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it do? Of course it is in a rough state-any suggestions - Hood's Comic Annual' for 1887, and printed you may have to make I should be glad to attend to, with several gross errors. I would venture to You could have it by Monday. Do you know I think that it might be published separately if it is not in time

suggest that the Anglo-American Romany Ryes for the next number.-Yours ever, J. L.".

should form themselves into a club or correspond. I have now the complete set of the Spooner

ence society, for the purpose of compiling and caricatures. It consists of fourteen instead of six,

publishing by subscription as complete a vocabuas was supposed, 'the last being the various por

lary and collection of songs as may be attainable traits of O'Connell. No. 13 consists of Admiral

i at this date, and also of settling a uniform system Napier and various sailors and Turks. These last

of transliteration for Romany words, which is a two are more in outline than the first twelve, and

great desideratum.

W. J. IBBETSON. are signed by R. S. Hurst, 244, Strand, instead of EAST LYNNE' (7th S. iii. 266, 459, 626; iv. by W. Mulheaded, R.A. Twelve impressions 1214. 297).-If R. T. will kindly read my former have purchased recently were coloured at the time, notes under this heading (7th S. iii. 459 ; iv. 214) and are the only coloured envelopes I have yet he will see that my first reference was to the Oracle, seen.

ALGERNON GRAVES. which quoted from the Pall Mall Gazette. I never Roslyn House, Finborough Road.

said that the Pall Mall Gazette charged Mrs. Wood CORNISH TOKENS (7th S. iii. 496; iv. 94). —

with plagiarism ; but I did say, and continue to In reference to Miss Emily COLE's observations

say, that any author who publishes a book in one

country under one title, and in another country upon the Bonython token, tbe meaning of the letter M has not been explained. This letter

under another title, lays him or her self open to the

charge of plagiarism. As R. T. has referred me to seems to have been on a number of seventeenth century tokens without any apparent signification.

The Handbook of Fictitious Names,' a work I Thus, in Akermann's Tradesmen's Tokens Cur- |

had myself consulted, I would call his attention to rent in London between 1648 and 1672' (1849),

the following weighty sentence on p. 174 :plate 82 shows A'M for Henry Young ; plate 45,

“We [i. e., Olphar Hamst, not the Pall Mall Gazette]

have devoted a great deal of space to this matter, as FHM for Francis Harris.

warris. Again, 1
Again, in Boyne's

boyues coming under the head of Literary Frauds' (we are 'Tokens Issued in the Seventeenth Century' aware that the term is severe). If it admitted of more (1858), IPM is on the token of John Pepbelick of abbreviation, we should bave been better pleased; after Helstone : RAM stands for Ralph Hocknell of all, it is a most disagreeable task.” Chester; and TVM for Thomas Underwood of On the same page R. T. will find it stated that Reading. Is there any special meaning attached Mrs. Wood is the acknowledged authoress of other to the letter M in its use on tokens ? CURIOUS. three novels unknown to her English readers by

their American titles. These are The Mystery, MRS. GLASSE : FISH-NAMES (7th S. iv. 148, Life's Secret,' and 'The Earls Heir.' I consider 212).-The English Dialect Society in 1882 issued that the public, an author's patrons, have a right to a Provisional Index to a Glossary of Fish-Names' know whether these books are reprinted, under which was edited by the late Mr. Thos. Satchell; other titles, as “new novels," in three volumes, at but with the exception of Homlyn (Raia maculata) thirty-one shillings and sixpence each ; a question I do not find distinctly any of the names men that the Pall Mall Gazette asked in 1867, and tioned by MR. BOUCHIER.Glout, however, may which I now repeat. ROBERT F. GARDINER. be the “Glut” (or broad-nosed) eel (Anguilla latirostris). Kinson is perhaps the “Kingston,"

ASSIGNATS (7th S. iv. 148, 274).-It is evident or angel fish (Squatina angelus); and Shafflins may | there were “ varieties” of this paper money, indebe “Shaftling," the three-spined stickleback (Gas- pendent of vala:

pendent of value, for I have in my possession two terosteus trachurus).

quite different in design and size. One measures FREDERICK E. SAWYER, F.S.A.

about 4 in. by 24 in, the other 5} in. by 3} in. The Brighton.

former is dated November 1, 1791; the latter June 6, 1793.

EMILY COLE. « STEW IN THEIR OWN GREASE(17th S. iv. 366).

Teignmouth. -See ‘N. & Q.,' 4th S. vii. 187, 272, 379, 522.

So far from there being no “varieties ” in JONATHAN BOUCHIER. French assignats, I have five examples which differ SONGS OF THE ENGLISH GIPSIES (7th S. iv. 288). materially in design ; they are all genuine. -In answer to the question of COL. PRIDEAUX,

W. FRAZER, F.R.C.S.I. I can only mention the few apparently genuine | BISAOP SPARROW'S RATIONALE' (7th S. iv. ballads scattered about the works of Leland, Bor-49, 173, 315).-The question of date may be row, and Groome. The volume of 'Anglo-Romany | approximately determined by the list of “ Books Ballads, published by Leland, Palmer, and Miss sold by J. Garthwait,” which I find on the last Tackey, is, of course, the work of the Aficionados. page of the preface to my copy of the collection of Two rough ballads wore contributed by Leland to articles, 1661, and where appears, “The form

of consecration of a church by Bp. Andrews." vastum, gastum, guastum, wastum, gastina, was. Curiously no size is given, although all the other tina, &c., with the meanings of untilled wild land books advertised with it have their sizes quoted. or waste; and Dom Carpentier adds an example

Geo. Clulow. of the French derivative in “Qui porroit saoler

ceste gent en cesto gastine ?"-a preacher's variant GATTIN (7th S. iv. 204).—The survival of gattin

of the passage, “From whence cap a man satisfy in England, applied in the case cited to a certain

these men with bread here in the wilderness ?" small copse near Hastings, must be regarded as a

(St. Mark viii. 4). very interesting fact; but a safer etymology than the suggested Celtic one_is given by Schéler

In relation to woods, Ducange explains wasta,

wastina, &c., as meaning a spot within a wood, (Auguste) in his ‘Dict. d'Etymologie Française,'

but on which no trees are found ; & place that ed. 1873. Under the word “Gâter” Schéler

“plapum
,

est, seu absque arboribus"; "terra says :

nemore vacua.” This is the same, in fact, as “In Old French there is an adjective quaste, meaning | Schéler's clairière, a clear space or glade, or what *untilled,' solitary,' 'in bad condition, equivalent to the Italian guasto and the Portuguese gasio. from the I used to be called in England a "laund." Latin vastus. The ancient form of the verb, however,

The transition from the meaning of " desert" in viz., gastir, the root of the substantive guastine, gastine, general to "a spot bare of trees” in a wood is meaning oa glade or open space in a wood,' a desert,' natural enough; but how the English gattin in the 6 untilled land,' 'moorland' (with which we may com

individual case cited comes to mean the wood pare the Flemish waestyne, woestyne), argues a direct derivation from the Old High German word wastjan,

itself is, perhaps, not quite equally clear, though which has the same meaning."

not hard to understand; or there may possibly be It is, of course, unnecessary to dwell upon 80

some defect in the late Miss Costello's description familiar a fact as the dropping out of s from many

of the gattin or “copso" in question. Readers French words, and the modern use of the circum

may be able to throw light upon the subject by flex accent to indicate this. With reference to giving

I giving other examples of the English use of the the change of w into 9, I will not venture upon

word, in Sussex or elsewhere. There is a townthe subject of phonological laws, but confine myself

elf ship named Gattin near Church Stretton, in Shropto giving one'illustration of their action. I well

shire.

John W. Bone, F.S.A. remember that my worthy friend of many years In the 'Shropshire Gazetteer' I find, “Gatton, a ago, Don Manuel V-- B- , from South Township in the parish of Ratlinghope, and in America, could never quite succeed (perhaps be- the hundred of Ford, 5 miles N.W. of Church cause he was too old) in saying “Wardour." He Stretton." This township contains Gatten (sic) made efforts to do so, but the general result was Lodge, Further Gatten, and Gatten. Gatten “Gardour.” To most readers of `N. & Qi' also Wood is also marked on the Ordnance Map. it may be superfluous to point out the etymo- As this place is on the Welsh border, the word logical identity of ward and guard, warranty and gatten is possibly of Welsh or Celtic origin. guarantee, the English war and the French

BOILEAU. guerre, the English warren and French garenne.

I venture to doubt whether Miss Costello I add a less familiar example, one that appears to

correctly understood the reply given to her at have escaped the notice of Prof. Skeat-to warn

Hastings, " to pass by a gattin," i. e., a copse. I and to garnish, the latter, in this instance, being a

have never heard the word, or found it amongst law term, meaning “to warn, to give notice.”

Sussex field or place names, and suspect (as sbe Our English word waste is variously defined as I was in the fields) that she was told to pass a "a desolate or uncultivated country"; " land un

gratten (e. e., a stubble-field, Fr. gratter). Susser tilled, though capable of tillage"; and “those

peasants are very indistinct in their speech. lands which are not in any man's occupation, but

FREDERICK E. SAWYER, F.S.A. lie common.” Prof. Skeat draws it from the Old French wast, derived from the Old High German

BUBORDIEU Family (7th S. iii. 329, 458; iv. 71, waste, and adds the remark, "borrowed from the

213).- In the list of Huguenot families who emigrated Latin uastus." He continues :

to America, settling down in the city of Charles“It is remarkable that we also find an Anglo-Saxon

town, South Carolina, and who assisted in the te, and Old High German wuosti, meaning "waste.' development of that state, we find the name of These forms are not borrowed from Latin, but are cognate, | Dubourdieu. See Weiss's History of the French (Aryan type, wasta; root unknown)” (Concise Etymo- Protestant Refugees,' p. 301. log.col Dict.,' by Walter W. Skeat, 1882).

Robert F. GARDINER. In this final “root unknown” we seem to run John Armand-du-Bardieu mar. Hester, only waste and gattin to earth, and there we may let dau. of William and Clare Trafford, of Swythamley them rest. On intermediate stages, however, in (Sleigh’s ‘Hist. Leek,' p. 19). the history of the word Ducange's Latin glossary

THOMAS W. SKEVINGTON, may be profitably consulted. Ducange gives Saltaire.

faiscellaneous.

truest beauty in landscape." The infinite repose which

we have felt among the pastures of the Netherlands or NOTES ON BOOKS, &o.

in the poplar-shaded fields of Belgium may be enjoyed Reginald Pole, Cardinal Archbishop of Canterbury: an

in equal perfection in Sussex. It has always been a Historical Sketch. By Frederick George Lee, D.D.

matter of wonder to us that 80 many fly over sea for (Nimmo.)

what is to be found almost at their own doors. DR. LEE has written an interesting and instructive book,

Great Writers.--Life of Charlotte Brontë, By Augustine but it is in no sort a life of the great Cardinal. It is

Birrell. (Scott.) modestly called a "sketch” only. 80 we have. perhaps, MR. BIRRELL himself says that “the life of Charlotte no ground for finding fault. Knowing, however, as we Brontë has been written once for all by Mrs. Gaskell," do, the immenge mass of letters and other documents and he can scarcely expect that the volume before us which might be made to illustrate the Cardinal's life, we will in any way take the place of that exhaustive analysis cannot but be sorry that one who is in some ways so of the life and writings of the great Yorkshire author. well qualified to use them should have preferred to But a compressed biography of Charlotte Brontë was

a merely popular book We do not tread the certainly needed, and we must praise Mr. Birrell for the thorny paths of religious controversy, and therefore manner in which he has done his work. Moreover. much of what Dr. Lee says must be passed over in there is new matter to be found in it relating to Miss silence. He is of opinion that the Reformation was a Brontë's father before he settled in Yorksbire. The mistake, and readers of his book, to have any pleasure story of his early love for Mary Burder is now, 80 far as therein, must, for the time at least, look at things we know, given to the world for the first time. People from his point of view. If they do so they will find who are interested in the subject of the suffering underthe leading facts of Polo's life, 80 far as they regard gone by children at school during the end of the last England and the restoration of the Roman Catholic century and the beginning of the present one should religion under Mary, carefully stated, though sometimes read the note at the end of the first chapter of this an asperity of language is used which can serve no | book, p. 27, giving an account of the kind of place Mary good purpose. It is better to smite our enemies with Burder was sent to dwell at when only five years old. a rapier than a bludgeon. Few Englishmen know Her brothers also seem to have been very unfortunate in more of the writers of the sixteenth century than Dr. | the place of learning chosen for them Lee. It is a pity tbat his studies in that almost forgotten

Mr. Birrell is an ardent admirer of the genius of Char. literature should have led him to reproduce some of the lotte Brontë; but in our opinion ho scarcely does justice least amiable speech-forms that occur therein. The to Sbirley. We cannot agree with him when he says legitimacy of Queen Elizabeth is a question on which that “ the story as a story is not interesting.” Had it Catholics and Protestants are not likely to agree, for been written by any one save the author of 'Jane Eyre' there are fundamental differences between them as to it would have brought to the writer a great reputation. marriage ; but whatever opinion Dr. Lee holds on this As it is, we are so dazzled by the light from that wonder. controverted question, it is not wise, when he is called ful creation that we are in danger of not seeing clearly upon to speak of her at a time before she became queen,

enough the delicate touches in the story which followed it. to call her Elizabeth Boleyn.

Why did Mr. Birrell add the last chapter? We should The volume contains what seems to be a complete list have thought the story of a sad life would have had a of Pole's published works, and a catalogue of his

more fitting end bad he left it out. The index is painted and engraved portraits, which, if not complete,

remarkably good. will be of much service to future inquirers.

Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antia Hastings, Lewes, Rye, and the Sussex Marshes. By C. P.

quarian and Archeological Society. Vol. IX. Part I. (Bell & Sons.) BEFORE we read this little tract we thought that it was

THESE Transactions always contain matter of permanent a guide-book ; further examination, however, convinced

value. The part before us is no exception to the rule. us of our mistake. Guide-books we have in plenty—a few

Almost all the articles are short, which is an advantage. of them meritorious compilations, the greater number

In a scientific journal we require facts, not fine writing. merely the outcome of scissors and paste.pot. C. P.

An engraving and some notes are given of an extrabag, it would seem, bad no desire to direct sightseers,

ordinary ring found near Lanercost. It is not of or to cram jaded minds requiring rest with facts and

precious metal, and cannot bave been made for a signet, dates. He is one of those who love quiet old towns,

The shape of the shield induces us to believe that it is not where progress has not blossomed forth into villas, and

later than 1300. The arms are a double-tailed rampant where things may be seen and dreamily pondered over

lion. This bearing belonged to several families, and which carry the mind back to times before railways,

therefore its owner cannot be identified with certainty, postcards, and political agitators of the vulgar sort now

We are inclined to think that it is a mortuary ring, common. Lewes, with its memories of battle and

intended to be buried with the dead. Mr. Whitehead's patriotism, Winchelsea and Rye, which tell of mer.

account of the Church Bells of Cumberland' is a very cantile adventure of a sort different from that which has

useful contribution. It is the second paper of the kind made Liverpool and Glasgow famous, are attractive to

which he has contributed to those Transactions. It him; but, above all, ho loves the Sussex Marshes. Our

would appear that there are few mediæval bells in ears are so stunned with the praises of mountains that

Cumberland, but those of latter centuries are well worthy it is quite refreshing to meet with any one who knows

of note. The church wardens' accounts of Kendal are tbat there can be beauty where there has not been

interesting. Incense must have been in use there as violent disruption of the strata. We would not depre

late as 1674, for in that year there is a charge for ciate Auvergne, or even the Andes, but it is de

repairing the censers. ligbtful to be able to quote an author who has the Weather: a Popular Exposition of the Nature of courage to say that the Essex Marshes abound with Weather Changes from Day to Day. By the Hon. " the peaceful and touching charms which render the Ralph Abercromby, F.R.M.Š., &c. plain inore tban a rival to the mountain in the eyes of We are all concerned in the subject of the weather ; åll who find in human associations......the ground of the and it is undoubtedly a matter of great interest to

quarian Wilson.)

antoin matter of pe

trace the nature of the cause8 which produce the and complete edition of the works of Galileo, He would frequent weather changes which are noticed in a climate be glad to receive information of any letter or writings such as our own. The volume before us (which forms one of the great astronomer which may be in England, in of the “International Scientific Series ") sets these forth public or private libraries, and has officially authorized in a particularly lucid manner. Nor is it a mere compila- Mr. A. W. Thibaudeau, of 18, Green Street, St. Martin's tion of existing kuowledge, for the results of many of the Place, W.C., to receive any communication and to defray author's original and unpublished researches are included any expeuses incurred. in its pages. Explanations are also given of the sources

TAE'Life of Bishop Colenso,' by the Rev. Sir Geo. W. of ordinary popular prognostics of the weather; why

Cox, Bart., is now passing through the press, and will be these sometimes fail ; why, also, forecasts derived from

published by Mr. William Ridgway before the end of the motion of the barometer at any station sometimes

the year. are erroneous; and the methods by which greater approach to certainty can be obtained by the use of synoptic charts at a central office, though even thoso

Notices to Correspondents. must occasionally fail,

We must call special attention to the following notiche: The Encyclopædic Dictionary. Vol. VI. Part II.

On all communications must be written the name and (Cassell & Co.)

address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but The volume issue of the 'Encyclopædic Dictionary' (not

as a guarantee of good faith. to be confounded with the issue in monthly parts) is We cannot undertake to answer queries privately. approaching completion, the second part of the sixth To secure insertion of communications correspondenta volume carrying the alphabet from “Shoe” to “Tar- | must observe the following rule. Let each pote, query, tuffirm." To the value of the book as a work of reference or reply be written on & separate slip of paper, with the we have borne continuous testimony, and the constant signature of the writer and such address as be wishes to allusions to it in our pages show what hold it has taken appeur. Correspondents wbo repeat queries are requested upon the public. It is not wholly new to regard a dicto bead the second communication " Duplicate." tionary as a book to be read for entertainment. A man,

E. R. VYYYAN (“ Louise de Querouaille').-The name bowever, may spend an unoccupied hour worse than in reading the more scientific essays in this volume. The

is variously spelt Keroual, Keroualle, Kerouaille, Questudent, at least, of botany, zoology, astronomy, &c., will

rouaille, Querouailles, &c. The name is Breton. Only find much to interest as well as to benefit, and the

in England is it spelt with a Q. Colbert de Croissy spells illustrations to special words will add greatly to bis ad.

it Queroul. In a charter of donation to her of the lands vantage, Readers of belles lettres even may gain. What

of Aubigny it is Kervël. reader of Mr. Swinburne will not be thankful for the STUDENT (“Hilares mox sani").-You do not give the illustration of the Sun-dow,' wbich forms the subject

forms the subject of full quotation. one of Mr. Swinburne's most tender poems ?

CHARLES J. HILL ("A budget of queries ").-Tour The Magazine of Art, 1887. (Cassell & Co.)

contempt for our instructions is wonderful. One more volume of the Magazine of Art appears with

GEORGE OGLE ("Fairy Rings").- For a full descripthe customary wealth and variety of contents. From the

tion of the origin of these see Cassell's 'Encyclopædic earliest products of mediæval schools to the Royal

Dictionary'under “ Fairy." Academy and the Salon of this year, the growth of art

BELGRAVIA is anxious to know of any map or history is illustrated in the goodly and capacious volume. Many of London which will enable him to trace the course of pictures of bigbest interest by Palma Veccbio, Turner, old Ranelagh sewer, and other artists, old and new, are reproduced in full ERRATA.—Ante p. 364, col, 2, 1. 10, delete "Alex"; size engravings. Spots of historical or general interest, p. 366, col. 2, 11, 5 and 10 from bottom, for "fazaud" Tewkesbury and Farnley Hall, with its Turner associa- I read faraud. tions--are illustrated. The whole is, indeed, a treasure

NOTICE. house of beauty. With the beginning of the present Editorial Communications should be addressed to "The volume a new feature is inaugurated in the issue with | Editor of Notes and Queries'"- Advertisements and each monthly part of an etching, photogravure, or steel Business Letters to “The Publisher"-at the Office, 22, plate. The execution of the plates is remarkable, An Took's Court, Cursitor Street, Chancery Lane, E.C. illustration such as that of Mr. Pettie's Two Strings to Wo beg leave to state that we decline to return comhis Bow' is sufficient to popularize the volume,

munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and No. 8 of the English Historical Reviero has an

to this rule we can make no exception. all-important essay by Mr. Samuel R. Gardiner upon

Charles I. and the Earl of Glamorgan.' This is accom THE WESTERN ANTIQUARY; panied by a facsimile of the special warrant for Ire

1 or. Note-book for Devon, Cornwall, and somenet Ibeing ! land given by Charles to the earl. The Life of Jus. Medium of Intercommunication for Antiquaries and others interated tinian by Theophilus' is discussed by Dr, Bryce, whose

in the History, Literature, and Legendary Lore of the Western

Counties). With Ilustrations. contribution to an interesting historical epoch often Published Monthly. Seventh Series commenced JUNE, 189. discussed in the Review is important. A vexed ques.

Edited by W, H. K. WRIGHT, F.R. Hist. Soc., Borough Librarian,

Plymouth. tion which has slept of late is revived in Mr. Davis's

Plymouth: W. H. LUKE, 8, Bedford-street. • Employment of Indian Auxiliaries in the American Annual Subscription, 76. ; Superior Edition, 109. ; postage, Il extr. War. Mr. Hardy sends also a paper on The Movemen of the Roman Legion.' Miss Norgate's England under NORTHERN NOTES and QUERIES. the Angevin Kings' is reviewed by Dr. Freeman, Other N Edited by the Rev. A. W. OURNELIUS HALLEN, reviews are written by Mr. Stanley Lane Poole and Mr,

and published Quarterly. W. H. Stevenson.

No. VII will be ready DECEMBER 1., price 18 Annual Subscrip tion, 48. Subscribers' Names and payments received by tbe dikt,

Allos, N.B., to whom all communications are to be addressed; and PROF. ANTONIO Favaro, of Padua, has been charged

the Work supplied by him, or through any Bookseller.

Edinburgh: DAVID DOUGLAS by the Italian Government with the supervision of a new

London: HAMILTON, ADAMS & CO.

WANTED, COPIES of NOTES AND QUERIES,

No. 51, SIXTH SERIES, for which le. 6d, each will be given. -Address JOYN C. FRANCIS, Notes and Queries Office, 42, Took'scourt, Cursitor-street, Chancery-lane, E.C. NORWICH, 37 and 39 (late 4 and 6), Timber Hill.

I -Mr. B. SAMUEL frequently has good specimens of Chippendale, Wedgwood, Old Plate, Oriental and other China, Pictures of the Norwich school, &c.

A most fascinating book, and one that is sure to be read with

interest at the present time.

E T H N E. BEING A TRUTHFUL HISTORIE OP THE GREAT AND FINAL

SETTLEMENT OF IRELAND BY OLIVER CROMWELL,
AND CERTAIN OTHER NOTEWORTAY EVENTS, FROM
THE JOURNALS OF ETENE O'CONNOR AND OF ROGER
STANDFAST, CAPTAIN IN THE ARMY OF THE OOMMONS
OF ENGLAND.

Edited by Mr. E. M. FIELD,
Author of Mixed Pickles,' 1 be Way Thither,'

'A Peck of Troubles,' &o. Crown 8vo. with Etched Frontispiece and Titlo-Page, boards, 68.

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and ACCOUNTANT. Advice given as to the best mode of Publishing Publishers' Estimates examined on behalf of Authors. Transfer of Literary Property carefully conducted. Safe Opinions obtained. Twenty years' experience. Highest references. Consultation free.-1a, Paternoster-row, B.O.

NATALOGUE (52 pp.) of HERALDIC, ANTI.

QUARIAN, and FINE ART BOOKS, Oruikshank, Drama, &c., including nearly 300 items from the Library of the late Stephen Tusker, Somerset Herald. Post free on application to U. MAGGS, 169, Church-street, Paddington-green, London, W.

A Faithful and Interesting Account of Lille in the Abbey

in the Days of Richard I. WESTMINSTER CLOISTERS: the

Story of a Heart's Ambition. By E, BIDDER, Crown 8vo. Illustrated, appropriate cloth boards, 88.

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