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lamy's" to have been a man of but little or no writs, although it would be supposed that it might education, is it reasonable to believe that in contact, have taken somo weeks to travel from Dorset and almost daily, during more than half the year, with Devon to York, or from York and the northern some of the best educated men and most correct counties to Winchester. J. STANDISH HALY. speakers, from the time of Pitt, Fox, and Sheridan to the time of Grey, Brougham, and Macaulay,

POTHOOKS (7th S. iv. 226).—My first writing that he (Nicholls) could have been guilty of the lessons were given me by my father when I was absurdity fathered upon him by Disraeli ?" "Mr. “a boy of five," and I most certainly called the Nicholls, I will thank you for (or “ I will take "] second stage of the series which succeeded one of your veal pies" must have been addressed "strokes” by the name of “pothooks and to the keeper of Bellamy's a thousand or ten thou

hangers.” “Potbooks” designated the stroke sand times. Is it likely he would designate his terminating in a curvo which we see in the letters popular edible “a weal pie"?

i and u, while “hanger” stood for the stroke with It is a pity Englishmen are so prone to hold up a double curve, as in the last part of m and n, as their own countrymen to ridicule on the score of well as in K. P. D. E.'s p's and h's. This was while bad pronunciation. The funny men may show off George IV. was king.

E. V. their own wit-for I doubt not three-fourths of

I can testify that in the early days of Queen their stories are but jokes, and intended to be

Victoria's reign budding scribes were taught to accepted as such but foreign nations, and espe

speak of “pothooks and hangers"; and if I cially “our Yankee cousins," take these jokes au

wanted to buy a copy-book containing the rudi. sérieux, and hence nine-tenths of American news

ments of cursive letters, “pothooks and hangers" papers constantly describe Englishmen in general

are what I should ask for pow. I believe a school (not merely cabmen and costermongers) as speaking

stationer would have no difficulty in understanding of " Hingland,” “ Hoxford,” “Hepsom,” “ Igb.

what I wished for.

St. SWITHIN. gate," “ Ampstead," “ Ampshire," "weal-pies,” &c. The funny men should remember that "it is a dirty bird that fouls its own nest."

HENCHMAN (7th S. ii. 246, 298, 336, 469; iii. 31, G. JULIAN HARNEY. 150, 211, 310, 482; iv. 116).—The following quotaCambridge, Mass., U.S.

tion is from Burt's Letters from a Gentleman in

the North of Scotland' (London, 1754, 2 vols., IRISH PORTRAITS (7th S. iv. 208).—The Guin. 8vo.), ed. 1815, vol. ii. pp. 141-2:ness Art Exhibition of 1872 had a good display of “The foster-brother having the same education as the Irish portraits, consisting of paintings lent by young chief, may, besides that, in time become his various persons and of a valuable collection of Hanchmar, or perhaps be promoted to that office, if a mezzotints the property of J. Chaloner Smith, vacancy should happen. Or otherwise, by their interest, many of which were lately acquired for the

obtain orders and a benefice. This officer is a sort of National Gallery in Dublin through the muni.

secretary, and is to be ready, upon all occasions, to ven

ture his life in defence of his master; and at drinkingficence of Sir Ed. Guinness.

bouts he stands bebind his seat, at his haunch (from W. FRAZER, M.R.I.A. whence his title is derived), and watches the conversa.

tion to see if any one offends his patron." BISHOP OF HEREFORD (7th S. iv. 149, 214).-I think that CANON VENABLES is wrong when he

ROBERT F. GARDINER. states that “surnames in their modern acceptation, PIEL CASTLE (7th S. iii, 47).-In reply to the transmitted regularly from father to children, are query of R. R. R. at the above reference, I may hardly to be found in common use so early as the state that a recent visit to Morecambe has confourteenth century." If he will refer to tbe return vinced me that the castle alluded to by Wordsworth of members of the House of Commons from the in bis elegiac stapzas to Sir George Beaumont is earliest date until 1832 (I think it is) obtained by the Manx ruin, and not that known as Piel Castle. Sir William Fraser, be will find the names of some The latter is an insignificant heap of stones, to of the best-known families in England returned to which it would be ridiculous to apply such epithets the earliest Parliaments for counties and towns in as “rugged pile” and “huge castle," made use of which their descendants are represented at the by the poet; but which would be strictly accurate present day. I have not the return at hand, but I if written of the former, which he visited in 1833. recollect well, when reviewing it in 1879, being The orthograpbic similarity between Peel and Peele struck with this, and particularly with the very (copied, no doubt, by Wordsworth from Beaumont) early date of a Corbett sitting for Shropshire, and would also go far to strengthen this conviction, a Berkeley for Gloucestershire, and many others. and the painting itself, could we refer to it, would This very interesting return also shows how easily doubtless confirm it still more. When at Peel last people got about at a very early date, for Parlia-year the guide told me that about forty years ago ments were summoned at Winchester, York, &c., a storm of terrific violence broke over the old castle, to meet within a few days of the return of the which may possibly bave furnished the subject of the artist's pencil. What has become of the embellished with a number of illustrations. A curious picture ?

J. B. S.
I B S chart, drawn in 1570 by Sira Sigurd Stephanius, Rector

of Skálholt School, and lately published in the TransHUGHES AND PARKINSON (7th S. iii. 517).-John actions of the Copenhagen Geographical Society, is re

u produced in the chapter on “Geography in Saga Time." Hughes was in 1703 admitted a member of the

Another interesting illustration is that of the Clockmakers' Company; Thomas Hughes in 1712. lof Tavistock Abbey.' It has been taken from the original

Burning M.A. Oxon. sketch by Herr Lorenz Frölich, the artist of the friezes

at Fredriksborg Palace. One fault we must find with Hiscellaneous.

Mr. Vicary's book-there is no index; but this can be NOTES ON BOOKS, &o.

easily remedied when the time comes for another edition. The Metrical Chronicle of Robert of Gloucester. Edited | The Tolhouse. Restored by Frederick Danby Palmer. by William Aldis Wright. 2 vols. Rolls Series.

With Illustrations by Henry Olley, (Great Yarmouth, STUDENTS of history and of the earlier form of the Buckle.) English language have been waiting impatiently for TAE Tolhouse of Great Yarmouth is a building of po Dr. Wright's edition of Robert of Gloucester. The old ordinary interest. It was built in the Early English printed text, which we owe to the marvellous industry of period as a prison and a court of justice, and has conHearne, was known to be in many respects faulty; and tinued to be used for these purposes until recent days. yet, inaccurate as it is, we were all thankful to use it as For a prison it was totally unfitted ; but our ancestors the best and earliest specimen of the Western form of bad little regard for the comforts of the criminal class. our common tongue. The impatience which we have or even of the innocent who fell into the bands of the felt was justified by the long delay, but that will be authorities. The upper chamber must once have been forgiven by those who intelligently use these excellently a fine room, but the alterations of centuries concealed edited volumes. It is given but to very few to be able almost every object of interest. But a few years ago to edit a text accurately which is written in such a very there was great fear that this interesting building obscure form of English. The drudgery of making the would be swept away. Antiquarian feeling was believed notes wbich give the various readings of the several not to be strong in Yarmouth, and it was doubted whether manuscripts must have been frightful. The labour, too, sufficient money could be raised to put the old Tolhouse of tracing the sources from which Robert derived his in repair. The fears of those who cherish the memory materials has been great, and shows an amount of read of the past have not been realized in this instance. The ing in ancient chronicles which is truly admirable in our Tolhouse has been restored in a most conservative man. eyes. We do not quite agree with Dr. Wright in his ner, and is now quite safe from accidents. Some things estimate of his author. Apart from the linguistic value of minor importance yet remain to be done, but we may of the book, and the latter portion, where Robert ranks be thankful that all danger bas been averted. as an independent authority, the editor does not value The meaning of the word Tolhouse has been the sub. bis author bighly. Robert certainly was not a poet, batject of some controversy. It is almost certainly identical there is a swing or roll (we do not know which is the in meaning with Tolbooth, a word which many people proper word to use) about his lines which renders them will persist in considering Scotch, though it can be very pleasant reading. Robert, though seemingly a proved that Tolbooths were scattered over England. Gloucestershire man, bas made a stupid blunder as to Mr. Palmer gives several examples. We may add to his the parentage of the wife of Sir Maurice Berkeley, | list Skipton, in Craven, and Cambridge. Research wbich bas misled a host of modern writers. Dr. among town records and histories would no doubt fur. Wrigbt (p. xxxii) does not seem to see his way throughnish many other examples. the fog. He will be convinced tbat Robert of Gloucester | The great hall, which is now a very fine room, is, we was misinformed if he consults the passage in Smith's believe, to be used as a museum for the town. It already • Lives of the Berkeleys' where this lady's origin is dis possesses one relic of interest-an ancbor dredged up by cuned. We must not conclude without saying that the the crew of a Yarmouth fishing smack off the Dutch glossary to these volumes is one of the best we ever coast, at the spot where the battle of Camperdown was examined.

fought. Whether it has belonged to a Dutch or an

English ship is at present uncertain. The letters with Saga Time. By J. Fulford Vicary. (Kegan Paul, which it is marked, I.M.G.D. and I.M.G., ought, one Trench & Co.)

would think, to be capable of interpretation by those Toe eaga time of which Mr. Vicary writes may be said learned in naval history, here or in Holland, to have commenced in 870, and to have terminated in 1030. It was not, however, until 1120, or even later, that English Worthies.- Claverhouse. By Mowbray Morris. the sagas were committed to writing. The three prin- (Longmans & Co.) cipal collectors of the old gagas were Are Frode, Sæmund | MR, MORRIS could hardly have chosen a subject moro Frode, and Snorri Sturlasson. From internal evidence suitable for his picturesque pen. We fail, however, to afforded us by the existing sagas, it is clear that many understand how John Graham, Viscount Dundee (better of the older poems have been lost. Of those which have known by his territorial title of Claverhouse) comes to be been preserved the more ancient are made up of myths classed as an English worthy. For this Mr, Laing, the and traditions, while the more recent refer to events and editor of the series, must be held responsible. But, genealogies. From these sagas Mr. Vicary has en- ludicrous as the misnomer is, we gladly welcome Mr. deavoured to draw a series of pictures of social life in Morris's interesting sketch of the brilliant Scotcbman tbe North during the early ages. Though as sources of “who died in the arms of victory, and whose battle-cry bistorical information the sagae cannot be implicitly was 'King James and the Church of Scotland.'" Mr. trusted, Mr. Vicary bas gathered from them many Morris is of opinion that Claverhouse has been too interesting details relating to the laws, language, pas- harshly judged, and bas done his best to wbitewash tho times, dwellings, and dress of the Northmen. In the character of his hero. But, with an impartiality which last two chapters the author deals with the Völun-does him much credit, he makes no attempt to gloss sungasaga, which was probably written in Iceland to- over any crime which can fairly be brought home to wards the close of the thirteenth century. The book is Claverhouse. At the same time, however, he stoutly maintains, with much show of reason, that his faults were has evidently a great liking for some of the Irish the faults of his age, and not of the man, and that it is leaders of past days, even when he feels bound to unfair to try the morality of an earlier age by the point out how utterly unpractical their political theories standard of the present day. If we were disposed to were. Sometimes this admiration leads him into literary deal hardly with Mr. Morris we might point out some contrasts in which no one who has any feeling for the examples of his want of accuracy in dealing with the pathos of life or the poetry of language can follow him, history of the period of which he treats. We think, too, To say that Robert Emmett's address to bis judge is that Mr. Morris makes a mistake in illustrating bis re superior as eloquence to the imaginary speech of Fergus marks by references to current politics. The subjects Mac Ivor when in a similar position, as it is given in of present controversy are out of place in a history of a Waverley,' proves that Mr. Canning is unable to critipast age.

cize the fitness of words for expressing deep emotion, Great Writers.-Life of Adam Smith. By R. B. Hal. The Folk-lore Journal, Vol. V, Part III. (Stock), for

dane, M.P.-Life of Charles Darwin, By G. T. Bettany. July-Sept., contains varied matter illustrating Chinese, (Scott.)

Tongan, Fijian, and Cornish folk-lore. “Hans Breit. MR. HALDANE's capacity for hard work is simply mar- mann" contributes a note on the Witches' Ladder,' vellous. Though a familiar figure at the Chancery bar, in written in Florence, which he speaks of enthusiastically the House of Commons, and on the political platform, he as a centre for folk-lore research. Unfortunately, the bas yet managed to find time to write an account of Adam | Italian in which Mr. Leland's Florentine fragment of Smith for Prof. Robertson's series of “ Great Writers." | fortune-telling lore has been printed is in several places So meagre are the details of Smith's life that they occupy utterly unintelligible, probably owing to the writer not only a few pages of Mr. Haldane's book, which is mainly having been able to see & proof. In the Notes and taken up with a description of Smith's teaching and its Queries' department it seems rather odd to find the cireffects. Though we do not feel disposed to endorse cumstance, which Suavenius was induced to believe, that Buckle's assertion that 'The Wealth of Nations' was the “there are trees in Scotland from which birds are pro. most important book over written, we cannot but allow duced," set down under the head of " Curious Scottish that few books have ever produced larger results. In Customs”! The habits of Scottish trees may be these latter days we are likely to under-estimate the “curious," but they are hardly to be classed as "Scot. magnitude of the work which Smith accomplished, for, as tish customs” in any scientific classification. In Mr. Mr. Haldane shrewdly remarks, "Like every great thinker, | Mitchell Innes's interesting account of the Birth, he (Smith) is apt to lose something of the admiration he Marriage, and Death Rites of the Chinese,' we greatly merits, because of the extent to which his conceptions regret to find, at p. 241, the expression “mass " used, as have entered into and become part of our intellectual it appears to us very misleading to apply any such tech. lives.” We are surprised not to find any reference in the nical expressions of Christian worship to a Buddhist or bibliography to Bentham's letter to Adam Smith which | Taoist rite. We feel the more bound to notice this point, was appended to the Defence of Usury.' We have also slight as it may seem to some, because the practice of looked in vain for any reference to Smith's letter to which we complain is far from standing alone in the Dundas on the question of free trade for Ireland which Folk-lore Journal, but is much too common in European appeared in an early number of the English Historical ons of non-Christian Oriental rites, and we cannot Review.

but hold it to be at once unscientific and misleading. Mr. Bettany's interesting 'Life of Charles Darwin' is sure to be widely read. While Adam Smith by his • Wealth of Nations' revolutionized our commercial and agricultural systems, Darwin by bis patient and un

Potices to Correspondents. wearied investigations has changed the whole current of We must call special attention to the following notices : our mental life. Mr. Bettany's book contains matters of

On all communications must be written the name and considerable biographical interest, as well as sketches of address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but Darwin's most important works. We cannot, however,

as a guarantee of good faith. help thinking that it is a pity that its publica. tion was not deferred until after the appearance of

We cannot undertake to answer queries privately. the Life and Letters.' According to Prof. Newton's

To secure insertion of communications correspondents address to the British Association, Mr. Francis Darwin's must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, work, which all naturalists have been eagerly expect or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the ing, will be published before the end of the year. In signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to conclusion, we must congratulate both the editor and the appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested publisher on the continued success of the series. Even | to head the second communication “Duplicate." in these days of cheap literature the books are wonder. i W. J. 1.- Tunbridge Walks; or, the Yeoman of Kent,' fully cheap, and it is no exaggeration to say that Mr. | 4to., 1703, is by Thomas Baker, concerning whom gee Anderson's bibliographies alone are fully worth the price | Dict. of Nat. Biog.' of a single volume.

H. DELEVINGNE (" Euclid”).- Please send. Revolted Ireland: 1798 and 1803. By the Hon. Albert CORRIGENDA.-P. 281, col. 2, 1. 14 from bottom, for S. G. Canning, (Allen.)

“Elizabeth” read Burleigh ; p. 293, col. 2, 1, 14, for This is a useful little book, giving a clear and bright "kablu felson,' 'felson-absturz,'” read kahlen felser, picture of a troubled time, concerning which most felsen-absturz. Englishmen are content to remain ignorant. Mr.

NOTICE. Canning is not a partisan. What his views may be on Editorial Communications should be addressed to "The any of those Irish questions which are being fiercely Editor of Notes and Queries'"-Advertisements and debated in and out of Parliament it is impossible to Business Letters to “The Publisher"-at the Office, 22, gather from his pages. Materials are furnished us Took's Court, Cursitor Street, Chancery Lane, E.C. from which we may ourselves, if we care to read further, We beg leave to state that we decline to return com. be enabled to form opinions; but no opinion is suggested.munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and Though abstaining from modern politics, Mr. Canning to this rule we can make no exception,

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THE GOSPEL STORY.
PLAIN COMMENTARY ON THE FOUR HOLY GOSPELS,
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A New Edition, Revised. 2 vols, cloth, 6s.

London : J. WHITAKER, 12, Warwick-lane.

IMPORTANT NEW NUMISMATIC WORK.

Shortly will be published, in 3 vols. medium quarto,

THE COINAGE OF SCOTLAND.

FROM DAVID I. TO JAMES VIII.

Illustrated from the Cabinet of Thomas Coats, Esq., of

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By EDWARD BURNS, F.S.A.Scot. Accompanied by a series of 79 Plates, engraved in facsimile (Gravure

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In the present work, besides a detailed description of every Scottish coin in the Ferguslie Cabinet, the most extensive collection of Scottish coins in all the metals that has ever yet been formed, liberal advantage has been taken of the specimens in other cabinets, public and private, wherever these could illustrate the subject.

.66 The Scottish Coinage has been dealt with as if the several specimens in the different reigns had all been brought together in one collection.

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Edinburgh : ADAM & CHARLES BLACK.

Printed by JOHN C. FRANCIS, Atheneum Press, Took's-court, Cursitor street, Obadcery-lane, E.C.; and Published by the said

JOUN O. FRANCIS at No. 22, Took's-court Cursitor-street, Chancery lane, E.O. - Saturday, Uctober 18, 1887.

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