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Mr. FLAGLER – The gentleman advocates the The SECRETARY proceeded to read the resoprinting of two thousand copies of this report lution as follows: because we will thus be sowing it broadcast Resolved, That the sessions of the Convention throughout the State. I reply that two thousand on Mondays commenco at half-past seven o'clock will be a very small amount of seed for so large a P. M. field, and this sowing broadcast will be done by Mr. GREELEY called for the ages and poes on the public press of the State, and I shall vote the resolution. against the printing of extra copies. I believe it A sufficient number seconding the call, the ayes is not necessary, and I believe, also, if we estab- and noes were ordered. lish this precedent, it will serve as a precedent for The question was put on the resolution, and it a large expenditure of public money.
was declared adopted by the following vote : Mr. SHERMAN - Allow me to ask the Chair Ayes — Messrs. C. L. Allen, Andrews, Armman of the committee, for information, what strong, Baker, Ballard, Barnard, Beadle, Bergen, would be the probable cost of these two thousand E. Brooks, W. C. Brown, Burrill, Carpenter, Chescopies, my impression is that it would not be a ebro, Clinton, Cochran, Comstock, Conger, Cornlarge sum.
ing, C. C. Dwight, Eddy, Fowler, Frank, Fullerton, Mr. SEAVER — As regards the cost I am una- Garvin, Gerry, Gross, Hardenburgh, Hiscock, ble to say precisely what it will be, but I appre. Hitchman, Huntington, Jarvis, Kerpan, Ketcham, hend the sum will not be very large.
Krum, Larremore, Law, Livingston, Loew, LowThe question was then put on the motion of rey, Masten, Mattice, Morris, Paige, A. J. Parker, Nr. E. Brooks, and it was declared carried. Pond, Potter, Prosser, Robertson, Rogers, Rolfe,
The question was put on the passage of the A. D. Russell, Schell, Schoonmaker, Schumaker, resolution reported by the committee, as amended Seymour, Silvester, Sheldon, Sherman, Strong, by the motion of Mr. E. Brooks and it was declared Tappen, M. I. Townsend, S. Townsend, Wickham, lost by the following vote:
Young-64. dyes-Messrs. N. M. Allen, Armstrong, Baker, Noes — Messrs. A. F. Allen, N. M. Allen, Barnard, Beadle, Beals, Bell, Bergen, Bickford, Alvord, Axtell, Barker, Barto, Beals, Bell, Bick. E. P. Brooks, E. A. Brown, Carpenter, Comstock, ford, Bowen, E. P. Brooks, E. A. Brown, Case, Corning, T. W. Dwight, Iddy, Evarts, Fowler, Cooke, T. W. Dwight, Ely, Endress, Evarts, Fuller, Gould, Gross, Hammond, Huntington, Flagler, Folger, Francis, Fuller, Gould, Graves, Jarvis, Kinney, Krum, Landon, A. Lawrence, Greeley, Hadley, Hammond, Harris, Hitchcock, Livingston, Loew, Lowrey, McDonald, Merritt, Houston, Hutchins, Kinney, Landon, Lapham, Opdyke, Paige, Pond, Potter, President, Prindle, A. Lawrence, A. R. Lawrence, M. H. Lawrence, Prosser, Reynolds, Rolfe, L. W. Russell, Seaver, Ludington, McDonald, Merritt, Merwin, Monell
, Seymour, Silvester, Sherman, Spencer, Stratton, Opdyke, President, Prindle, Rathbun, Reynolds, Strong, Tappen, M. I. Townsend, s. Townsend, Rumsey, L. W. Russell, Seaver, Spencer, StratWeed, Williams-55.
ton, Van Campen, Van Coll, Wakeman, Wales, Nues-Messrs. A. F. Allen, C. L. Allen, Alvord, Williams-57. Andrews, Axtell, Ballard, Barker, Barto, Bowen, Mr. COMSTOCK offered the following resoluE. Brooks, W. C. Brown, Burrill, Case, Chesebro, tion: Clinton, Cochran, Conger, Cooke, C. O. Dwight, Ely, Resolved, That the Committee on the Salt Endress, Field, 'Flagler, Folger, Francis, Frank, Springs be authorized to hold a sitting at the salt Fullerton, Garvin, Gerry. Graves, Greeley, Had- reservation, with power to administer oaths and ley, Hardenburgh, Harris, Hiscock, Hitchcock, examine witnesses as they may deem necessary, Hitchman, Houston, Hutchins, Keruan, Ketcham, and that, for the purpose of holding such sitting, Lapham, Larremore, Law, A. R. Lawrence, M. H. the members of the committee have leave of abLawrence, Lodington, Masten, Mattice, Merwin, sence from Thursday evening until Saturday of Monell, Morris, A. J. Parker, Rathbun, Robertson, this week. Rogers, Rumsey, A. D. Russell, Schell, Schoon The question was put on the resolution, and it maker, Schumaker, Sheldon, Van Campen, Van was declared adopted. Cott. Wakeman, Wales, Wickham, Young-65. Mr. MERRITT-I have a resolu'ion which I
Mr. KINNEY — I would like, if in order, to ask wish to offer, which has for its object the facilitatleave of absence for Mr. Root, of Oswego, for one ing the business of this Convention, and I hope it week from to-day, on account of ill health. will meet with the concurrence of the members of
No objection being made, leave was granted. this body
Mr. BERGEN - I would like to ask for indefi Resolved, That when the Committee of the nite leave of absence for Mr. Murphy, who is de- Whole shall resume the consideration of the tained home by sickness.
ar ticle reported by the Committee on the LegislaNo objection being made, leave was granted. Lure, its Organization, etc., debate thereon shall be
Mr. BARTO-I ask for leave of absence for limited to five minutes to one speaker for, and one Mr. Magee for an indefinite length of time, on against each amendment; and after four hours account of personal illness.
shall have been thus spent, the vote shall be taken No objection being made, leave was granted. on the amendment then pending, and such as
Mr. SILVESTER – I wish to ask leave of ab- may be offered with ut further debate, and when sence for myself for to-morrow and the day after, the article as amended shall have been reported on account of business which must be attended to to the Couvention, it shall be immediately consid
No objection being made, leave was granted. ered, and be made the special order for each day,
Ur. TAPPEN called up for consideration the immediately after the approval of the Journal, resolution offered by him yesterday.
until disposed of.
Mr. WEED – It certainly seems to me this next is to speak for the other side of the questi resolution should be amended. As I stated, when The great body of the Convention might as v the resolution in relation to the discussion on the have staid al home if this is to be the v report of the Committee on the Right of Suffrage things are to be done, and have let the committ was before the Convention, we have not yet got come here and nobody else. I hope this Conv through the first section, and there are other very tion will allow discussions upon subjects important questions in that report, which cannot have now before us, that are among the most be discussed and cannot be understood, by dis- portant that can be discussed in this Conventior cussions of ten minutes in this body. As I un. the representation of the people of the State derstand the resolution of the gentleman the Senate and Assembly of the State. from St. Lawrence, le proposes to limit the The hour of two o'clock having arrived, 1 discussion in this Committee of the Whole, Convention took a recess until half-past sey upon this question of the change of the districts o'clock. of members of Assembly in this State, and upon
EVENING SESSION. all the important questions in his report, to one The Convention re-assembled at half-past ser speech of five minutes, on the part of the party o'clock. moving an amendment, and one of five minutes Mr. ALVORD-I desire to of the opposite side. It seems to me if this report sideration of the vote by which the Conventi is to be adopted, and we are to consider it, such determined that upon every Monday they wou a resolution as this should not pass. We have dis. meet at half-past seven o'clock P. 1., instead cussed for days the first section of the report. I every alternate Monday, as under the former re myself have not taken any part in that discussion, ulation. and I do not believe that discussion has been pro The motion was laid over under the rule. longed to an improper length upon the question The PRESIDENT announced the peuding que of the organization of the Senate, and now, attion to be on the adoption of the resolution of this time, instead of a resolution asking for Merritt. a vote upon the sections we have discussed at Mr. M. I. TOWNSEND-I do not desire a certain hour, and then to proceed to the other extend my remarks upon the question before tl sections—we find a resolution here which compels Convention. I had stated that we had one ve us to limit the debate upon the other and general important question that we had not discussed questiors, to five minutes upon a side. It seems all, the question, that is, the mode of electing o lo me it is entirely improper. Of course, if the members of Assembly or the popular branch of t1 majority see fit to adopt such a resolution, we have Legislature, and that certainly we should ned but to submit; but it does seem to me, if the more time than was proposed by this resolutio gentleman appreciates his report and its import. I do not believe we need be in a hurry about it ance, there should be a graduated scale, and we the present moment, because I think the right o should have twenty minutes, certaiuly upon the debate has not been abused, and that we sha organization of the Assembly, for a short time at get through it without any difficulty if we go o least, so that a man voting upon the subject could with the business. So believing, I move to la understand it properly, or give some reason for the resolution on the table. his vote. One other reason why I think we The question was put on the motion, to lay o should not adopt the resolution-we have had no the table and it was declared carried, on a div sort of intimation from the chairman, or the com- sion, by a vote of 58 to 22. mittee be represents, why he maki s these changes; Mr. FOLGER — But eighty votes are cast there was no written report from that committee there is not a quorum voting. giving the reasons for these changes, and I defy Mr. BARNARD- The President has him or any other gentleman to give satisfactory voted; his vote will make up a quorum. reasons in five minutes, and I say it is a shame to So the motion was declared carried. try to limit the opposition to that report, or to any Mr. MERRITT - Is it proper for me to with section, to a reply of five minutes.
draw the resolution ? Mr. M. I. TOWNSEND - I hope the resolution The PRESIDENT - It is; no action has ye will not be adopted. Eminent courtesy has been been taken. extended to the gentleman from St. Lawrence Mr. MERRITT -I withdraw the resolutior [Mr. Merritt] to enable him to speak once, and offer the following as a substitute : twice, thrice, or as often as be pleased almost, Resolved, That, uoless debate shall sooner ter with regard to so much of the report as has minate, the Committee of the Whole shall, at one already been discussed, and I think it comes—my o'clock P. M. to-morrow, rise and report to tlie friend will pardon me for saying it with an ex. Convention the reported article from the Commit. ceedingly ill grace from him now, to propose to tee on the Organization of the Legislature, etc., limit this discussion as proposed by this rosolu with all the amendments made in the Committee tion. For one moment let us look at the position of the Whole, and that the said report of the in which we shall be placed. The individual who Committee of the Whole, with amendments offered happens to catch the eye of the Chair, who has and to be offered, shall be immediately considered the readiest voice and the quickest spring, and and be made the special order for each day, immegets upon the flour and speaks for or against any diately after the approval of the Journal, until proposition, he is to embody the whole mind of disposed of. the house that can be brought to bear upon the Úr. ALVORD-I am in favor, as much as the subject that happens to be under discussion; and gentleman from St. Lawrence (Mr. Merritt), or the individual who succeeds in getting the floor any other gentleman on this floor, of expediting
the business of the Convention; and I will go in committee desire is to relieve themselves from favor of the proposition if the gentleman will re that responsibility. Now, we must have a conduce it into form so that there shall be debate clusion some time. The gentleman from Onondaga upon each one of the sections in this article, that (Mr. Alvord) in his remarks pretended to say debate to be longer or shorter, as the interest how it should be done, but he failed to offer any of the article may indicate; and the speeches in proposition which might effect this end. regard to the matter shall be limited to a time Mr. ALVORD-I merely wish to suggest to certain, so that in the aggregate of the time there the gentleman that I will draw up a resolution if shall be a fixed time upon which we can come he desires, but I supposed it should come from out of Committee of the Whole, with the privi. the committee, rather than from me. lege, in each individual case, when upon each Mr. MERRITT — Under the existing rule section, the amount of time shall have been when we come into Convention, debate will be consumed in debate, there shall be opportunity of allowed pro and con, by two persons five minutes laying on the table of the committee amendments upon each proposition. I uoderstood some gento the proposition without debate, and that the vote tleman here who was in the minority, intimated upon the incoming of the matter in the Conven that it would be well to limit the debate in tion shall be taken with debate, if the Convention Committee of the Whole for the purpose of going see fit, aud without the interposition of any amend over this article. It was with that view that I ment other than has been before the Committee proposed we should limit the debate in the Comof the Whole. In this way a fair examination of mittee of the Whole to twenty minutes to each the article under consideration will have been proposition; after that, when it comes into Conhad, and we shall have been enabled to speak to vention, there will be five minutes for two persons, each and every section. But under the arrange who wish to speak on amendments to the proposiment of the proposition of the gentleman as it tion. It seems to me we must have some limit. was on the report of the Committee on Suffrage, Upon putting this motion I call for the ayes and we never got beyond the begiuning in the Com noes, for the purpose of relieving the committee, mittee of the Whole and we merely double the at least, of the responsibility for delay. work on it, so that in fact, in Convention, as well Mr. SCHOONMAKER-I move to lay the as in Committec of the Whole, we double the labors resolution on the table. of the investigation of the different matters con. Mr. GREELEY - I ask the ayes and noes on nected with the report. Now, my idea, and I that. think it is according to the strict parliamentary Mr. FOLGER -I move the previous questiou practice which has been had heretofore, in regard upou the adoption of the resolution, and I supto these matters, and will facilitate business, is to pose that will take precedence of the motion 10 determine in regard to each section, how much lay on the table. time shall be employed in Committee of the whole The PRESIDENT — It does tako precedence. giving opportunity for all amendments that may The question is shall the main question be now be necessary, endiug with the aggregate of time put ? thus employed upon the bill in Committee of the Mr. E. BROOKS—Before the Chair puts that Whole, aud on which they shall couclude their question I submit
, as a point of order, unless we labors; so they will be enabled to report affirm. have a rule that is not within my own mind, as a atively upon each and every proposition, and then member of the Committee on Rules, that even after come into the Convention. The Convention, the previous question is moved, before there is a under a previous rule, if they desire it, have second, it is in order to lay on the table. entire control of the matter, confining the action The PRESIDENT - The Chair does not so of the Convention, so far as the amendments are understand the rule. concerned, directly to matters which have been The question was then put on the motion for proposed in Committee of the Whole. This man. the previous question, and it was declared carried. ner of proceeding will facilitate business iu regard The question was then put on the adoption of to this matter; and if adopted in regard to every the resolution offered by Mr. Merritt, and, on a one of the bills before us, will very much shorten division, it was declared lost by a vote of 26 the time of our labors.
to 60. Mr. MERRITT -I only desire that the com The Convention then resolved itself into the mittee shall conclude discussion upon this article. Committee of the Whole on the report of the ComI regret exceeding'y –
mittee on the Legislature, its Organization, etc., Mr. M. I. TOWNSEND – Why not go into Mr. FULLER, of Monroe, in the chair. committee now for the next hour and a half for The CHAIRMAN — The pending question is discussion on this question ?
upon the amendment offered by way of substitute Mr. MERRITT - \ regret exceedingly that by by the gentleman from Albany (Mr. Parker), to the offering of a resolution looking to the facili- the amendment of the gentleman from Rich. tating of business in this Convention I should so mond [Mr. E. Brooks), as amended upon the disturb the ordinary peaceful and quiet and lamb motion of the gentleman from Cortland (Mr. Ballike gentleman from Rensselaer (Mr. M. I. Town- lard), in committee. send]. I regret exceedingly he should be so dis Mr. A. J. PARKER — I ask that the question tarbed. The only desire of the committee is to may be divided on the first part of the proposi. facili:ate business, and any mode that will tend to tion, and voted upon separately. that end will meet our bearty concurrence.
We The SECRETARY read the first proposition as do feel to a certaic extent responsible for follows: urging forward action upon this report. All the Sec. 2. The Legislature for 1868 shall divide
the State into eight senate districte, to be num-fit. It must not be forgotten that in regard to the bered from one to eight inclusive, each district to Senate of this State the characters of these gen. contain, as nearly as may be, an equal number of tlemen present a picture that is one-half of the inhabitants excluding aliens. No county shall be history of the State. I admit they are characters divided except it shall contain a greater population to be reverenced and respected. But do gentlemen than is necessary for one senate district.
expect to return to a system by which those Mr. HATCH -- That has been voted down characters were sent here? Do they expect to practically, once.
have a Senate which is elected by the The CHAIRMAN -I think not. The ques. property holders only? Are they looking for a tion is on the first part of the amendment. conservative body elected by the tax payers only?
Mr. VAN CAMPEN -- There has been a good I imagine the body they are looking for can deal of discussion upon the question upon which only be obtained in that way. Do they proposo we are now about to vote—the question between to go back to that system? No gentleman pro. single districts and large districts. The ground poses in terms to do that. But I suspect, if they has been pretty thoroughly gone over. Gentle were to avow their real sentiments, they would men on both sides have assumed their positions say they would be willing to return to that if with a great deal of confidence. I might satisfy they could. myself if I voted “yea" or "nay" on the propo Mr. BARKER - Will my colleague allow me sition. But as the question is one of so much im to ask him whether he has heard any gentleman portance that it underlies the whole system of suggest that? our government, and the arguments which have Mr. VAN CAMPEN - I would be glad if the been adduced here are of that character, in my gentlemau did not put his question so directly, beopinion, I therefore take this occasion to express cause the answer might implicate some geutleman my entire dissent, not only from the proposition, on this floor. but from the arguments which have been offered Mr. BARKER - I apprehend any gentleman in support of it. In my opinion, if there is will excuse my colleague. any one principle that is, or should be well set Mr. VANCAMPEN-It is claimed here, you tled, it is the principle of single districts. should elect men that would not be influenced by For the purpose of this discussion it has been con minor considerations. I ask if you can correct ceded that the Legislature should be organized with that evil by electing them from a district as large as a Senate and Assembly. For the further purpose our judicial districts ? Not at all. Any gentleof this discussion it has been conceded that an man familiar with the machinery that is used in Assembly should consist of about 128 members, a making dominations will tell you, you cannot little more or a little less; that the Senate should correct the evil at all. It necessitates this thing; consist of 32 members. If those questions are it establishes a central clique, and all nominations conceded, in my judgment the work of this are figured out by that central clique, and any Convention upon that question is settled. The gentleman who wants a nomination will have to balance of the work becomes a logical con apply to that clique. It is no new thing. It is done clusion established upon these premises. already; what would be the result of it? Mr. A., If we have settled that 105, 000, electors who wants a nomination in another district, would in this State are entitled to one member you have propose himself to the central head, and the real settled the whole question. All that is left to effect would be in my district, the Buffalo Express this Convention after that, is the apportioning of would tell us who wanted to be nominated bere these districts, contiguity of territory, contiguity not there, or there. That is the way the system of electors, the creation of counties, and the sub- would work. The whole work would be laid out division of counties into political divisions of the by the central head, and very likely as it was laid State. The argumeuts offered here in favor of out it would be done. What were the arguments large districts astonish me. If they prove any. that were used in favor of the large district systern? thing at all what do they prove? They prove They were that it would make the Senator indepen. us incapable of self-government. When I return dent of the elector. It was in effect to make the serto my district I must say that the arguments we vant independent of his master. It was to make offered here were such, that if they went to estab- the representative iudependent of the persons he lish anything, they established the fact that the represented. Now, we think a great deal of inde. people of my district are not able to determine pendence in the district where I live; but we who shall represent them in the Senate. I can do not think much of that kind of independence. say nothing else than that it is a proposition to It is not the kind we are after. If we have any take out of their hands by indirection what no servants we want them directly responsible to us. man dares attempt directly; and to do by circum. We do not want a divided responsibility; we do locution what they dare not propose by direct not want any Mr. A. or Mr. B., who will say, it is terms to accomplish. That is what it is. It is not my fault, but Mr. C.'s fault. We think we are no more, no less, than that. I respect talent; I capable of sending a responsible representative. respect learning; I respect dignity, and I re- If we are not, it is our own fault. We do not member in my boyhood days of standing in the ask you to sympathize with us, we do not ask Senate and listening to the addresses of your interference at all, in providing a system of gentlemen who addressed that Senate, not furnishing us with candidates. Now, you cannot only as counselors, but as gentlemen who dis- procure talent, you cannot procure dignity, you cussed a question as in a court of errors cannot procure ability in any greater degree in a with measured sentences and cadences. They large district than you can in a small district. impressed me in such a way I have never forgotten. You cannot overcome local minor considerations
in that way. It is ouly by putting the responsi: / most simple and direct, to accomplish the objects bility upou each of the districts and allowing them for which we are here, Except that the State of to select their men and making them responsible New York is a large property holder, our duties, to that district. Then they will be faithful to would be extremely simple here. The fact that the district if they are vigilant, because the old the State has one of the most valuable properties maxim is noge the less truo now" Eternal vigi- on the globe creates the necessity and puts duties, lance is the price of liberty." What is it that upon us that are outside of the ordinary functions produces the corruption charged in this Legisla- of government. We as a State have departed ture? I am not bere as an accuser, but it is said from tlie simplo functions of government; and very great malfeasances obtain here in this cham- whether wise oc unwise it is not vecessary to bar and the other, that are chargeable to the single discuss now, but such is the fact. The questions district system. No, sir, they are chargeable to growing out of that fact are such as are before us other causes. There were vicious provisious in co-day. The question of the representation very the Coustitution, and they have brought fortla their properly belongs to thọ simple functions of gov. fruits. Sir, it is the mammoth corporations that ernment. While I go for giving those things to have grown up in this state that, among other the people to allow them to act directly upou them, things, lave produeed corruption here. It is the I am in favor of strengthening the Executive. franchises they have sought here that have brought I therefore am willing to incorporate the prohundreds and thousands of dollars to corrupt this visions which are precautionary in their character, legislation. Gentlemen come here seeking to and which, in their effect, must act in a conservaobtain franchises by which they can put fortunes tive way to the extent that States are willing to in their own pockets. It is a well known fact that incorporate such provisions with reference to tho these corporations were here for that purpose, Executive. That is the place to get your conservaand those men who come here for the purpose of tive influence. The time has gone by for you to seeking their owu protic and gain, think it perfectly get it anywhere else. You cannot do it. It is proper to rob these corporations if they can do it. among the things that are past; oblivion is over That is the principle that has manifested itself here. them. It only astonishes and surprises me that The whole system of provisions in that Constitution. geutlemen should come here and propose to return save these siugle districts, have operated to pro- to what has been so thoroughly condemned. duce that corruption. The system of caual I remember the condition of things existing njauagement in this State, and the canal claims under the old system. They are not new to me; that have been put through here at five times they have not pasged out of my recollection. If ileir value, las corrupted the Legislature. I af any political folly could be committed by this peal w this Convention that the statements that Convention it would be returning to that system. have been made are not true, and if, from their Mr. BELL -I am not a little surprised at tho owu observation and the common sense of this turn this debate is taking. I had hoped when Convention, they are not convinced that the the gentleman from Richmond (Mr. E. Brooks] argumeuts I have given are true. I object to rose to a point of order, claiming that this was an having the large district system foisted on us equivalent question to that settled by the amend. by false inferences. I object to gentlemen attainment of the gentleman from Cortland (Mr. Bal. ing an end by circumlocution that they dare pot lard), that the Chair would so rule, and that we atlaiu indirectly. I canuot go home to my con. would have passed over the point of large or small stituents permitting such a measure 10 pass with. Senate districts and discuss some other section in out raising my voice against it. If it does pass, I the report. I have never been in the habit of cannot go home to my constituents and advise making a factious opposition when debate was them to submit to it, because it is based upon ar-closed and the question fairly taken and I was gumeuts impeaching their integrity and their found to be in a minority. I do not see the procapability to manage their own atfairs.
priety of the majority-thoso who voted for the Mr. MERRITT — I would like to ask the gen- small districts--opening this discussion. I was tleman a question. I would like to know how among those, sir, that favored large senate dislately lie has lieard from his constituency, because tricts, and gave my reasons for $0 doing ; I understood him to indorse this report, and I we approached a yote last evening, and the am happy to say to cordially ipdorse it.
vote was largely in favor of the small senMr. VAN CAMPEN-The gentleman's state. ate districts, and with that I am content. ment is true, but I am very happy to say that I [ subunit to the majority in all cases, but I do not have arrived at the conclusion which I give to see the propriety now of discussing this question you to-niglit after full consideration. That is the and discussing this same proposition any longer. answer I have to make to the gentleman. Wo I had relied on many gentlemen who came to me, must not pass upon a question fundamental to the and with whom I had conversed, to sustain the interests of this State without a thorough analysis large districts. Many of my democratic friends of all the propositions involved in it. This is a were in favor of the large districts; they talked goveroment for the people and of the people. I for the large districts, but they voted for the have not lost confidence in the people. I trust small ones, and I do not think ihat we should every step we shall take, we shall go forward iuti. Dow cndeavor to change that vote.
If they matiog that we do trust in the people. I protest have sought to effect party purposes by it, as against these imputations that it becomes neces- far as the republican party is concerned cer. sary to go in any other way to the people tainly they are not to be injured in the matter; for these nominations, except in the most simple they certainly have an opportunity of choosing as and direct manner, for provisions that are many Senators by the small district system as