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WESTOOTT, M.B., and other contributors, and are at the Reform Bill, 1831, when Old Sarom was put in service of MR, VILLY if he will apply for them.] Schedule A. At that time I was not a boy, like

your correspondent, but of the mature age of Parasols (7th S. iv, 209).—The history of para

twenty-six. As I remember the lines they were sols and umbrellas is ready to hand in an interesting

these : little publication of the Commissioners of Patents.

Conservatives at Hatfield House The name of it is ‘ Abridgments of Specifications

Have grown quite harum-scarum, relating to Umbrellas, Parasols, and Walking

For what could Radicals do worse sticks, A.D. 1780-1866,' pp. xxx, 152 (London,

Than overturn old Sarum? Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1877, price 10d.). There is

J. CARRICK MOORE. an historical introduction, which potices the use of

THE USE OF THE ROSARY (7th S. iv, 288).-In parasols from the earliest times. It begins :

Cheetham’s ‘Dictionary of Christian Antiquities' " In spite of the comparatively recent introduction of there is an article on the rosary, by the late Mr. umbrellas into England, there cannot be any doubt as to

Scudamore. While admitting the early use of their extreme antiquity. Their use can be traced back into very early times in the East, where they seem first rosaries by Moslems and Buddhists, the learned to have originated. As a protection from the rain, / writer says: indeed, the umbrella is a comparatively modern inven. “The rosary of the Church of Rome is comparatively tion; it was as a shade against the scorching heats of the modern. Pius V. in a bull (1596) ascribes to St sun that they were first employed...... In the Ninevite

Dominic the 'invention of the rosary or poulter of the sculptures the umbrella or parasol (the two are prac. blessed Virgin.'...... The beads are, however, described tically the same) appears frequently.”

by Polydore Vergil 1499...... The invention of this instruIt would be unnecessary, as the references can ment be assigns to Peter tbe Hermit, who fourished in be seen so easily in this volume, to give the

1090. The number of beads may be due to Peter, but instances of the use of the parasol as noticed in

earlier in the same century we meet with a similar

contrivance," classical writers. But one or two extracts may be given from more modern writers, in reply to the

in the monastery founded at Coventry by Loofric query, to show that the parasol was in use before

and Godgifu. Tbus it seems correct to speak of

thirteenth-century monks as telling beads, but not the date named, and that not in France :“Florio, Worldo of Worldos,' 1598.-- Ombrella......

as using rosaries. also a kind of round fan or shadowing that they use to

EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A. ride with in sommer in Italy.'”—Introd., .8., p. xix.

Hastings. “Coryat, • Crudities,' p. 112 (1611), speaks of them as

NOLL (76h $. iv. 268).-See “Noll” in the used in the same way by riders, and as being such as they commonly call umbrellas, that is, thingis that

supplement to Ashe's 'Dictionary, "in familiar minister shadow unto them for shelter against the style Oliver." He is called “Old Noll” generally. scorching beats of the sunde,'-Ibid.

The Earl of Chichester bas Cromwell's Bible, with Cotgruve, French and English Dictionary,' Lon., 1673,- Ombrelle’ is translated "an vmbrello; a (fashion

an autograph "O. C., 1645," and a motto, “Qui of) round and broad fanne, wherewith the Indians (and

cessat esse melior cessat esse bonus." His dying from them our great ones) preserve themselves from the

question shows this as a stricture upon himself, heat of a scorching sunne; and hence, any little shadow, when he eagerly asked the minister beside him, fanne, or thing, wherewith women hide their faces fro' “ Can a man fall from grace who has once been the sunne.'"-Ibid,

saved ?"

C. A. WARD. The use in England is also traced from 1620,1 Walthamstow, pp. xx et seq. The use in France is probably For Ol, for Oliver ; hence Nolls, Nolley, and shown by Octave Uzanne in 'The Sunshade, Muft, the dim. 'Nolleking. Conf. Ann, Nan; Eddy, and Glove,' translated, with illustrations, by Paul

Neddy.

R. S. CHARNOCK. Avril, Lond., J. O. Nimmo & Bain, i4, King William Street, Strand. The title of the French

Noll is simply a shortened form of Oliver with work is 'L'Ombrelle.”

Ed. MARSHALL. in prefixed. So we also have Ned and Nan. In [The Rev. W. E. BUCKLEY refers to 'L'Ombrelle' and

Yorksbire I have heard Non for John. the information it supplies, MR. ANTHONY R. CARROLL

F. C. BIRKBECK TERBY. to Haydn's Dictionary of Dates' and Chambers's · Book With this prefixed n in this name compare Ned of Days,' and G. S. B. to the Penny Cyclopædia,' from which he quotes four lines taken from Gay's • Trivia.']

for Edward, Numpay for Humphrey, Nap for Ann, Nell for Ellen.

O. W. TANCOCK. DUBLIN TO LONDON IN 1770 (7th S. iv. 244).The old stage coaches were often called “ machines"

GABBARD OR GABBART (7th S. iv. 149).-In all before they carried the mails (i.e., about 1781) and

probability this is a Scottish word, and an instance became “ mail coaches." E. WALFORD, M.A.

of its use may be found in the following passage Hyde Park Mansions, N.W.

in 'Rob Roy. Many of your readers will re

member the amusing description of Bailie Nicol KNOCKING DOWN OLD SARUM (7th S. iv. 243).- Jarvie, on his expedition to the Highlands to see The epigram was written at the period of the first Rob Roy, being suspended in an inverted position by the skirts of bis coat on the branch of a thorn and hangers were precisely the same in shape as tree, and to it he thus refers: “I swung and the characters we first made in our copy-books. bobbit yonder as safe as a gabbart that's moored I well remember the array of pothooks and hangers by a three-ply cable at the Broomielaw(Rob which hung from the galley-bawk in the kitchen Roy,' chap. xxxi.). A note appended in the “Cen- chimney of the house where I was born. There tenary Edition” explains this as “ A kind of lighter were all sizes and thicknesses, from eighteen inches used in the river Clyde ; probably from the French in length to four or five, and day after day I longed abare."

for complete possession of them as playthings. On a visit to Edinburgh in the summer I saw

Thos. RATCLIFFE, the drama “Rob Roy; or, the Days of Auld Lang Worksop. Syne,' which was adapted for the stage by Isaac Pocock in 1818, and recently reproduced at the Lamb's EPITAPH (7th S. iv. 120).-I believe Lyceum Theatre in that city. The scenery there can be no doubt that the lines carved on was remarkably good, and the characters well | Charles Lamb's gravestone at Edmonton were sustained. Several songs were well sung, as “O composed by Cary, the translator of Dante. The my love is like the red, red rose," by Francis discussion as to the authorship in your first series Osbaldistone, and “ Ah ! would it were my humble took place in 1851; but the lines appeared in lot,” by Diana Vernon; whilst at the Clachan Cary's Memoir,' by his son, published in 1847 of Aberfoil, after the little affray, the Bailie, Major (ii. 279), with the statement that they were comGalbraith, of the Lennox Militia, and others joined posed by H. F. Cary at the request of Moxon, " to sociably in ' Auld Lang Syne'as a part-song and be inscribed on his friend's monument at Edmonchorus. JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. ton."

J. DYKES CAMPBELL. Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. Probably same as French gabare, a lighter,

"PREVENTED FROM” AND “FIRSTLY(7th S. transport-ship. Italian, gabarra.

iv. 269).—There have always been two meanings

Julius STEGGALL. at least to prevent. Johnson gives “to hinder, to 3, Queen Square, W.C.

obviate, to obstruct," and adds, “this is now

almost the only sense.” He has examples of the REBUILDING OF St. Paul's CATHEDRAL (7th S. use from Shakespeare (* Julius Cæsar,' V. i.), from iv. 28, 334). — The model of which your corre- Milton (*Paradise Lost, X. 37), and from Atterspondent speaks is, I assume, that lately placed bury. By a curious slip Johnson's example from in the Cathedral Library. It is not, however, a Julius Cæsar,' V. i., is really an example of premodel of the cathedral, but a model of the upper vent in the sense of anticipate. There is another part of the great west portico. An engraved brass passage, in 'Julius Cæsar,' II. i., in which prevent plate affixed to the model bears the following in- is used in the sense of obstruct. scription :

EDWARD H, MARSHALL, M.A. “This Model of part of the West End of S. Paul's The Library, Claremont, Hastings. Cathedral was presented to the Vicar of Shiplake A.D. 1835 by Mr. J. Plumbe of Henley on Thames, who had | As to firstly, Webster, under the word, says it purchased it from Badgmore House, once the residence is an adverb, "improperly used for first." We are of Richard Jonnings the Master Builder of that Cathe

| not obliged, of course, to agree with Webster. dral," W. SPARROW SIMPSON.

Myself, I discover no reason for deciding that it is

improper. It is not, I believe, to be found in any POTHOOKS (7th S. iv. 226, 318).-When I was old dictionary. The adverbial affix ly generally at school in Derbyshire, the first stages of learning I means like, friendly=like a friend, &c. There is to write were known as “straight strokes," " pot- Do occasion to say, “Firstly I go to Cambridge hooks," and “round o's," these being the very and then to Ely," because first would convey the earliest characters in rotation on wbich the young meaning better. But you might very well say or idea was called upon to exercise itself. The terms write that you did a certain act for a series of “pot-books” and “hangers ” are identical, and reasons, firstly because you thought it right, in the matter of writing were so called because the secondly it benefited Jones, &c. In this form I shape of the characters are like the pothooks by prefer it to first. All the grammarians in the means of which iron pots were hung over cottage world cannot gainsay this, though they may enterfires from the “galley-bawk,” which in those days tain an adverse opinion. It may be called a nicety was to be found stretched across every house-place not worth introducing. That is an opinion, and I chimney. Iron pots of various sizes, with bow am not bound by it. handles, were the commonest kind of cooking Now as to prevent. If Ogilvie says that to utensils, and when in use were always suspended prevent is “to hinder from happening," and nothing over the fire from the galley-bawk above by else, he is wrong; but I suppose he only gives it strings of pothooks or hangers, according to the as one of the meanings. I shall confine all I say distance of the pot above the fire. These books to its meaning when used in the sense of hinder.

The beautiful old use of the word, “O Lord, pre- all right!” And the good-natured girl did "du" vent and follow us," is quite beside the point in it that way accordingly. question. Still, the affix pre means “ before.” The

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. meaning developes into “anticipate," and then HUGH PETERS (7th S. ii. 121, 272; iv. 365).grows into obstruction by preoccupation of ground. | I have been investigating the character of Hugh Milton's fine line gives this :

Peters, and have come to the conclusion that he Perhaps forestalling might prevented them, has been greatly maligned. He has suffered at the But immediately we see that there is more in-hands of those who, like Mr. C. A. WARD, have volved, and that the poetical ellipsis is “from duly failed to observe Mr. Spedding's dictum, that if you returning.” When, therefore, you merely wish to want to know whether a statement is true, you allude to the person hindered, you require no pre- should ask who said it first, and what means he position from ; but when the object must also be bad of knowing. It is, in the first place, inherently stated, then from is required. “He would have improbable that a man who was the friend of been there, but the police prevented him." But if Thomas Rooker, Ames, Winthrop, and Cromwell you wish to state what it was they prevented his should have been guilty of the misconduct attridoing, you add, “ from attending the meeting." | buted to him by the Restoration scribblers. Even Here the construction is more than allowable; it those who impugn Cromwell's moral character do is inevitable.

C. A. WARD. not imagine him to have been a fool, and he would Walthamstow.

have been little short of a fool if he had taken a OCTOBER CLUB (7th S. iv. 167, 274).- Defoe grame

glutton and a fornicator into his friendship exposed the members of this “club,” or “cave"

Those, again, who wish to know what Hugh as we would now call it, in his Review ; see Minto's

Peters was from the evidence of his own writings ' Daniel Defoe,' p. 96 (“' English Men of Letters ").

may consult (1) his own letters written in America ROBERT F. GARDINER.

and printed in the 'Collections of the Massachu

setts Historical Society,' series iv. vol. vi. p. 91; COL. CARISTOPHER COPLEY (7th S. iv. 167, 274). | (2) a sermon entitled God's Doings and Man's -Let me add that Col. Copley was one of the four Duty, preached on April 2, 1646; and (3) Mr. Parliamentary commanders appointed to treat, on Peters's® Last Report of the English Wars.' The July 18, 1645, with the garrison at the surrender press-marks of the two last named in the Museum of Pontefract Castle. The other three were Mr. Library are E 330, 11, and E 351, 12. The chaWasthill (a lawyer), Col. Bright, and Col. (Chas.) racter displayed here is the more likely to be in Fairfax.

accordance with the truth, as it comes with perfect " They treated there in that place as long as light of unconsciousness, especially as the evidence thug day did appeare, till about 9° Clock, but concluded obtained is not only in flat contradiction with the upon Nothinge, but deferred it of till about 9 a Clock of libels, but also enables us to understand why the next day, at wh time they appoynted to meete againe. During that time Genrall Poynter & Collonell

libels took the particular shape that they did. verton came into the Tent, & drunke wth them, & Peters was, in my opinion, a man of strong animal soe went away" ("Sieges of Pontefract Castlo,' p. 143). spirits, utterly without cant, and, whilst earnest in

R. H. H. pursuing the practical moralities of religion, withPontefract.

out either spiritual enthusiasm or aptitude for GUES (7th S. iv, 228).-The writer of the entries

theological disputation. Such language as the folreferred to may have been a wily Welsbman who

| lowing will perbaps explain my meaning : intended to puzzle bis English neighbours, for I

“ Truly it wounds my soul when I think Ireland find that in Welsh gwys means “people," and that

would perish and England continue her misery through

the disagreement of ten or twenty learned men, Could seems to be the exact meaning of gues in the | we but conquer each other's spirit, we sbould soon entries in question.

F. J. VILLY. befool the devil and his instruments; to wbich end I

could wish we that are ministers might pray together, ANODYNE NECKLACE (6th S. ix. 85, 132; x. 377). eat and drink together, because, if I mistake not, -This once popular remedy for the troubles attend- estrangement hath boiled us up to jealousy and hatred." ant upon teething is mentioned in an article en Probably Peters would have preferred that the titled 'Pharmacopoeia Empirica' in Gent. Mag. dinner should have been a good one when he and xviii. (1748), 346-50. It was invented by one the other ministers ate and drank together, but I Dr. Tanner, whose death is recorded in Gent. do not know that he ought to be counted as a reMag., xxi. (1751), 139.

R. B. P. probate because he was not a St. Francis of Assisi.

It is characteristic of him that when, shortly “NOTHING'S NEW, &c." (7th S. iv. 194, 257).- | before his execution, he summed up the objects at The following delightful phrase of a good-humoured which he had aimed during bis life, he put them Cornish housemaid will be a good commentary on this : “Well, well—some du du it this way, “First, that goodness, which is really so, and such some du du it that way-yu du du it that way, religion, might be highly advanced ; secondly, that good

learning might have all countenance ; thirdly, that there sense. At that page (7th S. i. 104), under the head. may not be a beggar in Israel, in England."

ing 'Cornet Blackburn, the Almondbury Hero,' I This desire not to separate between care for men's had shown how the common soldiers of the spiritual and moral welfare and care for their Scottish army were, after Preston fight, and actually material welfare is to be discerned in the sermon at the advice and application of Cromwell himself, to which I have drawn attention.

absolutely “given away" as slaves, or sold at MR. TEMPLE may like to know that in a copy the nominal price of half-a-crown a dozen. I may of the modern reprint of Hugh Peters's Tales and now add, as PROF. BUTLER seems to have missed Jests 'in the Museum Library (press-mark 12, 316, the letter, that Carlyle's Cromwell' (under G 57) will be found additional pages in MS. trac- clxxxiv.) gives a further definite instance of ing several of the jests assigned to Hugh Peters the Dunbar prisoners having been similarly sent to an earlier origin. SAMUEL R. GARDINER. to Boston, Massachusetts, while my quotation

from the Life and Letters' was of Cromwell's SIR CHRISTOPHER Hatton's MONUMENT (7th S.

application to the Speaker Lenthal in reference to iv. 309).-It were much to be wished that the

the Preston prisoners. The letter to which I “most stately pyramidal monument" erected in referred did not come to the knowledge of Carlyle honour of Sir Christopher Hatton were still pre

until after the publication of his first edition, but served. But if it were it would have been difficult it is to be found in the second and all subsequent / to find room for it in the crypt of St. Paul's Cathe-editions, and in the supplement to the first edition dral, unusually spacious and lofty as that crypt is. (No. xvii. p. 49), without which extra volume the The monument of the Lord Chancellor was a huge Àrst edition is necessarily incomplete. It is structure, as may be seen in Dugdale's “St. Paul's' No. lxxviii. of the later editions. (edit. Sir H. Ellis, p. 56), with its recumbent

| I offer my apology to the professor for not baving figure, its pillars, and its obelisks. The wits of observed that this unfortunate omission (unobthe time objected that

served by myself) of the “ first-named reference" Philip and Francis they have no tomb

to 7th s. i. 104, made my communication at 7th S. For great Christopher takes all the room,

iii. 114 somewhat obscure.

R. H. H. BO “insolently," to borrow Dean Milman's phrase "

Pontefract. (Annals of St. Paul's,' second edition, p. 381), I had his tomb crowded up the space in which rested The 'Proceedings at the Sessions of the Peace, Sidney and Walsingham. Bishop Corbet con- and Oyer and Terminer, and Gaol Delivery for the tinued the protest :

City of London and the County of Middlesex, held Nor need the Chancellor boast, whose pyramid

at Justice Hall in the Old Bailey from December, Above the host and altar reared is,

| 1729, to October, 1834,' are contained in 110 vols. For though thy body fill a viler room,

(London, 1732–1834, 4to.). The following is a list Thou shalt not change deedes with him for his tomb of the names of the thirty-two prisoners who were (Bishop Ravis is the hero of his verse.) There can be sentenced to transportation on July 17, 1731:no doubt that the monument perished in the Great "John Aldridge, Elizabeth Armstrong alias Little and Dreadful Fire, as our City records often, with Bess, Richard Bennet, Martha Brannan, John Brown, good reason, style it. W. SPARROW SIMPSON.

Hugh Cambell, Elizabeth Camphill alias Cambell,

William Carnegy, John Coghill, Henry Cole, Mary ConvictS SHIPPED TO THE COLONIES (7th s. ü. Coslin, Catherine Cox, John Cross, Eleanor Davis 162, 476; iii. 58, 114, 193; iv. 72, 134). - I regret

| George Emly, James Emly, John Haynes, James Hobbs

| Thomas Jones, Antonio Key, Thomas Macculler, Martin to have overlooked the request of PROF. BUTLER, Nanny, John Payne, Thomas Petit, Luke Powel, Daniel at 7th S. iv. 72, to make my reference to Cornet Ray, Elizabeth Roberts, John Rogers, Mary Row alias Blackburn “in connexion with Carlyle's 'Crom- Cano alias Dixon, Thomas Taylor, Anne Todd, and Jane well' " more definite. If, however, he will re-read Vaughan

Vaughan,"-Vol. ii. p. 21. my remarks (766 S. iii114)–somewhat spoiled by

G. F. R. B. a misprint of “refute " for refer to, which I de- SOURCE OF PHRASE SOUGAT (766 S. iv. 188).tected at once and corrected, and by the omission Your correspondent has asked a question to which of a reference which I failed to notice- he will see many have sought the answer. The form of phrase that by my use of the word “also ” I specially is, I think, very old. The nearest approach to guarded myself against connecting Cornet Black-MR. SIEVEKING'S form of which I know is Mr. burn with Carlyle, who, as I was perfectly aware, Webster's criticism of the “platform" of the did not mention him. After the lapse of nine American Free Soil party in 1848,“ What is valumonths I cannot trace how the mishap occurred ; able is not new, and what is new is not valuable.” but the fact was that my communication was Macaulay says, “ There were gentlemen and there printed in ‘N. & Q.' without the reference which were seamen in the navy of Charles II. But the I gave to 7th S. i. 104, a reference to which I seamen were not gentlemen, and the gentlemen was referring when I wrote “the first named," and were not seamon." I remember that fifteen years which was absolutely necessary to complete the ago Mr. Bartlett, the accomplished anthor of the

‘Dictionary of Quotations,' tried to find the origin English gulf and the French recueil for the prefix of this turn of phrase, and inquired of me, among only. This station was garrisoned by a cohort of others, but without success. C. H. HILL. Vetasians under the count of the Saxon shore. Boston, U.S.

| Regulbium, with Rutupia, protected Durover• The pbrase was first used (I think) in the Edin- num, or Canterbury, thus dating back to a period burgh Review in an article by Brougham upon a when Thanet was truly insular. A recent explorawork of Dr. Thomas Young.

P. tion of the whole locality leads me to doubt the

value of this reputed water passage. I admit that ADELAIDE O'KEEFE (7th S. iii. 361, 503).-I if all the sea walls were removed the tide would do not find meption of Original Poems,' &c., enter, but it would flow out at the ebb. The part i., Harris, 1808, in any edition of the London Stours take their seaward course to Pegwell, and Catalogue; but in 1831 I find “Original Poems, this must always have been the case; and there second series, 18mo., half-bound, 2s, 6d., Souter, could never have been a navigable river mouth at and in that for 1846 the latter is repeated as Reculvers. There is a channel called the Went"2 vols., half-bound, 38., Souter." I infer that sum, wbich I consider to be artificial. There is a Souter's venture was adopted from or in continua- north mouth sluice, also two other minor outlets, tion of that ascribed to Harris of 1808, by Mr. really drains. They relieve a stream from Tbanet I. W. Darton. I do not find any mention of these called the Hayle or Bourne, and the Genlade or three titles quoted above in the Reference Cata- Wethergong, from Chislet, in Kent. Gong and gen logue, British Museum Reading-Room; but they appear to be forms of gang or Ganges. must have been received under the Copyright Act. But the crucial test is this : How would ships

A. H. pass the narrows? The narrowest part of the « POVERTY KNOCKER” (7th S. iv. 328).- This

whole channel is marked by Sarre Wall, a good phrase is well known in the West Riding of York

roadway. Sarre stands at the first rise of the shire, but is not in such general use now as it was

chalk, below St. Nicholas at Wade, in Thanet. forty years since, when band-loom weaving was

Here was the vadum, or ford. From this I constill common in the outlying districts around Leeds.

clude that the channel was always fordable at low The pbrase can scarcely be an onomatopeia, as the

water. Sarre Wall is broken by two culverts, well simple click of the picking-stick of the hand-loom

bridged over. It is an artificial causeway, a good can only by a most vivid stretch of the imagina

half mile long, across the marsh to Upstreet, in tion form the words “ poverty-knock." Here the

Kent. It has the navigable Stour on its Richwords were used contemptuously of a hand-loom

borough side, with three walls on the Reculvers weaver, whose earnings were much less than those

side. All the outlets seawards are well supervised. of a power-loom weaver. Most probably the words

Looking at the whole contrivance, I consider have a reference to the timid single knock, such

h that the value of the Stour to Canterbury must as is made by a poor beggar, as distinguished

always have resulted from the exclusion of the from the more fashionable rat-ta-tat made by a

tide at Reculvers. One opening towards Birchperson who knows manners." I well remember

ington, is called Coldharbour Sluice; so the sea wall many years since bearing an old band-loom weaver probably dates from Roman times, at least in part (who dwelt on a wild moorland road leading into

A. HALL. the Slaithwaite valley) say that he could almost 1 JOHN LEECH AND MULREADY (6th S. xii. 428, tell a poor person from a well-to-do one by the 505; 7th S. iii. 30).--I have bad the good fortune to kind of knock he gave at his cottage door when purchase the original sketch for Punch by J. Leech asking the way across the moor on a dark night. of the caricature Mulready envelope, and the writing

ALF. GARDINER. on it will explain the reason the woodcut was placed [MR. HERBERT HARDY writes to similar effect.] on the cover of Punch, Jan, 13, 1844, instead of in

the body of the work. The incident connected RECULVERS (7th S. iv. 324).—There is nothing with Sir James Grabam must have sprung up new in this extract, and it is a pity the quotation suddenly, and the editor must have pressed Mr. is not authenticated by a proper reference. Re- Leech to bave the design ready for the next culvers still retains the vallum of a late Roman number, and Leech's remark about it being pubcastrum, and the ancient church was founded in lisbed separately must bave been the suggestion about its centre. Much has been written about that caused it to be placed on the cover, as the the wasting of the cliff, but I consider its im- rest of the number must have been in type before portance unduly exaggerated, for the camp would the drawing arrived. It would be far easier to naturally be constructed as near the shore as displace a few advertisements than to interfere practicable. The Roman name is given in the with the number itself. The letter round the * Notitia ' as Regulbium, & word that may fanci. drawing is as follows :fully be connected with culvert, “ a drain or sluice," “Dear Mark, I am much obliged for the ticket. I in reference to the surrounding marshes ; cf. the will go. I have just dotted off the above sketob. Will

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