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as some little elucidation I may say that in the raised circle, enclosed by low earthen walls. It first line dartes is the plural nominative to its verb remained entire until about thirty years ago, when hittes, placed in the singular either through the it was obliterated by orders of the proprietor. interposition of colon, or else as affording a rhyme Human remains and a sepulchral urn were got to splittes ; the double prickes I take to be the when clearing it out. “ quotation marks." A prick" was in those days! The Earl of Strathearn, Patrick Grabam, with a a synonyme for a comma. Br. Nicholson. view of carrying out his design of deposing his

brother-in-law, Sir John Drummond of Concraig, CYMBELINE,' V. v. 447, 448 (7th S. ii. 85). from the office of Steward of Strathearn, proceeded And "mollis aer,"

at the head of a large retinue from Methven, his We term it “mulier."

residence, with the intention of dissipating Sir With reference to the above passage Dr. W. ALDIS John's court, assembled at the Skeat of Crieff on WRIGHT quotes from 'A World of Wonders,'1607, | Aug. 10, 1413. Sir John, in the words of Vis& similar derivation of mulier, but says that he has count Strathallan, in his 'Genealogy of the House been unable to discover who is responsible for aer. of Drummond,'having got intelligence of the deWho is responsible I cannot say, but he may not sign, “ advanced with the friends he had present object to being informed that the same derivation with him to meet the earl, whom at the first enoccurs in Caxton's Game and Playe of the counter he killed, without any more blood shed, Chesse,' 1474:

for none of the earl's company offered to revenge “For the women ben likened ynto softe waxe or softe

the slaughter, but suffered the actors to escape." ayer, and therfor she is callid mulier, whyche Is as The “kind Gallows of Crieff” referred to by Sir mocke to saye in latyn as mollys aer,"—P. 123, reprint, Walter Scott stood in the neighbourhood of the 1883.

Skeat, at the western extremity of the town. F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY. In the curious poem 'Polwart and MontRICHARD II.' II. i. 84 (7th s. iii. 402).-An gomery's Flyting, where the popular beliefs in instance of a dying man punding upon his own

in witchcraft and fairy-lore are graphically portrayed, name is furnished in the case of John Huss, the

there is a reference to this ancient judgment-seat. Bohemian reformer. Huss was burned at the

After describing a witch meeting, where an imp stake on July 6, 1415, the anniversary of his

was baptized with hellish rites, the poet proceeds: birth. Shortly before being overcome by the Be ane after midnight, their office was ended : heat of the flames, he said, “It is thus that you At that tyd was na tyme for trumpers to tarie : silence the goose use Googe but a hundred | Syne backward, on horse backe, brauely they bended ;

That cammosed cocatrice they quite with them carie. years bence there will arise a swan whose sing

To Kait of Criefe, in an creill, soone they gard send it; ing you shall not be able to silence(Wylie,

Where seuin yeir it sat, bath singed and sairie. * Hist. of Prot.,' vol. i. p. 164). On Nov. 10, 1483, The kin of it, be the cry, incontinent kend it;

Martin Luther, who is generally re- | Syne fetcht food for to feid it, foorth fra the Pharie garded, and rightly so, as having fulfilled this

| Ilke elfe of them all brought an almous house oster. remarkahle prophecy to the letter.

A. G. REID. ROBERT F. GARDINER.

Auchterarder.

P.S.--Since writing the above, I have seen “WAY” IN SHAKSPEARE (7th S. iii. 511). —

the notes by James Cranstoun, LL.D., to the “My way of life” (“Macbeth,' V. iii. 22) means

Flyting' in the recently published edition of my mode, grade, or manner of living, i.e., my walk

Montgomery's poems by the Scottish Text Society. in life is fallen, &c. I remember a market gar

He takes “ Kate” for a female; by the context the dener, speaking of a good customer of his in the

word evidently means a place. By the way, he suburbs as having "fell in business."

refers to the burning of Kate McNiven of Monzie Her smiles and tears were like a better way. as a witch at Crieff in 1715. This Kate appears,

Lear,' IV. iii. 20. llre the other to be an annoronhal nara

like the other, to be an apocryphal personage. The quartos have way, but the whole scene is There is no notice of her or her trial, so far as I am wanting in the first folio. Knight reads “ day," aware, in any contemporary record-civil, criminal, the Globe marks “ corrupt"; the expression, how or ecclesiastical. Nicneven was the common name ever, is sound and Biblical, see 1 Cor. xii. 31. So given in Scotland to the mother-witch, or gyre “ better way "=pleasant path; "sunshine and rain carlin. She is so referred to in the 'Flyting.' On sperplex the traveller] her smiles and tears were this foundation the story of Kato MacNiven of (preferable].”

A. HALL Monzie appears to have been raiserl.

was

THE SKEAT OF CRIEFF.—The Skeat was the CURIOUS LOCAL NAME FOR THE MISSELsite of the open-air court of the Stewartry of THRUSH.-A correspondent lately sent me, from Strathearn. It was situated about half a mile to the neighbourhood of Banbury, a list of local birdthe south-east of the town of Crieff. It was a names in common use in that part of Oxon, one of which is not to be found in Mr. Swainson's uses it to signify the apparel and ornaments of the wife, • Provincial Bird Names' lately published by the suitable to her rank and degree; and therefore even the

jewels of a peoress usually worn by her have been held Dialect Society; nor can I find any trace of it

"to be her paraphernalia," - Commentaries,' bk. ii. elsewhere. The missel-thrush is there called the ch. 29, sixteenth ed., 1825, vol. ii. p. 435. Norman gizer (the second word is spelt by my

This word is now used by inaccurate writers to correspondent as pronounced). This bird is known

mean pretty nearly anything. I have notes of its also in Salop as the Norman thrush, presumably

being used to signify things belonging to oaths from its being a larger or finer bird than the

and swearing, to the devil, to a lady's dress, to the common species, and in the same sepse in which

vestments used by the priests of the Catholic French is 80 often used ; e. g., French heckle, for

Church, and to the official dress of magistrates. the spotted woodpeckers ; French nut, for walnut.

This last curious misappropriation of the word I But wbat is gizer? I have searched in vain through

have come upon I give below. The writer is Mr. Wright's Vocabularies, from which much

describing a horse-race which he witnessed at interesting information may be derived as to Old

Catania on the feast of St. Agatha, the patroness : English names of birds, without finding anything

| “The business of these first magistrates of the city, to throw light on it ; nor did Rolland's 'Faune

decked out in all their paraphernalia, and attended by Populaire de la France' contribute anything, drummers, fifers, and musqueteers, was to declare the except that the ordinary French name for the bird winner amongst half a dozen jades, the best of which was is grive de gui. Gui is French for mistletoe, and not worth ten pounds."-John James Blunt, “Vestiges the old form of the word is guix, as was pointed

of Ancient Manners and Customs discoverable in Modern out to me by Prof. Earle (see Littré, s. v.). Is it

Italy and Sicily,' 1823, p. 60. possible that this is the origin of the North Oxon

I do not think that this perversion of meaning word gizer; and, if so, how are we to account for the

became common until the end of the last century, survival of a French form in a single English rural It would be interesting to find out when it arose, district ? Perhaps some correspondent will be able to produce a parallel form which may confirm or of an error which is disfiguring to the language correct my etymology. If gizer is really connected and serves no purpose of immediate convenience. with guix, the coincidence of the word with the

K. P. D. E. epithet Norman is at least striking and suggestive. Gray's Inn: MASQUES AND REVELS.—The

I leave untouched for the present the common first entertainment of this kind of which there is local name gor-(or gaw-)thrush, as it can hardly any record took place at Gray's Inn in the year have any etymological relation to gizer.

1525. Hall, in his 'Chronicle, thus refers to it: W. WARDE FOWLER. " A Plaie at Gray's Inn. This Christmas was a goodly Lincoln College, Oxford.

disguising played at Gray's Inn, which was compiled by

John Roo, Serjeant at Law, twenty years past. This EPITAPH. (See 7th S. iii. 426.)—The following | play was 80 set forth with rich and costly apparel, and lines may interest MR. DE V. PAYEN-PAYNE, as with strange devices of masks and morrishes, that it was containing the mention of another pagan deity. I highly praised by all men, except by the Cardinal

[Wolsey), who imagined that the play was devised of They may be seen in Babraham Church, near

him. In a great fury be sent for Master Roo, and took Cambridge :

from him his Coif, and sent him to the Fleet; and afterHere lies Horatio Palavazene,

wards he sent for the young gentlemen that played in Who robbed the Pope to lend the Queen,

the play and highly rebuked and threatened them, and He was a thief, Athief? Thou liest;

Bent one of them called Moyle of Kent to the Fleet, but For whie? He robbed but Antichrist.

by means of friends Master Roo and be were delivered Him Death with besome swept from Babram at last. This play bore displeased the Cardinal, and yet Into the bosom of old Abram :

it was never meant for him, wherefore many wise men Then came Hercules with his club,

grudged to see him take it so to heart. And even tbe And struck him down to Beelzebub.

Cardinal said that the King was highly displeased with Sir Horatio Palavicini was Genoese, and was

it, and spake notbing of himself.

"In 1613. The Maske of Flowers' was presented by the naturalized in 1586. He commanded an English

gentlemen of Graies Inn at the Court of Whitehall, in man-of-war in the battle with the Spanish Armada. the Banquetting House, upon Twelfe night, being the He died in 1600.

VILTONIUS.

last of the solemnities and magnificences which were

performed at the marriage of the Enrl of Somerset and PARAPHERNALIA.—The meaning of this word

the Lady Frances, daughter of the Earl of Suffolk." as it should be used in the English language is See full particulars in Douthwaite's 'Notes on clearly explained by Blackstone :

Gray's Ion.

WALTER LOVELL. “ The wife may acquire a property in some of her

Gray's Inn. husband's goods; which shall remain to her after his MR. ENGLISH.-In the possession of Visconnt death, and not go to his executors. These are called her paraphernalia; wbich is a term borrowed from the

| Melville is a valuable copy of The Acts, &c., of civil law, and is derived from the Greek language, signi- James I. and his Successors,' 1597. The royal fying something over and above her dower. Our law arms of Scotland, with “I, R.," are stamped upon

the binding. The portraits of the sovereigns of building erected for the purpose on his property the house of Stuart are coloured, and embellished in a space called, from the name of the freeholder, with silk and velvet, and at the end of the statutes Beaumont Square. The institution was established of each sovereign blank leaves are introduced, at a time when-Lord Brougham having enunciated upon which a great number of historical memo- bis famous apothegm that “ the schoolmaster was randa are written in a contemporaneous hand. abroad "-a great rage was manifested for enThe volume belonged, apparently, at one time to dowing all parts of the country with what were then Lord Drummond (the eldest son of the Duke of known as “mechanics'institutes.” Mr. Barber-BeauPerth, Scottish Chancellor of James II. of England), mont designed his educational foundation to be who was with the king at St. Germains in 1699. permanently conducted on strictly temperance He has made on the fly-leaf the following note : I principles, a fact not immaterial to my query to “I got this Book from Mr. English, 22 August, be propounded presently. The scheme, however, was 1699— Drummond.” Who was Mr. English ? but very imperfectly carried out, and the establish

Jos. PHILLIPS. ment but insufficiently endowed, so that it had to Stamford.

eke out a scanty existence for about nine lustres by ST. SWITHIN=ST. Satan.—Pogsibly the fol

the profits of the building when let for concerts, balls,

and amateur theatrical entertainments. Experto lowing passage (Hislop's 'Two Babylons,' p. 459,

crede. Now this structure, consisting of a halland lecDote) anent the rainy saint may be worthy of a

ture rooms in Beaumont Square-still, I believe, in corner in ‘N. & Q., provided, of course, that it

situ-on the south side of the Mile End Road, was has not previously appeared, for I have no access to early indices :

opened a few years prior to Mr. Barber-Beaumont's

death in 1841, the inauguration ceremony taking “The patron saint of the forty days' rain was (no the form of “ Á Great Total Abstinence DemonObristian saint but] just Tammuz or Odin, who was worshipped among our ancestors as the incarnation of

stration." The date was somewhere towards the Noah, in whose time it rained forty days and forty end of the“thirties,” for the famous Father Matthew nights without intermission. Tammuz and 8t, Swithin, had but just commenced his campaign against then, must have been one and the same. But as in “ the craythur” in Ireland, and nothing so much Egypt and Rome and Greece, and almost everywhere

lmost everywhere as “teetotalism," as it was then called, I well reelse, long before the Christian era, Tammuz had come to be recognized as an incarnation of the devil, we need member, was popularly,

member, was popularly talked about.' The chair not be surprised to find that St. Swithin is no other than was taken by the erudite and illustrious Philip St. Satan. One of the current forms of the grand adver | Henry, fourth Earl Stanbope, who made & sary's name among the Pagans was just Sytan or Sytban.

very eloquent speech panegyrical of the philanThis name, as applied to the Evil Being, is found as far

thropic and public-spirited founder, a somewhat to the East as the kingdom of Siam. It has evidently been known to the Druids, and that in connexion with

eccentric though bountiful reformer of very adthe flood : for they say that it was the son of Seithin | vanced views, whose previous career had been, to that, under the influence of drink, let in the sea over say the least, not wholly uneventful nor even unthe country so as to overwhelm a large and populous romantic. Can any reader kindly refer me to a newsdistrict (Davies, Druids,' p. 198). Now the Anglo

paper account of this “ function," as the fashionSaxons, when they received that name, in the very same way as they made Odin into Wodan, would naturally

able phrase goes now l-for it was something more cbange Sythan into Swythan: and thus in St. Swithin's than a mere sectional meeting. I have applied to day, and the superstition therewith connected, we have the agents for the institution (who arranged its at once a striking proof of the wide extent of devil wor development into the present establishment, about ship in the heathen world, and of the thorough acquaint

& quarter of a mile east of the original foundaance of our pagan ancestors with the great Seriptural fact of the forty days' incessant rain at the deluge."

tion and on the north of the main thoroughfare, as John P. HAWORTH.

that stood on the south), but they, after having promised to search their books, wrote to say that

they regretted they could give me no information. Queries.

I have written to the trustees, with the same un

satisfactory result. Can any of your readers courWe must requost correspondents desiring information on family matters of only private interest, to affix their

teously oblige me with the date of the ceremony? names and addresses to their queries, in order that the

The details I will then ascertain for myself. Mr. answers may be addressed to them direct.

Palmer's invaluable 'Index to the Times' does not reach so far back as 1830-40.

NEMO. THE PEOPLE's Palace: TAE BEAUMONT Temple, TRUST.-It is pretty generally known that Mr. Walter Besant's dream in ‘Ali Sorts and Condi.

TBWKESBORY MUSKET-BALLS. - What were tions of Men.' now so splendidly realized in East I they? A sort of explosive grenade ?

C. A. WARD. London, was practically carried out by the expansion of the scheme of a philosophical institu- DERIVATION OF NAMES OF SEA-GIRT Rocks, tion founded by Mr. J. T. Barber-Beaumont in a -I am desirous of ascertaining whether any o

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the names of reefs or insulated rocks anywhere on Weaver, Milton Vicarage, Evercreech, Bath, Somerthe coasts of the British Isles (of a similar cha set, or to

PETER THACHER. racter, for instance, to the Tuskar Rock, the Caskets, the Eddystone Reef, or the Fastnets) are known to be derived from Anglo-Saxon, or other personal

| Hunter FAMILY. - Descendants wanted of names. May I ask any of your learned corre-Joseph Hunter, the antiquary. Please reply direct. spondents who may happen to be aware of any

MRS. W. B. ROGERS. such instances to be good enough to name them Care of Baring Brothers & Co., 8, Bishopsgate

W. S. B. H.

Street, London, E.C. HENRY Flood.- 1. It is stated in Flood's! WALKER FAMILY.—There died in Dublin in "Memoirs' that his illegitimacy " was the opinion / 1727 Sir Hovenden Walker, K.C.B., and in 1731 of a jury." Where can a report of these proceed

Sir Chamberlain Walker, M.D., who is styled in ings be found, and when did they take place ?

the Dublin papers “the famous man-midwife." He 2. Where can I find a full report of “ J. Flood v. was married to Cather

was married to Catherine Newton. Their son, Provost and Fellows of Trin. Coll., Dublin " ? The Chamberlain Walker, M.D., married, 1745, Miss judgment of the Court of Exchequer is briefly

Kitty Bingham, “a young lady of great birth and mentioned in Gent. Mag., vol. lxiii. pt. i. p. 447.

beauty with a good fortune." Their only son, 3. Was Flood admitted as a student of either the

Maynard Chamberlain Walker, Commissioner of Inner or Middle Temple ? G. F. R. B.

Bankrupts, was married in 1777 to Margaret Anne

Singleton. The eldest son by this marriage, FIVE-GUINEA PIECE DESIGNED BY Wron, Chamberlain Richard Walker, was a barrister-atR.A.-Now there is so much discussion going on law and a gold medal man of T.C.D. He died As to the merits or demerits of the new gold coinage in 1825. The second son, Singleton Walker, of the Jubilee year, I shall be glad of some in- solicitor, married, 1811, Anne, daughter of D. formation respecting the beautiful five-pound or Thorpe, of Monelesia, co. Carlow, Esq., and had five-guinea piece designed by W. Wyon, R.A., in issue (with others) Eliza Walker, who married, 1839. A portrait of the Queen as Una with the 1831, James Carmichael, Esq., Clerk of the Crown lion is on the reverse. Can any one inform me for the county of Tipperary. Can any reader of how many impressions were struck off, and what is ‘N. & Q.' give me information respecting the considered the present value of this fine work of origin of this family ? Tradition says that two art?

M. D. P. sisters-in-law (Newtons) of Sir Chamberlain DR. PORY AND PARISH REGISTERS.-In a The family plate bears the crest of a phenix, with

Walker were maids of honour to Queen Anne. pamphlet entitled Articles to be Inquired of motto “Mors Janua Vitæ."

HOVENDEN. within the Archdeaconry of Middlesex in the Visitation of the Right Worshipful Dr. Robert CHARLES MACKLIN.Pory' (London, 1662) occurs the following :

" January, 1755. Charles Macklin, of Covent Garden, "Have you a parchment Register Book wherein to Vintner and Coffeeman.”-Martin's Gen. Mag., vol. v. keep_upon record the several Christenings, Weddings and Burials which happen weekly, quarterly or yearly

Does this entry refer to the actor's father ? in your Parish ? Have you also a Register book wherein

J. J. S. to write the names of all Preachers which came and proached in your Church from other places? And have

"PINGUES LAMPADES.”—In Lewis and Short's you one sure Coffer with three locks and keyes, for keep. • Dictionary,' under“ Lampas," is given,“ Pingues ing of the books aforesaid ? And doth one of your keys lampades" (Lucr., iv. 403). White and Riddell, remain always in the hand of the Minister ?”

under “Lampas," give, “Pinguesque ardere I should be glad to know whether there is any videntur Lampades” (Lucr., iv. 403). W. Smith, record of the result of Dr. Pory's visitation, and Andrews, and Facciolati (Bailey) do not mention where it can be seen.

E. T. Evans. this passage. The passage is not to be found at or 63, Fellows Road, Hampstead, N.W.

near the line quoted in any one of the following THACHER OR THATCHER.- Where can be found

editions of Lucretius, nor is it mentioned in the a record of the marriage of Peter Thacher and

“Variæ Lectiones" or notes of any one of them, Anne —- in 1614, probably in the county of

Delphin, Munro's, Lachmann's, Creech's, or ForSomerset ? Mr. Thacher was vicar of Milton

biger's. Can any one inform me where the words Clevedon, Somerset, 1616-1622, and rector of St.

“ pingues lampades" do occur, and in what edi. Edmund, Salisbury, 1622–1640. Also a record of

tion ?

J. G. S.

Eton. the birth of Thomas Thacher (believed to be Mayl, 1620), son of the Rev. Peter and Anne Thacher, “HE MAY GO PYPEN IN AN IVY LEAF."-Duke probably in the county of Somerset ? Information Theseus, in Chaucer's 'Knight's Tale,' uses this on either of the above queries will be gratefully phrase in exactly, or almost exactly, the same sense received, and may be communicated to Rev. F.W. in which we speak of " wearing the willow." It

seems to me very quaint and pretty. Does it Celtic, GAELIC, WELSH PHONETIC SPELLING. occur in any other old author ?

- Is there such a thing as any grammar or primer JONATHAN BOUCHIER. of these languages in phonetic spelling? SONG WANTED.—The new coinage has reminded

B. F. SCARLETT. me of a fragment of a song which an old gentleman LIFE OF ST. BRANDAN. - In the notes to long dead has told me was sung when the sovereign Hearne's edition of Peter Langtoft's ' Chronicle was first issued to take the place of the guinea. | four lines of verse are quoted (vol. ii. p. 670) The following is all that I can remember :

about birds singing matins and prime. Two But now we've Saint George with hardly a rag on versions are given, both taken from manuscript Galloping over a fiery dragon.

lives of St. Brandan. Har this life ever been Can any of your readers tell me where the com- printed ?

ANON. plete ditty may be seen ?

ANON.

METAPHYSICS. — The following definition of SonNET ON COWPER.—Who is the author of a metaphysics I have seen attributed to Voltaire, sonnet on Cowper beginning :

“Quand celui qui parle d'entend rien et celui qui for a seraph's voice, an angel's tongue!

ecoute n'entend plus c'est métaphysique”; but in That I might laud in high ennobling praise a recent volume of travels the definition is ascribed Our English bard of unpolluted lays,

to a Scotch shepherd, “He who listens understands Thee, gentle Cowper, &c.

not what he that speaks means, and he who speaks A. W. K.

| does not quite understand what himself says" BAPTISMAL REGISTERS. — A notice occurs in a (Campion, ? On Foot in Spain,' second edition, Hertfordshire parish register to the effect that 1879). The saying is worthy of Voltaire, and is after August, 1634, it was required by Act of probably his ; but, if so, I should be glad if it can Parliament that the names of both parents should be placed.

JAMES HOOPER be entered in all baptismg. Can any of your Oak Cottage, Streatham, S.W. readers inform me of the Act to which reference is MARRIAGE OF LADY ANN CECIL.-Can any here made; or was the contemplated change due correspondent of N. & Q.' kindly supply me with to an injunction emanating from Laud's love of

the date of the marriage between Algernon, tenth orderly observance ? FREDK. CHAS. Cass.

Earl of Northumberland, and Lady Ann Cecil, Monken Hadley Rectory.

daughter of William, tbird Earl of Salisbury (circa CANTLIN STONE.-In the county of Salop there | 1625 ?) ?

F. H. ARNOLD, LL.B. is at least one stone so called. What is the mean

PORTRAITS OF FOUNDERS OF COLLEGES AT ing of the word ? Is it equivalent to “rocking stone”? Nothing in my dictionaries.

OXFORD AND CAMBRIDGE.—Are there any en

gravings of the portraits of the above founders BOILEAU.

taken from the original pictures in the possession OWNER OF BOOK-PLATE WANTED.—Could any of the various colleges, besides those of Henry VIII., of your correspondents aid me in finding out to Queen Elizabeth, Bishop Smith of Lincoln, and whom the following book-plate, the description of Cardinal Wolsey ?

C. 0. which I give below, appertains ?-Field azure, Two lions, dexter and sinister, each resting dexter hind

'KOTTABOS.'—Has any correspondent a duplileg on ducal coronet, forepaws extended, support

tocate of No. 8, published by McGee, 18, Nassau ing a laurel-leaf crown, surmounted by helmet

Street, Dublin, in 1871 or 1872, that he would be royal of six bars, and again surmounted by Prince

inclined to exchange for a duplicate of No. 2 ? of Wales's feathers.

P. J. F. GANTILLON. C.

Bays Hill, Cheltenham. AUTHOR OF ARTICLES WANTED.—Who wrote

LEONARDO DA Vinci's 'LAST SUPPER.'-The 'People I have Met' in the Illustrated London

more the original of Leonardo's most famous fresco News about the beginning of 1882 ? DE V. PAYEN-PAYNE.

fades on the wall of the Milan refectory the more University College, W.C.

precious become copies, if ancient and taken by

good artists. The copy of that 'Lord's Supper' “AGREEING TO DIFFER.”—E. F. F. at 4th S. vii. in the London Royal Academy of Arts is said in 512, and MR. SHERLOCK at 5th S. iv. 28, quote the Baedeker to have been used by Raphael Morghen same passage from Sir Philip Sidney's Countess in elaborating his engraving of world-wide fame, of Pembroke's Arcadia,' “ Between these two and to have been executed by & pupil of the personages, who never agreed in any humour but original painter, and so by one of his contemin disagreeing," &c., and ask whether there is an poraries. "Who was that pupil? When was his earlier use of the phrase "agreeing to differ." copy produced ? How long has the copy been in the Allow me to repeat this query.

possession of the Academy, which was not founded ED. MARSHALL till 1768; and what is known of the previous his.

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