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of families bearing the armorials assigned to that MS. JOURNAL OF F. WHITE : 'La Tige DEof Scott, I beg to state that a few years ago there TACHÉE' AND 'LA VIE HUMAINE' (7th S. iii. 513). was a family of Scott of Ravenscourt Park, Middle--I hope I may be allowed to submit what I have sex, which branched off at the end of the eighteenth to say on the question of La Tige Détachée' under century from the Rotherfield Scotts. The Scotts its own appropriate heading, and save that“pauvre (Bart.) of Lyttohet Minster are members of another feuille," which“ points the lesson" of our lives so branch, their shield being changed from sable to poetically from being buried under that of “Jourpean. Another family of Scott is that of Hadham nal of F. White," where none of the readers of and Bishop's Stortford, co. Herts, which is a branch N. & Q.' in the ages to come could ever think of the Essex family, thrown off about the year of looking for it. 1600. Many years ago the (then) representative This pathetic, home-speaking little poem has of that family kindly permitted me to inspect his long been familiar in Rossetti's translation (though armorials. The shield bore the date of 1604, and bald both in title and diction) as 'The Leaf':the emblazonment was as follows: Arms : Per
Torn from your parent bough, pale indented gules and or, a saltier counterchanged.
Poor leaf, all withered now, Crest : From a crown vallery, ppr. a dexter cubit
Where go you ? &c.; arm erect, vested gules, cuffed or, holding in the and Rossetti gave it as a translation from Leohand bend sinisterwise a roll of paper of the first. pardi. But I happened to see lately that Contessa Motto: “In bona fide et veritate."
Martenengo had pointed out that its original
G. A. Dixon. author was Arnault. I had not before seen the CURFEW (7th S. iii. 427).-Refer to Chambers's
French version, but now we are presented with it I ' Book of Days,' vol. ii. p. 333, as showing it is
think everybody will be struck by its great supeerroneous to assume that the origin of the curfew
riority over the English rendering. The following was by William the Conqueror or royal edict,
is Leopardi's version. It is curious Rossetti does
10: not seem to have noticed that he distinctly beads either in England or Scotland, and that it was
..was lit “Imitazione,” disclaiming the authorship :apparently a municipal, not a state institution. So writes a good friend near Abernethy, with
Lungi dal proprio ramo, whom I have oft listened there to the curfew when
Povera foglia frale
Dove vai tu ? Dal faggio strolling on the beautiful banks of the Earn and
Là dov' io nacqui, mi divise il vento. the Tay.
Esso, tornando, a volo
Dal bosoo alla campagna, HUBBUB (7th S. iii. 472).-MR. BAXTER's idea
Dalla valle mi porta alla montagna of the derivation of this word may be right or may
Seco perpetuamente; be wrong ; but until he has brought forward more
Vo pellegrino, e tutto l'altro ignoro.
Vo dove ogni altra cosa evidence than that of a single quotation bearing
Dove naturalmente date 1634, I think we may be satisfied with
Va la foglia di rosa assuming that Messrs. Skeat, Wedgwood, &c., E la foglia d'alloro, have given the right derivation of the word. All The following terger and more concettoso version, coincidence in form, and even meaning, with respect current in Italy, of the other little poem MRS. to words does not necessarily imply that the words LAMONT quotes.' I give from memory:are identical. What we want to know is when hubbub first
Il passato non è, ma se lo pinge
La cara rimembranza appears in English. I have met with it in Spen
Il futuro don è, ma se lo finge ser's 'Faerie Queene,' 1590 :
L'indomita speranza. Now, when amid the thickest woodes they were,
Il presente è ;-ma in un punto They heard a noyee of many bagpipes shrill,
Cado al nullo in seno. And shrieking Hububs them approaching nere,
Dunque la vita è appunto Which all the forest did with borrour fili.
Una memoria, una speranza, un punto ! Bk, iii, canto x. & 43.
R. H. BUSK. Perhaps some of your numerous readers can give 16, Montagu Street, Portman Square. an earlier quotation than the above.
The lines “ De la tige détachée " are found in a F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY.
Y collection of fables by A. V. Arnault, Paris, 1826. The following is from Spelman's 'Relation of They have been translated as follows by Macaulay : Virginia' (1613):
Thou poor leaf, so sear and frail, " And they that kill most of their enimies are heald
Sport of every wanton gale, the cheafest men amonge them ; Drums and Trumpetts
Whence and whither dost thou fly they haue none, but when they will gather themselues
Through this bleak autumnal sky? togither they haue a kind of Howlinge or Howbabub so
On a noble oak I grew, differinge in sounde one from the other as both part may
Green and broad and fair to view; uery aesely be distinguished.”
But the monarch of the sbade
By the tempest low was laid.
From that time I wandered o'er
There can be no doubt that he took to the Wood and valley, hill and moor;
profession of arms at a very early age. If the earl Wherenoe'er the wind is blowing, Nothing caring, nothing knowing.
was born, as related by Mr. Fraser (op. cit., p. 56), Thither go I wbither goes
" about the year 1619," and if he had “trailed & Glory's laurel, Beauty's rose,
pike" in Hepburn's Regiment in France, as stated
W. L. by the 'Scottish Nation,' s.v. “ Middleton, Earl [A very large number of correspondents supply the of,” his appearance as a captain under Montrose, reference to Arnault. ]
circa 1639, stated by Mr. Fraser, would, I think,
indicate his having joined the colours probably DOLLAR (7th S. ii. 509 ; iii. 118, 233).-MR. as early as sixteen years of age. Considering the ERNST asks for a quotation of this word between times, this seems not at all unlikely. The earl 1623 and 1745. The following is from Phillips's must also have married young, as Mr. Fraser 'New World of Words' (sixth edition, 1706). I (op. cit.) gives “ about" the same date as that of have not access to the earlier editions, but it will his captaincy, 1639, for his marriage with Grizel probably be in them also :
Durham of Pitkerrow. " Dollar, a foreign coin : The Zeoland, or common While on the subject of the history of the first Dollar is worth 3 Shillings Sterling, the Specie-Dollar Earl of Middleton, I may perhaps remark that 58. The Dollar of Riga, 4s, 8d. Of Lunenburgh and Brisgau, 48. 2d. Of Hamburgh, 3s. 2d.”.
his change from the Parliamentary to the Royalist
side during the Civil War bears a perfectly natural See also 'N. & Q.,'6th S. xi. 467; xii. 14.
aspect. General Middleton, already a tried soldier, ROBERT F. GARDINER. I was appointed Lieutenant-General of the Cavalry of THE SOBRIQUET "ALBÉ” (7th S. iii. 425).- Are the Scottish Estates when the “ Engagement” was we not all at sea here? The extended form "Alba- formed, in 1648, for the rescue of the king. From neser" is clear; see 'Childe Harold,' "The Arnauts this time to the end of his life Middleton was on or Albanese," note b to canto ii. ; • The Albanese, the king's side, and was rewarded with the Scottish particularly the women, are frequently termed titles of Earl of Middleton, Lord Clermont and Caliriotes," note c, in continuation. From Alba- Fettercairn, by letters patent dated Oct. 1, 1660, nese, thus established, we get Albaneser, like confirming the original creation in 1656. These Posener, Berliner, Londoner, because Byron doted titles were forfeited in 1695 by the general's son on this people, and became their blood-brother by Charles, second earl, who followed James VII. adoption.
A. H. into exile, and eventually obtained, we are told,
the entire management of his court at St. Germains. LIEUT.-GENERAL MIDDLETON (FIRST EARL OF Sir Bernard Burke does not follow the issue MIDDLETON] (76b S. jii. 496; iv. 38).—John, first Earl male of the second earl, but it is mentioned in of Middleton, sometime High Commissioner to the the Scottish Nation' that his sons, John, Lord Parliament of Scotland and an Extraordinary Lord Clermont, and Hon. Charles Middleton, having of Session, was undoubtedly not the same person been captured by Admiral Byng in an attempted as Sir Thomas Middleton of Chirk Castle, nor did descent upon Scotland in 1708, were imprisoned be derive his name from the same source. The re- in England, but were subsequently released, and searches of R. W.C. do not seem to have extended thereafter returned to France. to Burke's 'Dormant and Extinct Peerages,' to Who may be the present male representative Lord Hailes's 'Senators of the College of Justice,' of the Earls of Middleton does not appear in or to Anderson's 'Scottish Nation,' from any one the ordinary accounts. But apart from the of which works he might have learned the identity Kilohill family, ancestors of the earl, and the line of the general with the earl. Fuller and more of the earls themselves, there are not fewer than six accurate genealogical information concerning the families of the name recorded in Burke's 'General early history of the Middletons of Kilnhill, after-Armory' (1878). It is, of course, quite possible wards of Caldhame, may be found in the valuable that Biscoe's Earls of Middleton' may contain 'History of Laurencekirk' (Edinburgh and London, details as to the later generations of the first earl's 1880), by Rev. W. R. Fraser, minister of Maryton, family not to be found in the books which I have a correspondent of 'N. & Q.
cited. The point only arises here incidentally, and The Christian name of the first Earl of Middle- I simply send these notes from books of reference, ton, as I have already mentioned, was John. He quantum valeant. C. H. E. CARMICHAEL. was the son and successor, says Mr. Fraser (op. New University Club, S.W. cit., p. 55), of Robert Middleton of Caldhame, by | Catherine Strachan, of the house of Thornton. “MUSIC HATH CHARMS TO SOOTHE THE SAVAGE Lord Hailes, Senators of the College of Justice' BREAST" (7th S. ii. 369, 466).-G. F. R. B. is (repr. Edinburgh, 1849), calls his father John and correct in adhering to the version of these words his mother Helen. The Scottish Nation' in the for which there is textual authority. In promain closely follows Lord Hailes.
posing to substitute “ beast” for “ breast" I think
MR. Ler is putting an unnecessary limitation upon signed “ James peele clerke of cbrysts hospitall, the scope of this very suggestive line. The influ. one being dated October 26, 1583. The printed ence of music upon the lower animals is proverbial, part of these forms is a very good imitation of the but its influence upon human passion is equally so. writing of the period. The “gavage breast” is an inclusive phrase; man
A. W. CORNELIUS HALLEN. as well as beast comes rightly within its scope.
1 GUNN (7th S. iii. 248, 524).— I have not myself Mr. Lee refers to Act V. sc. i. of The Merchant
known Gunn as a Cornish surname, though I once of Venice' as bearing out his suggestion. Perhaps
lived for some time in Cornwall. It is certainly it does ; but there are several lines which just as pointedly prove that the “breast” is the sphere of
the name of a clan in Caithness and Sutherland,
mentioned in a Roll of Broken Clans (Act. Parl. music's charms. Says Lorenzo :
Scot.), 1594. There is not likely to be any relationThe man that hath no music in himself,
ship between Cornish and Scottish Gunng. As a Nor is not moved with concord of sweet sounde, Is fit for treasong, stratagems, and spoils;
Scottish name an account will be found, s.v., in The motions of his spirit are dull as night,
Anderson's. Scottish Nation, Armorially speakAnd his affections dark as Erebus;
ing, I find no trace of Cornish Gunns in Burke's Let no such man be trusted.
"General Armory'(1878), where I find, besides the ROBERT F. GARDINER. Caithness and Sutherland clan above mentioned, When I was a small boy at school I remember |
two Irish families, spelling the name Gun; one one melancholy occasion on which I was trying Scottish family, Gun-Monro (or Munro) of Poyntzto raise my spirits, oppressed by some grievous
field, Cromarty, of the Scottish Gunns by arms, imposition. by amusing myself with a « mouth though using the Irish spelling; one Scoto-Irish melodeon," I think it was called, a species of
family, Gun-Cuninghame, Irish by its arms and juvenile musical (?) instrument, when suddenly, to spelling ; one English family, Gun of Norfolk, my utter astonishment and dismay, the wretched with the Irish spelling, but with arms differing thing gave utterance to an excruciating screech. alike from the Irish Guns and the Scottish Gands. The outraged dominy with a glance detected
C. H. E. CARMICHAEL. the culprit, and without delay pounced upon the
New University Club, S.W. unlucky“ mouth melodeon," which was promptly | GRECIAN STAIRS (7th S. iii. 475).-Is there confiscated. I forget whether I had a box on the ears or not, but I know this, that I resented silently
had a box on the any instance of the pl. of greese=grudus being
| formed in en Mätzner, 'Altenglische Sprachand secretly the master's misquotation, which I considered a little too personal, for he said as he
proben,' iii. 308, gives the pl. as greeses, greces, as
well as grees, the pl. of the false singular gree. The snatched the offending article from my lips,“Music
en pl. is certainly not usual with any but weak hath charms to soothe the savage beast."
A.-S. nouns, though in South Notts and North R. STEWART PATTERSON. Hale Crescent, Farnbam.
Leicestershire the pl. housen is commonly used.
There are a few cases where it has been similarly CARIST OR Christ's Hospital (7th S. iii. 517. extended by false analogy to strong nouns, but its -Peter Cunningham, an old Blue and schoolfellow, application to a word of French origin strikes me calls it by the latter name, by which also I knew
as unprecedented. Wyclif forms the plural in -es. it during the seven years I spent within its walls.
| If, as I suspect, there is no instance of the pl. As an authority I send a copy of a broadsheet now greesen, the origin of “Grecian Stairs" must be before me :-
sought elsewhere. I suggest that “Grecian” is The Present State and List of Children on the Royal Dere der
| bere derived from gressyny, which is clearly enough Foundation of His Late Majesty King Charles II. in grees + suffix ing. My evidence for this form is Christ's Hospital; presented in all humility aud duty to derived from the Nottingham records. In the his most Sacred Majesty King William IV. by the Presi. chamberlain's accounts for 1571-2 a payment is dent, Treasurer, and Governors of tbe said Hospital, the entered to John Patten of 58. chief-rent " for the First day of January, MDCCCXXXII. London: Printed by Halle Gressynges " (* Records of the Borough of Ann Rivington, Printer to Christ's Hospital, MDCCCXXXII. As further proof of the correct designation I may
| Nottingham,'iv. 146, 8). The payment occurs in the
subsequent accounts of Queen Elizabeth's reign, also add that I possess a watch and prize medal in
and the spelling is either gresynges or gressynges. both of which the governors are described as of “ Christ's Hospital.”
The meaning of the entry is explained by the
account for 1589-90, “Item payde to Maister OsEVERARD HOME COLEMAN. 71, Brecknock Road,
baston for the Towne Hall steares, vs." (No. 1630,
p. 53). The money was paid to the queen's bailiff, In the church wardens' account books, St. Mary and was originally a chief-rent paid to the chaplain Woolnoth, London, are pinned several printed of the Amyas Chantry for a piece of land upon receipt forms for rates collected for the poore which an extension of the Town Hall was built in harbored” in “Christes Hospital.” They are 1479-80. It was a mistake to regard this as a payment of the Town Hall stairs. In the earlier accounts the one which you have published : “ Arise, arise, Sir payment is described as “the chefe of the Hall'" Mofoly, arise ! Awake, Solicitus and Amolibus ! ( Records,' iii. 320, 15, A.D. 1503-4), and as the for the spark of Avengibus fell on Musketus, 'cbeffe rent of the Towne Hawle" (id., iii. 391, and she ran up montagus into basefamily, and 25, A.D. 1540-1). I am hence unable to trace the without the help of double-dungeon, down will Ford further back than 1568-9, when it first come Sandemungen." occurs in the chamberlain's accounts (No. 1611,
Chas. LEDYARD Norton. p. 16). But we have here sufficient evidence to Madison Square, N.Y. prove that gressynges was understood in Nottingham to mean stairs. This is further proved by an
FLEET LANE (7th S. iii. 428).–Did not Fleet 'entry in 1574-5 of a payment for “mendyng the Lane run at right angles, or something near, to gressynges at Malyphyll goinge downe to the
the Fleet River, about midway between old “Hol. Marche, ijs." ("Records,' iv. 159, 6). These gress-borne Bridge” and “Fleete Bridge"? (Vide anynges are either what are now known as "Long cient map of London in Queen Elizabeth's time, Stairs” or “Short Stairs." We have evidence of accompanying ‘Old and New London.') the local use of grese=flight of steps in 1510-11, In ‘Old and New London,' vol. ii., in writing "Item for iij. steppes to a grese ther, ijd." (id., iii. of the old bridges over the Fleet, Mr. Thornbury 335, 21); and again in 1549-50, “The housse and says :pynfold at the steyres and greysses in the Narow “The bridge at the end of Fleet Lane, called the Mersshe" (id., iv. 97, 20). W. H. STEVENSON.
Middle Bridge, was of stone, and was, liké Bridewell,
ascended by fourteen steps; the arch being high enough There is or was a “ Long Greece" in Scar. to admit of ships with merchandise to pass under it." borough near the old Town Hall (Baker's “ Hist.
- Ch. xl. p. 422. Scarb.,' p. 394). I do not know whether this is a
According to the map and Mr. Thornbury, place where steps would be required, but if it be Fleet Lane did not run parallel with the Fleet so there cannot be much doubt that this is a third Ditob, or how could the bridge be at the end of example of the confusion between “gressen” and it? Fleet Lane ran, and still rung, into the Old "Grecian."
EDWARD PEACOCK. | Bailey, which to the north, as now, cuts Newgate
Street from Holborn (Viaduct). Also, did not the Mr. Streatfeild ('Lincolnshire and the Danes,'lold Fleet Prison on one side face into Fleet Lane ? p. 281, note) partly inclines to the belief that this
Herbert HARDY. name is derived from the O.N. grásteinn, hard Thornhill Lées, Dewsbury. stone. It has often struck me as curious that in none of the many notes I have seen upon this
This thoroughfare is to the north of the site of sobject has there been any reference to the little
the old Fleet Prison, and extends from Farringdon Merionethshire village of Tan-y-grisiau, which lies Street (formerly known as Fleet Market) to the close under the mountains behind Ffestiniog, and
Old Bailey. The construction of the railway from from which the ascent of Moelwyn is most fre
Ludgate Hill to Snow Hill about 1866 effected quently made. The name is said to mean “ the great changes in this quarter, and many houses foot of the stairs ” (cf. Stairfoot, near Barnsley), an
in Fleet Lane were swept away. Fifty years ago interpretation which suggests the query, Is there
it was an obscure thoroughfare, with houses on any connexion between this Welsh place-name
both sides tenanted by small shopkeepers, and and our old English greece, a step, greezen, stairs ?
showed but little animation, except upon occasions C. c. B.
when there happened to be an execution at New
gate. As the result of an application to ParliaAn example of this duplication of synonym by I ment. Fleet Market was built over the old Fleet translation is found in the parish from which I Ditch, and was opened about 1737. The position write, in the case of a small copse called Boys'
of Farringdon Street, in the very heart of London, Wood, which is nothing else than " Bois-wood."
and its unusual breadth, suggest the idea of a row W. D. MACRAY.
of trees on each side, after the manner of a bouleDucklington, Oxon.
vard. Were this suggestion adopted the effect MASTER AND SERVANT (7th S. iii. 45, 89, 157, from
from Holborn Viaduct would be very striking.
WM. UNDERAILL. 397).—The return to versions of 'Master and Servant' reminds me that I failed to send you Fleet Lane was not parallel to Fleet Ditch, but & variant which my mother used to repeat to at right angles to it, on the east side, running me more than forty years ago. My impres-down the steep descent from the Old Bailey, sion is that she learned it from an eccentric nearly opposite the Sessions House, by the side degress named “ Purchase," said to have been a of the Fleet Prison. The lane still exists, by the Dative African princess, brought to this country in same name, but the construction of the London, the days of slave trading. The story that served | Chatham, and Dover Railway has greatly altered as a framework was practically identical with the its character.
Crow v. MAGPIE (7th S. iii. 188, 298, 414, testable evidence that the first part of the word 524).—There are numerous formulas contained in is Rod-, and in this manner force the conclusion early English medical manuscripts for this purpose, that the suffix is - ney. I have with this intention which many, no doubt, preferred to the use of boil-examined many words, but without success. Brading pitch or of hot irons, before that happy time ney, for instance, looks full of promise. We know when Ambrose Parè had revealed to him the that Brad- in the sense of“ broad " is common superior virtues of a ligature of thread.
prefix, e. 9., Bradfeld, Bradford, Bradley, BradI have copied the following blood charms from shaw; and it is certain that if Brad- in Bradney a medical manuscript in my library of the time could be shown to mean “ broad,” we should then of Edward IV., which contains several of these have a clear case for the suffix -ney. But, in the venerable remedies for various affections. The first absence of all positive evidence one way or another, is written in Latin, with contractions. I give a how can we say that Bradney does not represent literal transcription. The second is in English. Bradinga-ig, the isle of the Bradingas, for the
" Charme for to Staunche Blood. Longinus Miles 'A.-S. Chronicle provides us with an analogy in latus + domini n'ri + Ih'u x'ri, lancea p'forauit & con- Aethelinga-ig, which is now Athelney; and as for tinuo exuit sanguis et aqua in redempto'nem n'ram+ the Bradingas, they have left their name elseAdiuro te sanguis p'tip'm xr'm p'+latus eius p'tsan
where, namely, in Brading ? So also in the case of guine eius. Statstatstat. xr c Iohannes descenderunt in flumen iordanis. Aqua obstipuit & stetit. Sic faciat |
Rodney and Oakney, as long as the field is occupied Banguis istius corporis. In +x'ri nomine & sa' Ioh'is by conjectures only, it is surely the better plan to Baptiste. Amen & dicat ter p'r n'r."
regard the n as the survival of a patronymic termi" Charme in Englysh. Thu that was in Bethlem borne nation in the genitive plural. Rodney will then be and baptizid was in floin iordun, and stynte the water
interpreted Rodinga-ig, and Oakney as Wocinga-ig. up on the stoon. Stynte the blood of this man, & by yisuante forth the vertue of thin holy name+Ibu & of
These tribal names are found elsewhere, and for gwete seynt Iohn. And sey this charme v tymes. With
the loss of initial w compare Wudiham, now Odiv p'r n'r in the worechyp of the v Woundes."
ham. Wastnoy, too, may conceal a tribal name; In copying this charm I have substituted the or it may be derived from Westan-ig, e. e., West letters th for their abbreviated contraction in the Island, cf. Westan-wudu; or, again, its first form manuscript. With this necessary alteration it is may have been Westen-ig, i. e., Desert Island, cf. a verbatim copy. W. FRAZER, M.R.I.A. | Wésten-setl, desert dwelling. Then may conceiv
ably in some instances be the survival of a gen. THE SUFFIX -NY OR -NEY IN PLACE-NAMES plur. in -ena ; thus Witney may=Wítena-ig. In (7th S. iii. 475).—I have little doubt that most some other instances it may represent a gen, sing. names ending in the suffix -ny or -ney will turn in -an from weak nouns. More advanced students out to be compounds of an A.-S. weak noun and than I am may be able to suggest other methods the A.-S. áeg, an island. reg, an island. In other words, the n is of explaining away the n; at all events they will
In other words, the n is the n of the gen. of a weak noun, or, perhaps occa- require very strong evidence to convince them of sionally, of a weak adjective. For instance, Osney the existence of the suffix -rey; and I am sure is plainly *O'san-ieg, the island of a man named they will be of the opinion that in words whose O'sa, gen. Oʻsan, or of a woman named *O'se, gen. derivation is matter of guess-work, it is preferable *O'san. I imagine that the name Sidney is a local to make conjectures with the help of the suffixes name, and represents an A.-S. *Sidan-ieg, the that we already have rather than fly to others that island of *Sida, masc., or *Side, fem. There is a we know not of. With regard to Redineys, which Sidenore in Domesday (246, col. 2), representing MR. ADDY says is a field-name, its original form an A.-S. *Sidan-ora. Scotney is *Scotan-ieg, from may have been Ridding-beys, i.e., “the enclosures the personal name *Scota, masc., or *Scote, fem. I in the clearing.” But this is merely a guess. The instances cited by MR. ADDY I am unable to
C. J. BATTERSBY. trace. By Rodney I suppose he means Stoke Bradford. Rodney, Somerset, formerly known as Stoke Gifford (Eyton, 'Somerset Domesday,' i. 132). Here
I think the words quoted are wrongly divided ; Rodney is a family name. Has Wastney arisen
read Rooden-ey, Wasten-ey, Oaken-ey, Redin-eys. from some confusion with the French Galinois,
The suffix ey is fully illustrated in Canon Taylor's called Vasteneis by Wace ?
excellent book, cf. Chelsey, Osney, Chertsey, PutW. H. STEVENSON. ney.
A. HALL. MR. Addy asks if the meaning of the suffix The suffix is probably y or ey, not ny or ney. It oney in such names as Rodney, Wastney, and comes sometimes (perhaps through the 0.E. ce) Oakney is known. It would be unwise to deny from 0. Welsh iiy or iii, or A.-S. ea, ig, water, that there is such a suffix, but its existence has from aqua; at other times it is derived from ea not yet been established. To prove its existence or ig, in A.-S. ea-land, ig-land, island ; lit. water it would be necessary to take some place-name, land. By-the-by, some places whose names end Rodney, for example, and demonstrate on incon- in y, ey, or ea are peninsulas. The Gotha-Toutonic,