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called the bend sinister &“bar," and, says Planché,

“ a diminution of it is in this country commonly CONTENTS.-N° 99.

called 'the bastard's bar'"; but Menestrier was a NOTES:-Bend Sinister, 401-Dr. Johnson and Lichfield. 4

1, 402 French writer on blazon at the close of the eighteenth - Shakspeariana, 404-Bore=Great Tidal Wave, 405—Lord Nelson's Dress — "Other" as & Plural, 406Greater century, when the practice and nomenclature of the London,' 407.

two countries were in some respects widely different. QUERIES :-James II. at Tunbridge Wells-Samphire, 407—| The late Somerset Herald was, however, “ inclined Shaking Hands-Hendre Family - French Emigration to b

o r y Tech Imigration to to believe" the bar as “but a diminution of the of a Nun'-"To sleep the sleep of the just" -Court of

fess, if indeed it be not identical with it,” in which Trailbaston-Characters in Cuthbert Bedo's 'Mattins and Muttons '- Gadroon Carnac, 408 - Heraldry Iron Per

sinister. In Canon Jenkins's 'Heraldry, English forated by Hailstones-First Oxford Library-Hallet's Cove -Capt. George Farmer-Montrose-Hacket's Life of Wil and Foreign,' the bar or barre is described as the liams'-old clock, 409.

reversed form of the bende, and as being “in REPLIES :-St. George's, Bloomsbury 410-Calumet, 411– reality the same figure" and having "the game Turks and Tobacco Simoethe-" The fool in the middle"

rank in heraldic devices." The fact is that bar in Christabel, 412-Author of 'John Halifax'-old ArmsThe Descendants of Shakspeare's Sister, 413-The Chess.

the sense of “bend sinister" is a word of essentially Rook of Heraldry-" Ri fol de rol," 414-Theft from Want foreign growth, and was never recognized by --General Hodgson — Gibson-Gooseberry-Confirmation & Cure for Bboumatism-Hair turning White-George BarDard. 415-Wordsworth_Biographical Dictionary of the | it would appear to have arisen from the singular Stage'-Lease of 999 Years_'Unto this Last'-Ram-Hunt

-Ram-Hunt- | practice of arbitrarily reversing the bearings of a ing, 416-Children as Mediators-Magna Charta BaronsDe Bohun - Error concerning Mary Stuart-Gleaning Bell. I shield for the sake of symmetry. In Gaillim's 417-Cooke's "Topographical Library"-Butler's. Hudibras -Keep your Temper-Thornbury's Old and New Lond

tion that the bend sinister was, in the time of the 418-Gattin, 419.

author, regarded as a mark of illegitimacy; on NOTES ON BOOKS:- Jeaffreson's Lady Hamilton and

the contrary, we may be certain inferentially that Nelson' - Ferguson's Denton's Accompt of Estates' Report of Labor Bureau, New York 'Barry's Bayreuth' -Raju's 'Indian Fables.'

ordinary; for while he says of the “batoon" that Notices to Correspondents, &c.

“ this is the proper and most usual note of illegitimation," he affirms of the scarpe (i. e., & ribbon

sinister) that "notwithstanding this Charge hath Potes.

some Resemblance of the common Note of Illegiti

mation; Yet, is it not the same." Again, in THE BEND SINISTER.

Edmondson's 'Body of Heraldry' it is stated that In the New English Dictionary,' under the "we may fairly conclude, that the Batton is not to word “Bend,” bend sinister is defined as “one of be deemed as any part diminutive of the Bend, but the marks of bastardy.” For explanation of this as a mark of illegitimacy.” It is here perfectly definition the able editor relied upon the quotations clear that Edmondson intends us to regard the under“ Bend "and the definitions of " Baton "and bend sinister and all its diminutives, as well as the “Bar.” The quotations under “ Bend” give no ex- bend, as honourable ordinaries, and the baton planation, for Sir Walter Scott was as far from sinister as something distinct and apart from them being a herald as a historian. Referring first to all. Lower, in his ‘Curiosities,' asserts that “it is “ Baton," we find that this ordinary (?) is used “in & prevailing error that the bend sinister is a mark English coats of arms only in the form of the baton of dishonour, as betokening illegitimacy; this sinister, the badge of bastardy (popularly called seems to have arisen from its having been conbar sinister).” This does not, however, explain founded with the baton, which bearing differs why the bend sinister is described as “one of the from it both in being much narrower, and in marks of bastardy.” Turning next to “Bar," this being cut off from the borders of the escocheon." is described as "an honourable ordinary, formed Perhaps Mark Antony Lower was not a great (like the fess) by two parallel lines drawn horizon- authority, but he was hardly likely to have excogitally across the shield, and including not more than tated so definite a dictum as this. The definitions its fifth part. Bar sinister: in popular, but er- of more modern heralds are less precise, but roneous phrase, the heraldic sign of illegitimacy." | there would appear to be no competent authority Here again we are not told why the bend sinister for the statement that the bend sinister, formerly is described as “one of the marks of bastardy." called a fissure, was ever regarded as a mark of We might at once dismiss from consideration the illegitimacy. Burke (1878) describes it as “the bar sinister, which in English heraldry is an im- same as the bend, except that the lines are drawn possibility, as no bearing can be at once horizontal from the sinister chief to the dexter base." Boutell and diagonal, and moreover the bar is never borne does not think it necessary even to refer to the single. But Planché gives some warrant for the popular error of a bend sinister having a dishonouruse of the term bar sinister, Menestrier having able significance. Barrington, again, makes no such reference, though he does indeed make the baston amuris shall bear a fesse, sum call it a baston, of or baton a diminutive of the bend sinister, wherein oon of the iiij digaities of colouris, except the probably he is in error. Clark describes the bend bastard of the fixialis, and the bastarde of the sinister as “the same ordinary " as the bend," but brethyrne of the chene blode,” the term fixialis drawn......from left to right." He does not con- implying "the third degree by the right line, from nect it with the baton, which he says signifies “a the right heir, by line male," whatever that may staff or truncheon, generally used as a rebatement mean. These excepted persons are to bear their denote illegitimacy," though " frequently fathers' arms "countertruis," that is, with the adopted as a crost, without any reference to ille- tinctures of the bearings altered. No rule, bor. gitimacy." In Newton's Display of Heraldry' ever, seems over to have been followed. In the bend sinister is stated to represent " & scarf or Glover's ‘Roll'(1216-1272, transcribed by Glover ribbon suspended from the left shoulder...... The in 1586) Richard le FitzMarmaduke is described French denominate it a Barre." Newton quotes as bearing“ de goules ung fesce et troys papegeyes Nisbet's statement, “ that of old the bend sinister [popinjays] d'argent, a ung baston d'azure sur prevailed much in Scotland, but that latterly they tout," but this is not described as sinister ; it is, have been mostly turned in the other direction, however, clearly a difference of illegitimacy from a vulgar notion that it resembled a mark of adopted by an illegitimate son of Marmaduke of illegitimacy.” After describing the baton (batoon Twenge. Any deductions from this use of the or baston) as a mark of illegitimacy, he goes on to “baston" are, however, at once overthrown by tbe say that “this device must not be confounded fact that in a roll of the time of Edward II. legitiwith the honourable ordinary, a bend sinister...... mate sons appear to difference their paternal bearIn later times the mark of illegitimacy has always ings by the addition of batons and bends, while been the battoon...... in the direction of a sinister “Sir Johan Lovel le bastard " differences with an bend." Here, surely, is sufficient evidence that label de azure," now so distinctly a badge of legitithere is no authority for describing the bend macy. Ope practice of the heralds appears to have sinister as “one of the marks of bastardy.” been to assign to bastards their fathers' arms on a Perhaps it is only fair to quote the following from bend or bendwise, as in the case of Sir Roger de Mr. John E. Cussans's 'Handbook of Heraldry,' Clarendon, a natural son of the Black Prince, who “The diminutives of the bend sinister are the bore, Or, on a bend sable, three ostrich-feathers Scarpe, which is one-half its width, and the Bâton, argent. John de Beaufort, eldest son of Jobo of which is one-fourth. The latter, like the ribbun, Gaunt by Catherine Swynford, similarly bore a is couped at the extremities, and both are generally coat made up of the arms of the Lancastrian Planconsidered as marks of Illegitimacy,"—by Mr. tagenets, namely, Per pale, argent and azure, on a Cussans, but apparently by no one else. There bend gules the arms of England with a label of can be no question that the bend sinister was not three points azure, each charged with as many fleurs & mark of illegitimacy. Unfortunately, autho- de lis or. But it is to be remarked that these bends rities so differ that it is impossible to affirm with are not sinister. equal certainty that the baton is not a diminutive Instances might be multiplied, but enough bas of the bend sinister, though this would appear to been said to prove that the bend sinister is not be the case.

“one of the marks of bastardy," and that no hard It would seem, from a careful consideration of and fast rule for the indication of illegitimacy has the facts, that heralds have never in reality agreed ever been adopted by English heralds. upon any one badge as a special and undoubted

JAMES DALLAS mark of illegitimacy, nor, indeed, does it appear probable that they should do so. It has been remarked by a modern writer that no person is

DR. JOHNSON AND LICHFIELD. bound to use arms, and that therefore do person On October 20, 1887, Messrs. Winterton, Beale would willingly bear a coat which should mark him & Co, offered for sale, and sold by public auction at out amongst his fellows as of base origin. Hence the “Three Crowns Hotel,” Lichfield, a freehold probably arises the fact that all, or nearly all, property, described in the particulars as "the large, arms indicating illegitimacy by means of the substantially built, and commodious dwelling house, baton sinister are borne, at least in England, by with draper's shop, situate in the Market-place, as persons descended from the illegitimate offspring of occupied now and for many years by Mr. Thomas the royal family, such as the Scotts, Fitzroys, Beau- Clarke.” The auctioneers particularly pointed out clercs, and Fitz-Clarences, the honour of descent that this property was well worthy the attention of from royalty, however derived, being apparently re- “ admirers of historical buildings and capitalists garded as of an importance countervailing the degra- generally,' for it was “famous as the birthplace of dation of bastardy. In the ‘Book of St. Albans we Dr. Samuel Johnson," and the house contained do, however, find a law on the subject which it is de "ample dry cellarage, entrance-hall, double-fronted sirable to quote, “ All the bastardes of all cort-shop, sitting-room, excellent kitchen, and small

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