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5. The “ arms of the people”: Argent, a cross

gules. CONTENTS-N° 95.

6. The arms of the Church : (Azure, if I rememNOTES :- Arms of Florence, 321 - The Cross of Christ ber), two keys in saltire or.

Hundred, 322-Letter of Burns-" Coming out of the little end of the horn." 323– Biographical Dictionary of the

| 7. The arms of the Guelphic faction : Argent, Stage 'Reculvers - Spelman On Sacrilege'-Archbishop Drummond, 324 - Recovery of Speech - Dictionary of

| lily or, and beneath its feet a dragon vert. National Biography'-" Pulling Bacon" --Weeping-St.

(I George's, Bloomsbury - Thackeray, 325 - Convertisseur supply the omitted tinctures.) Passover Custom-Wil of Hugo-Portraits of Mackenzie 8. The arms of Charles, Duke of Anjou : Azure, and Lockhart, 326.

semé of fleurs de lis, and in chief a label or. QUERIES :-Privy Council Register-Candle-Rent-Stronnay

"Piping hot”-Henry, Lord Clifford_"Keep your Temper" | pale, (a) Barry or and gu.; (6) Azure, semé of -Comworth-Flighland Costume - Norah's Treasure' 9. The arms of Robert, King of Naples : Per -Visitation of Middlesex, 327-Glass Cannon-Payne

fleurs de lis or. (This is erroneous. The arms in "Lacing the cap" - Arms on Church Window - Wrinkle -Moncrein - Ben Jonson "Signor Puppy"-Eliot the first place are those of Hungary, Gules, four "Poverty Knocker"-St. Sophia-Hely, 328-Finger Rings

surovy Cucaer - 1. copaia-Hely, 328-Finger Rings bars argent ; and in the second place the Angevin REPLIES :-Who was Robin Hood ? 329-Appeal in Cases of

| label is omitted. Usually the whole coat is tierced Pardon, 330—“Nom de plume " -Epitaph, 881 – Gunn- in pale : (a) Hungary, (b) Naples, (c) Jerusalem.) London M.P.s-Wisdom of Solomon'-Last Supper' of

The first, with the lily, is the symbol of the Leonardo, 332- Charitable Bequests-New English Dictionary'-Cold Harbour-Fringford Church-John Brown flowery nature of the locality in which our city of By-boat-“ Not & bolt out of the blue - Byron, 333 | Florence is situated. (The Florentine lily is repreQnarter-Wayter-Rebuilding of St. Paul's-Roll of Winchester-Busby-China Plates-Lease of 999 Years--Crom

sented épanouie, or florençée.) well's Pastimes-Three Chilly Saints-Creature=Drink The second is a record of the union of the FlorenInn Signs, 334-Epitaph-Huguenot-Tell-Gurnall, 335Harvest Custom-Bray Head-Spade Guinea-Peart-Scar

tine republic with Fiesole after the capture and deborongh Warning-Eleanor of Bretagne-Bellingham, 336 struction of the last-named city by the Florentines Carlile - Bunhill Fields - Carrington Bowles, 337 — Duke on the day of St. Romolo in the year 1010. with the Silver Hand, 338. NOTES ON BOOKS:-Symonds's 'Life of Benvenuto Cellini'

The third dates from 1215, when the Florentines -Skeat's Principles of English Etymology' - Garnett's defeated at Monte Robolini the Pistoians who sup"Life of Carlyle.'

ported the Ghibelline faction. The victorious Notices to Correspondents, &c.

Guelphs expelled from Florence the Ghibelline

families; and, having seized the reins of governNotes.

ment, changed the blazon of the arms of the

Republic (which were anciently Gules, a fleur de THE ARMS OF FLORENCE.

| lis argent) to Argent, a fleur de lis gules (as at Writing, at p. 36 of the first volume of this pre- present borne). dent series, on the 'Arms of the Medici,'I remarked. The word “Libertas," which appears in the that “in no place were political sympathies so fre-fourth shield, is the true blazon of the Republic; quently marked by heraldic assumptions or muta- but it is not known when the Florentines comtions as in Florence"; and I promised at a future menced to use it. It is probable that they selected time to supply some notes in justification of this it when they were enabled to shake off the Imperial assertion. In fulfilment of this promise I send the yoke. present paper on the different arms of the Floren- The fifth, the "arms of the people” (see 7th S. i. tine Republic, and in lieu of transcribing my own 35), Argent, a cross gu., date, it is believed, from notes, as I at first intended, have translated the 1292, when the first gonfalonier was created, in the somewhat faller account which was circulated in person of Baldo Ruffoli, to whom these arms are Florence last year, on the occasion of the historical assigned. (I suspect a mistake here, as I do not procession which was got up in honour of the royal think the Ruffoli ever bore these arms.) visit, and the unveiling of the new façade of the It is uncertain when the Florentines commenced Duomo.

to use the arms of the Church. It is believed that The arms, or heraldic escutcheons, of the republic, it was in one of the periods during which the which are still to be seen painted under the battle- Guelphic party, which was always devoted to the ments of the Palazzo Vecchio, are the following:- Papal see, prevailed.

1. The ancient arms of the city of Florence : The seventh was given in 1265 by Clement IV. Gules, a fleur de lis argent.

to the Florentine Guelphs, who, when exiled from 2. The ancient arms of the union of Florence and their fatherland, volunteered to serve Charles of Fiesole : Per pale argent and gules.

Anjou in the war against Manfred of Sicily, the 3. The modern arms : Argent, a fleur de lis protector of the Ghibellines. gales.

The eighth, in which is represented an azure 4. The arms of the Republic, or of the “Priori field, some of golden fleurs de lis, with a golden di Libertà ": Azure, the word "Libertas," in bend label, is that of Charles of Adjou, to whom the or.

Florentine Guelphs in 1267 consented to give the

lordship of their city. The fleurs de lis are the commissa, or joined cross, consisting of an upright arms of the Kings of France, and the label, which piece of timber with a transvorse piece on the ex. ought to be tinctured vert, is that which was used treme top at right angles with the first, like the by their second sons. There is a manifest error letter T; and the crua immissa, or let-in cross, in here, the label was tinctured not vert but gules. which the transverse piece of timber is let into the Afterwards, to avoid a supposed breach of the upright, but placed somewhat below the top of the heraldic rule which forbade colour on colour, it upright. This is the cross on which our Lord is was, at the sacrifice of historic truth, often changed usually represented to have suffered ; and though to or, both in the Florentine escutcheons and in there may not be any absolute authority for ascerthe augmentations assumed (6tb S. xii. 142) by the taining the precise form of the cross used on the Guelphic faction.)

occasion in question, yet, apart from the fact of the Lastly, the ninth, which contains the arms of early Christian writers having without exception King Robert, commemorates the concession which referred only to this form, the circumstance of an the Florentines made to that king of the lordship inscription having been placed over His head of their city at the beginning of the fourteenth would render the conjecture highly probable. century.

JOAN WOODWARD. Bearing in mind that crucifixion was ordered to Montrose.

be discontinued by Constantine, A.D. 330 (Haydn's (To be continued.)

‘Dates'), can any of your correspondents do me

the favour to tell me whether the two transverse ..THE CROSS OF CHRIST.

beams in the shape of the letter V were ever used Dr. Luckock, in his interesting work on the

in Palestine before that date? It certainly appears *Footprints of the Son of Man as traced by St.

to me that the title Pilate wrote and put on the Mark' (vol. ii. p. 284), says :

cross, which was written in Hebrew and Greek and

Latin (St. John xix. 19), must bave been put on “Whatever the road may have been by which Jesus

the crux immissa, not the crux commissa. went to the scene of His death, we know that those who

H. W. COOKES. led Him out compelled Him to carry the instrument of His execution on His own shoulders. Christian Art has

Astley Bectory, Stourport. misled us in its representation of what it was that He carried. It was then the usual custom in cases of crucifixion to make the condemned criminal bear to the place

THE WORD "HUNDRED."-The latter part of of execution, not the whole cross—this in the majority of Prof. Skeat's otherwise satisfactory article on this cases, after the exhaustion produced by the scourging word seems wanting in clearness ; indeed I do which preceded, would have been physically in possible- not profess to understand it. He saya, “All [6.6, but only the two transverse beams. They were tied or lightly nailed together in the shape of the letter V, and

Goth. hund, Lat. centum, &c.] from an Aryan form placed like a yoke on the criminal's neck. Crucifixion |

| kanta, a hundred. It is known (from Gothic) that was borrowed, we must remember, from the Romans, 1 kanta stands for dakanta, tenth, from dakan, ten, and the Roman convict certainly so carried them, from and originally meant the tenth ten, i. e., the bunthe name which he received in consequence, furcifer, dred.” But, surely, if kanta stands for dakanta, • fork-bearer,' the most contemptible designation which

and dakanta means “ tenth,” kanta must originally a Roman could receive. “And now we come to the point where, we think, the

have meant “tenth” only, and not "tenth ten." teaching of Christian Art is at fault......Christian Art He then continues, “The Gothic (in speaking of a ......would have taught a truer and a deeper lesson if it single hundred) has the full form taihun-taihund, had embodied the sentiment which prevailed in the a hundred (=dakan-dakanta), i.e., ten-tentb." How earliest ages of the Church.”

words meaning " ten-tenth” can ever have come Now, on turning to Riddle's 'Latin Dictionary,' to mean a “hundred " passes my comprehension. I find that furca is said to be a two-pronged in- Most people would, I imagine, take “ten-tenth " to strument on which burdens were carried (Plau.), be bad English for ten-tenths=one. But, as Prof. especially for slaves, who carried such about by Skeat had in the preceding sentence spoken of way of punishment; they were also flogged under “ tenth ten," I presume that he intended "tenit (Livy). Such a slave was called furcifer. tepth" as the word-for-word translation of taihun. According to Heindorf furca is two pieces of wood taihund, and that, as in Gothic the ordinal numeral in the shape of the letter V, which pressed upon (or numeral adjective) sometimes follows* the subthe neck and back, whilst the hands were bound stantive which it qualifies, he believed the real to the two ends ; it was also a kind of gallows meaning of taihun-taihund to be “ tenth ten" for hanging slaves, highwaymen, &c., upon (Pliny). “Put the cross to the slave(“Pone crucem * E.9., Mark xv. 25, “wheila þridyo,” [the] third servo ") are the words used by Juvenal.

hour; Matt. xxvii. 46, “bi wheila niundon," af (the) Now, I bave always understood that the learned ninth hour. But we also find the numeral adjective consider that there are three kinds of crosses, viz., in

preceding, as, 1.9., Mark ix. 31, “þridgin daga," on 12., [the] tbird day; Luke xviii, 12, “ taibundon dail," (the)

| tenth part; 80 that no inference whatever can be drawn X, and usually called St. Andrew's cross; the crux from the position of laihund in taihun-laihund,

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bundred. If so, be would surely have done better = sixty; only here it is the first of the three parts to write" literally ten-tentb, 2. e., tenth ten.” of the compound word (and one letter s, probably

But, even if I have explained his views aright, the first, of the second part) which remains in the it seems to me much more reasonable to take with abbreviation, whereas in our case it is the end of Grimm (i. 763) the taihund (or tehund) in taihun. the second of the two parts of the compound word taihund (or -tehund), as also in sibun-tehund (70), taihun-taihund.

F. CHANCE. ahtau-tehund (80), niun-tehund (90), to be a neuter Sydenham Hill. &nbstantive, and to=the Greek derás or the Fr. dizaine. According to this theory, therefore, taihun

LETTER OF BORNS. -The following, which is in taihund would mean ten decades (is not decad a more my possession, seems worthy of publication : Egglish spelling ?). We may well compare the Mod. L. MY DEAREST FRIEND,-Yours by Mr. Stoddart was

I the welcomest letter I ever received. God grant tbat H.G. neuter compound subst. Jahrzehent (or Jahrze

now when your health is re-establishing you may tako

the a little, little more care of a life so truely valuable to second member of the compound word is evidently society and so truely invaluable to your friends! As identical with zehnt(e), formerly written zehent(e)= to your very excellent epistle from a certain Capital tenth : for bere also what was originally a numeral of a certain Empire 1 sball answer it in its own way

sometime next week: as also settle all matter as to adjective has become a neuter numeral substantive,

little Miss. Your goodness there is just like your and wbat is more, zehent is, etymologically, the

wy, the kindness in everything else. I am happy to inform came word as tehund. And so again dizain and you that I have just got an appointment to the first dozain in O.French meant merely "tenth” and or Port Division, as it is called, which adds twenty * twelfth." and now in the feminine forms, dizaine pounds per annum more to my salary. and douzaine,t have become substantives in the m

My excise income is now, cash paid, seventy pounds a


year; and tbig I hold untill I am appointed Supervisor, sense of an aggregate of ten and twelve. In the case So much for my usual good luck. My Perquisites I of the Fr. décade, just the opposite has taken place; hope to make worth 15 or 201. more so. Rejoice with for, while the original meaning of the word is them that do Rejoice. an aggregate of ten (=dizaine), in Cotgrave it is! Apropos has little Mademoiselle been inoculated given also the meaning of " a tenth."

with the small-pox yet? If not let it be done as soon as

it is proper for her babit of body, teeth, &c. The hund of hundred is therefore, strietly speak. Once more let me congratulate you on your returning ing, the tail of a word meaning dizaine, and is in health, fact etymologically equivalent to the zain(e) of this! God grant that you may live at least while I live, for word. I With this abbreviation we may compare

were I to lose you, it would leave a vacuum in my en

joyments that nothing could fill up. Farewell. the Danish treds, familiarly used for tredsindstyve

RoBt. BURNS. * There is no doubt that taihund (or lehund) in these

I. W. HARDMAN, LL.D. words is derived from taihunda (tenth), and it may

Cadbury House, Yatton, Bristol. originally have been the neuter of the strong or indefinite form. See what I say further on in the text about the

“ COMING OUT OF THE LITTLE END OF THE equivalent German form zehent.

HORN.”—This expression does not seem to occur in + The feminine in French is frequently used as a the dictionaries of English proverbs in ordinary use. neuter, as, e.g., "en v'là une bonne," a d'abord et I first heard it used many years ago by a Warwickd'une ''; and also as a collective, as in armée, cuillerée, shire man; be used it so often, and it appeared to maisonnée, &c. That dizaine and douzaine had originally the meaning of “tonth” and “ twelfth " does not seem

me so graphically to convey the idea of getting the to have been recognized by Scheler and Littré, and I

worst of a bargain, or of being reduced in circummay make the same romark with regard to dozen and stances by some unexpected “squeeze," that it English etymologists. See Cotgrave and Godefroy. took root in my proverb garden, and is now go

I Prof. Skeat says, "hund=l-enth without the t, just familiar that I am not sure if I have heard it from as centum=decentum.” This may be so, but I have my others since. An unexpected illustration of the doubts about it, For, as ten=Goth, taihun, O.Sax. tëhan, I nrimitiva mea, A.-S. tén (or tyn), 0.H.G. zëhan, M.H.G, zëhen, Mod.H.G.

primitive meaning of the adage has just come in zehn, and as in those among these words which have two

my way. In a small country curiosity shop I syllables the accent seems to have been on the first syllable found the other day a painting on panel of the (in Switzerland, as my own ears testify, zehn among the sixteenth century. It measures 18 in. by 22 in. people is still pronounced as a dissyllable, zehen, with the long, and is in a fair and untouched state. Upon accent on the first e, which is broad or open, and a very

a tree, whose branches extend to each side of the strong aspiration of the h, reminding one of zechen), I am rather inclined to believe that the e in ten (and con

picture, hangs by a red belt with gold tassel an sequently in tenth) represents the ai in lachun, and the ë enormous curved horn, the ends upwards. At the in tehan, zëhan, and zëhen. And, if so, then hund=the extreme left stands a man with black velvet flat nth of tenth only. The e in ten may, however, possibly cap and surcoat trimmed with fur, ruff, and gold represent a sound formed by the coalescence of the é just chaing on tbe breast. He is superintending the mentioned with the shorter vowel following the h in those cases in which this letter has been preserved, and then

action of a man dressed in a purple doublet, prohund might claim to represent the nth of tenth and a fusely slashed, who wears a large felt hat and a fraction of tho e 48 well,

cloak, with a dagger in his girdle, and is engaged

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