 35 by law; bait an additional sum is set apart to 4 per cent,

53,619 58 meet any contingency, and save a resort to taxation. Net tolls, season of 1807,. ... $3,000,000 00 They have estimated the cost of building the Less interest on

canal debt enlarged works at $40,000 per lock, or $4,000,000.

from April 1, Witnesses have testified that price is ample for 1867, to July the purpose.

1, 1868 (nine An experienced contractor and former canal Interest on gen

months).,.... $684,878 75 officer, on his examination, stated he wouid be eral fund debt willing to do the work at the sum named.

Oct.1, 1866. to For the removal of the wall.benches; for addi

Jan. 1, 1868,.. 403,082 94 1,087,881 69 1,912,118 31 tional water and basins, and for enlarging aque- Balance, January 1, 1868,.

$3,976,472 24

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