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of the interior of a Suffolk's yeoman's household represents an elderly man with long wbito beard at the end of the last century, which those who and mustachios. The faces, bands, &c., are well bave not read should read at once, and those who drawn, and may represent the same person—perhave read will be glad to read again. I quote the haps some English gentleman in character. As to following passage for the sake of the word at the period, I think the portraits belong to the end of head of this note, which is no longer used, and has the last century.

W. H. PATTERSON. been commonly misunderstood :“If the sacred apartments had not been opened, the

SOURCE OF QUOTATION WANTED.--Would some family dined on this wise ;-the heads seated in the correspondent tell me where to find the following kitchen at our old table; the farm-men standing in the quotation ?adjoining scullery, door open—the female servants at a

Se sub serenis vultibus side table, called a bouter ; with the principals, at the

Austera virtus occulit table, perchance some travelling rat-catcher, or tinker,

Timous videri ne suum or farrier, or an occasional gardener in his shirt-sleeves,

Dum prodat amittat decus. his face streaming with perspiration."

REGULBIUM. That bouter is nothing more than boulter will be [18 the author Jean Charlier de Gerson? The lines apparent from the accompanying extract from a read like him.] letter written by Francis Capper Brooke, of Ufford, to Edward Fitzgerald, of Woodbridge, only four,

BOLOGNIAN ENIGMA. — Can any reader of days before the death of the latter :

'N. & Q.' inform me whether any solution of “An old inhabitant of Parham says that a 'Bouter

the well-known Bologoian enigma, “ Ælia Lælia Table' is a Table fitted with a sieve through which Crispis," &c., bas ever been generally accepted ; four is sifted, and having drawers underneath to receive and, if so, what such solution is; or whether the tbst flour. It was an ordinary piece of furniture in old len

W. G. houses. An old carpenter in Ufford adds that the ground wheat was put into it, without having any bran detached The Great Feast of Sr. GEORGE.—Will any from the rough mass."

one tell me where I can find description, and espeWILLIAM ALDIS WRIGHT.

cially pictures, of entertainment given by Edw. III. Trinity College, Cambridge.

in 1358 to the King of France, &c. ?

WILLEM S. LOGEMAN.

Newton School, Rock Ferry.
Queries.

JUBILEE OF GEORGE JII. - Why was this We must request correspondents desiring information on family matters of only private interest, to affix their jubilee kept at the expiration of forty-nine years names and addresses to their queries, in order that the of his reign? Surely the meaning of fifty years answers may be addressed to them direct,

of jubilee is the completion of fifty years.

EDWARD R. VYVYAN. 'RANTING, ROARING WILLIE'-In an interest.

MARSON OF HOLBORN.-I suppose a bookseller ing note from K., Arbroath, in ‘N. & Q.,' 2nd S.lv

there. His name occurs in that most valuable edi. v. 186, a version of the above was given which

tion of the Tatler by Nichols, 1786. At vol. v. p. 428, had been obtained from a lady well versed in

in an account of John Partridge, the almanac-maker, the ballad literature of the district in which

the editor says he has compiled the memoir from she was born, and who had had it recalled to

old almanacs adnotated with many curious notes her memory by seeing one of Halliwell's 'Nursery

in MS., and that Mr. Marsom lent them for the Rhymes.' 'I have lately received a version iden-1: tically the same, which is said to have been

I purpose of drawing up the account "in three score current about Bellingham in Northumberland,

| volumes or more." Are they still together in any and to have been taken down viva voce; and I

collection and known to the curious ?

C. A. WARD. am very anxious to know if the version given by K. also came from Northumberland, or whether it CREATURE=DRINK.-How long has the word was known in any other district. : W. E. L. been used in the above sense? We still talk about

1“ creature comforts," and whiskey is the Irishman's Jos. SIDNEY HORTON.-I wish to ask who this “ cratur." The following passages show that the person was. I find his name written on the back word is not of recent adoption :of the frames of two water-colour portraits, and do “Having very exactly viewed the situation of the not know whether he was the artist or the subject. island, and the way of living of the Enasséd nation, we The portraits are of men in Eastern dress, and went to take a cup of the creature at a tavern."Dave titles written under each in faded link: Rabelais's ‘Works,' ed. Bohn, vol. ii. p. 230. "Admiral Pacha," “ Reis Effeindi.” The robes are

"Oh fie upon 't'! Who would have believ'd that we

should have liv'd to see Obadiah overcome with the ery voluminous, and are trimmed with fur; the creature." — Sir Robert Howard, The Committoe,' one is red and the other blue; the turbans are Act IV., first acted 1663. quite different in fashion. The face in each case

F. C. BIRKBECK Terry.

ence.

WEST.—Who was the “old West, who I believe Walter Scott. Can it have come from the two is now at Chelsea," mentioned in the Tatler, No. 87? | bundred years before the Reformation, when Scot

G. A. A. tish scholars at foreign universities took what LEE. KING OF THE GIPSIES.-Will any one would now be called the Liberal side in the struggle kindly inform me whether there is truth in the with absolutism? But has any of your correrumour that one Lee, a gipgy king, lies buried in spondents heard the contre dicton before ? the churchyard of Harrow-on-the-Hill? This was

A. TAYLOR INNES. told to my father more than fifty years ago, and MACKENZIE'S MANUSCRIPT BARONAGE OF SCOTperhaps refers to many years previous to that time. LAND.-I should feel obliged if any of your readers No stone or rail exists to his memory, and I do not could inform me the date of compilation of Sir believe the register records his burial.

George Mackenzie's manuscript baronage of ScotA. R. THOROLD WINCKLEY.

land ; and where or in what library it may be St. John's College, Cambridge.

seen.

P. GRAY.

9, Bell Street, Dundee. SOCIETY OF FRIENDLY BROTHERS.-Dr. Oliver's Preston's Illustrations of Masonry,' seventeenth

PRE-EXISTENCE.—I shall be obliged to any of edition, London, 1861, p. 387, contains the follow- l your readers who will be kind enough to send me ing :

any references in Western literatures to the idea “An Act of Parliament passed in this session (1839, of pre-existence or reincarnation, either in prose or apparently] for preventing the administration and taking of unlawful oaths in Ireland...... provided

poetry, passages in the works of prominent authors " That this exemption shall not extend to any such

containing this thought, incidents confirming it, or Society or Lodge...... under the denomination of a Lodge poetical expressions of it (like Wordsworth’s ‘Intiof Freemasons, or Society of Friendly Brothers of the mations of Immortality'). E. D. WALKER. said Order,' &c."

Harper & Brothers' Editorial Rooms, A Society of Friendly Brothers met in Liverpool

Franklin Square, New York. some thirty years ago, probably later ; but it has

MATEMANS, “ so the Lollards were called, from been extinct for a considerable time. A box their frugal lives and the poverty of their appearsupposed to contain its property is still in exist-lance." if this is correct, what is the derivation of

the word.

E. COBHAM BREWER. "Friendly Brothers” are unknown to English Freemasonry of the present day. I should be glad SIECE OF Bolton: HORRIDGE.—Where can the to have some information concerning them.

best account be found of the siege of Bolton-le

E. S. N. Moors and the defence of Lathom House at the 'LA RUSSIE JUIVE,'-In the most curious and period of the Great Rebellion ? Does the name important book lately published in Paris, "La Horridge occur in connexion with either of these Russie Juive' (by the late Calixt de Wolski), I find events ?

J. B. mentioned, p. 3, a“ Compte-rendu des Evénements Politico-Historiques survenus dans les Dix Dernières

WESTMINSTER ABBEY TENOR BELL.-There is Années' (from 1864 to 1874. I believe). No other a puzzle connected with this which I should like to description. This work I have never been able to put before the readers of ‘N. & Q.,' in the hope of discover in Paris. Could any of your readers

some one suggesting a solution. afford a satisfying indication of it? O. de R.

To state the problem I must first travel eastParis.

ward, to the church of St. Michael, Cornhill. In

or about 1430 William Rus, citizen and goldsmith, SCOTLAND AND LIBERALISM.-The Indépend- gave this church a new tenor bell, which was ence Belge of Oct. 30, 1885, had a notice of a book named “Rus," after him. (It may be that the which had just appeared in London, in which a gift was prompted by the fact that he was descended good many people attempted to answer the arduous from a family of bell-founders.) By his last will, question “ Why am I a Liberal ?" One answer, it seven or eight years later, he founded and endowed observed, was given from Edinburgh, “I am a a chantry at St. Michael's, to pray for the souls of Liberal because I am a Scotchman"; to which himself, his wife Isabella, and (inter alia) John L'Indépendence added the remark, “ Ce qui est la Whitewell, “his master," i, e., the goldsmith to contre-partie du dicton : Vous devez être Ecossais, whom he had been apprenticed, and, I think, whose puisque vous êtes libéral,"

daughter he had married. Can any of your readers explain the meaning or The bell lasted till 1587, when, being cracked, it existence of this dicton? To what age is it due? The was recast by Lawrence Wright, a bell-founder, word Liberal, in its technical and political sense, whose commercial morality was not of the highest seems to have arisen in France not much earlier than order. The work was a failure ; and in the follow1830, and during the last fifty years Scotland has ing year the bell had to be again recast, this time been popularly known abroad rather through Sir by Robert Mot, of Whitechapel. The result was not much more satisfactory, the bell only last- THE STOCKS AND THE PILLORY.—The names ing eleven years. In 1599 Mot had to do the of any villages in England or Wales still retaining work over again. These are dry historical facts, the obsolete instruments of punishment the stocks mentioned by Stow, and recorded in the parish (with or without the whipping-post) or the pillory, books, which are still extant. The present ring will be gratefully received by ALLAN FEA. (of twelve) dates from 1729, and throws no light on Bank of England, E.C. the matter. Now for the second part of the problem. The

IRISH PRIVY COUNCIL RECORDS, -I shall be tenor bell at the abbey bears this inscription

grateful to any one who can and will give me (N. & Q.,' 4th S. vi. 43):

any information as to the present custody of the

records of the Irish Privy Council about the year REMEMBER JOHN WHITMELL ISABELLA HIS WIFE AND

| 1610. I have made inquiry here at the Public WILLIAM RUS WHO FIRST GAVE THIS BELL 1430 NEW CAST IN JULY 1599 AND IN APRIL 1738 RICHARD PHELPS

Record Office and at the Privy Council Office, T LESTER FECIT.

and in Dublin at the Dublin Record Office and As to the latest date thereupon, it is unnecessary

at the State Paper Office, Dublin Castle ; but no to do more than note the fact that Lester was one seems to know anything about them. Phelps's foreman, and succeeded him in the business

P. EDWARD DOVE. in the very year, 1738. But the other two dates 23, Old Buildings, Lincoln's Inn. strangely coincide with the St. Michael's dates, and THE REPRINT OF THE FIRST FOLIO SHAKthey raise the following questions. Were there

there SPEARE OF 1807.-I should be much obliged if two bells given, one to the abbey and one to St. any of your readers could tell me where I can see Michael's Church? Or, has the St. Michael's bell

a copy of Upcott's list of 368 errors in this reprint. got transferred to the abbey ? And if the latter, I believe it was never published; but copies have when and how ?

J. C. L. S.'

been made in MS. at various times, and I am told Fontenoy Road, Balham.

are found sometimes at the end of this reprint. CLAIBORNE, OF WESTMORELAND.—Will any of

E. B. H. your readers kindly mention the title of a history of

history of ORESTES BROWNSON.—Has any life been pubWestmoreland, or other book containing the lished of the late Orestes Brownson, the American early records of the family of Claiborne, who Roman Catholic writer ? EDWARD PEACOCK. formerly belonged to that county ? EVELYN. Bottesford Manor, Brigg.

GALILEO.-A paragraph has been going the JOHN FROST. THE CHARTIST.-Frost was a "rounds of the press” to the effect that “a monu-native of Newport. Can any reader of `N. & Q.' ment has been erected in Rome, on the Via Pincio, kind

O, kindly give me the exact date of his birth? For fronting the old Medici Palace, now occupied by the French Embassy, where he was kept a prisoner in

many years after his return to England he resided 1637, during his prosecution by the Inquisition.”

at Stapleton, near Bristol, and died on July 29,

1877. I shall be glad to know where he was Is this date correct ? According to the 'Encyclopædia Britannica,' Galileo read his recantation

buried, and if his age is given on his tombstone.

G. F. R. B. June 22, 1633, and on July 6 was permitted to depart for Siena to the Archbishop's residence. In CARGO.-In Ben Jonson's 'Poetaster,' V. iii., December he returned to Florence, where he spent we have, “A couple of condemn'd caitive calumthe remainder of his life, and died Jan., 1642. nious cargo's.” Gifford explains, “Bullies or

A. L. L. bravoes.” He notes that the word is sometimes EXTIRP=TO RAIL.–This verb is used in this

in this used by our old poets as an interjection. Of this peculiar sense in Samuel Rowley's "When You

use I have two examples : see Me You know Mee ; or, the Famous Chronicle

| But cargo ! my fiddlestick cannot play without rosin,

'Miseries of Enforced Marriage,' IV. Historie of King Henry the Eight' (F 3, back) :

Has set this foole a worke,
Thus to extirpe against his holinesse.

For three good lives ? Cargo ! hai Trincalo!

'Albumazar.' And (H 2, back):

Gifford says the word has been referred to Italian She did extirpe against his Holinesse.

coraggio. He himself inclines rather to see in it The meaning seems to be “to speak censoriously” | the military word of command, cargo (?)=charge ! or“ abusively," "to rail.” As it occurs twice, and

twice, and Can any one either supply further examples, or in the same phrase, it is evidently not a misprint. |

misprint. suggest any other account of the word ? May I I cannot find any such signification given to the lask for direct replies ?

C. B. MOUNT. word in any dictionary. Can any of your readers 14, Norham Road, Oxford, furnish any instance of a similar use of this verb ?

F. A. MARSHALL.

“ THE COUNTRY Box, BY ROBERT LLOYD, A.M." 8, Bloomsbury Square, W.C.

- What is known of this “ingenious writer? I lately came across a poem, with the above title and 3. Is not “Black Monks of the Angels" a missignature, in a book styled “Poems on Various take for “ of the Eoglish ” (Anglorum)? Subjects,' by Thomas Tomkins, “ London, printed 4. Canops Regular are Austin Canons living for the Editor and J. Wallis at Yorick's Head, under a quasi-monastic rule; Canons Secular are Ludgate Street, 1780.” Tomkins would appear, canons of non-monastic cathedral and collegiate from an advertisement at the end of the volume, to churches. “Black Monks" are Benedictines, and have been a writing-master in Foster Lane, Cheap-“Black Canons," Augustinians. Is “ Fratres de side ; and the book is said to be printed by the Sacra” a mistake for “ de Sacco," referring to the Etheridgtons. The poem itself is a description of order of friars “de pænitentia," who went about a rural retreat about a mile from “Cheney Row, in sacks ? Chelsea," lately bought by a rich cit named 5. Marmoutier, Mont St. Michel, the two great “Thrifty." In it occurs à couplet illustrating abbeys at Caen, Bec, and St. Bertin, were Benewhat I have written about Piccadilly in my. Old dictine ; Fontenay and Savigny, Cistercian ; Tiro. and New London' (vol. iv. p. 287) as being at neaux, Cistercian ; Hautpays I cannot find. that time the beadquarters of sculptors and statu- 6. The Order of the Holy Trinity was instituted aries, like the New Road in our own day : | in 1197 as a branch of the Augustinian order. And now from Hyde Park Corner come

J. T. F.
The Gods of Athens and of Rome.

Bp. Hatfield's Hall, Durham.
E. WALFORD, M.A.
Hyde Park Manions, N.W.

1. The Augustinian order, i. e., the order of

Augustinian Hermits, claims to have been founded King's End CAR, - What is a “ King's end by St. Augustine of Hippos; the Canons Regular car”?-used, apparently, in Ireland.

of St. Augustine, who are sometimes, though in

G. A. A. accurately, styled Augustinians, claim to have been AUTHORS OF QUOTATIONS WANTED.

founded in the Apostolic College, and to have been First worship God, he that forgets to pray

reformed by St. Augustine, who reduced their rule Bids not himself good morrow, nor good day;

to writing, and is therefore called their legislator. Let thy first labour be to purge thy sin,

The rule of St. Augustine was made binding on And serve Him first whence all things did begin. all regular canons in the eleventh century. Long do they live, nor die too goon,

2. “White Canons" are such canons regular as Who live till life's great work is done. S. M. P. wear a white tupic, e.g., those of the Lateran conThe unfinished window in Aladdin's tower

gregation. "Premonstratensians" are white canons ; Unfinished must remain.

JUNIUS. they were founded early in the twelfth century by

St. Norbert, afterwards Archbishop of Magdeburg.

“ White Bernardines" are probably Cistercians, Replies.

who are sometimes called “Bernardines," after

their founder St. Bernard, and wear a white habit. RELIGIOUS ORDERS.

4. “ Canons Regular" are the canons of a col(7th S. iii. 449.)

legiate or cathedral church who are bound by the 1. The Austin Canons became organized in

rule of St. Augustine. “Secular Canons” are their mediæval form after the Council of Lateran

canons who do not belong to a religious order. in 1139, when Innocent II. gave them a rule

“Black Monks" are Benedictines. “Black Canons” wbich St. Augustine drew up. for nuns. They

are canons who wear a black tunic instead of a white had further rules which they attributed to St.

one ; the “ Black Canons of Martiall” were proAugustine, whom they regarded as their founder,

bably members of a congregation of capons regular and they may have been in some sort of organic

thus distinguished. Were not “Victorines ” the continuity with some order established by him.

canons of the celebrated congregation of St. Victor The Austin Friars, or Eremites, were at first

in Paris ? hermits, but became a mendicant order in the

5. Marmoûtier, Mont St. Michel, Caen, and Beo twelfth century. They also observed the so-called

| belonged to the order of St. Benedict. rule of St. Augustine, and probably claimed him

1 6. The order of the Holy Trinity was not an as their founder.

offshoot of any other. 2. The Præmonstratensians were an offshoot

I am writing from memory, being out of reach from the Austin Canons, and were called White

ite of any reference library, but I think HERMENTRUDE Canons, from their white cassock, that of the

will find the above, so far as it goes, authentic. Austin Canons being black. “White Bernardines”

E. W. BECK. were either some sub-order of the Cistercian or

Liskeard, Cornwall. White Monks, or the Order of Mount Olivet, St. Augustine of Hippo founded several monasinstituted by Bernard (not Bernardine) of Sienna, teries in Africa, which were destroyed by the A.D. 1320. Their habit was white.

| Vandals ; but though governed by strict rules, the order was very different from the one called, also in alphabetical order, and extended beyond after him, Augustine, or Augustinian. The P, but not, I think, complete ; in it, however, Augustines were governed by rules, said to be was an epitaph for which I searched, the name those of St. Augustine, but in reality the work of commencing with T. several Popes, notably Pope Alexander IV. They! In regard to the Cromwells, I wish to convey were called “Black Canons," and according to my thanks to MR, CROMWELL RUSSELL for the Faller were established in England in 1105. For information be imparts in reply to my inquiry. particulars of the order and the pretended rules of I have visited the tombs (two altar. tombs, standSt. Augustine see Hook's Church Dictionary' ing about three yards apart), on one of which the (art."Augustines"), seventh edition, pp. 71 and 72.

tion, pp. 71 and 72. inscriptions are yet partly, but very faintly, visible.

E. PARTINGTON. On the smaller tomb, that which was found seven Manchester,

feet underground and restored to its position by 1. " The foundation of the order was.....confi. the City Corporation, the inscription is entirely deptly referred to St. Augustine of Nippo " gone. It is here Mr. CROMWELL RUSSELL says ('Catholic Dictionary,' Addis and Arnold. p. 56). I that the old lady who died at Ponder's End in But the article seems to assert without reason.

1813 and her daughter Susan, the last of the 2. “Premonstratensians" were commonly called Cromwells, were buried, and this is evident from in Eogland “ White Canons," from their white the absence of their names on the other tomb, babit. They were founded by St. Norbert in 1119 which only had Dr. Rippon's notice, although, as at Prémontré, in the forest of Coucy, near Laon.

Susan Cromwell was buried in 1834, it is difficult 4. “Black Canons” are Augustinian Capons. to believe that ber tomb was out of sight before " Black Friars" (not Monks) are Dominicaps. | 1836, when Dr. Rippon died. “Henry Crom“ Canons Regular" are Augustinian Canong. well” has been inscribed on the tomb reinstated

6. Trinitariads" were founded at Rome in by the Corporation; “Richard Cromwell his 1198 by St. John of Matha and St. Felix of vault” appears on the other, recently cut. The Valois. The rule was that of St. Austin.

“ Henry Cromwell” was, I should think, Richard's

GEORGE ANGUS. brother; he died unmarried in 1769, æt. seventySt. Andrews, N.B.

one. MR. CROMWELL RUSSELL appears to think

the vault was that of Major Henry Cromwell, HERMENTRUDE's first question, and the second father of the above brothers; but in that case the. so far as relates to the White Canons and White wife of the major (he himself died and was buried at Bernardines, can be answered in the affirmative. Lisbon) would most probably have been buried in Most of the information required may be found in it, whereas she was consigned to her son Richard's Dr. Littledale's elaborate article on “Monachism"

tomb, as the inscription on it states. There was in the ninth edition of the 'Encyclopædia Britan

another brother, Thomas (husband of the old lady nica' and in Haydn's 'Dictionary of Dates,' s. v. of Ponder's End, and who died sixty-five years each order. EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A. The Library, Claremont, Hastings.

before her), buried in Bunhill Fields in 1748 ; his tomb is no longer to be found, but Dr. Rippon

has preserved the inscription ; he was buried with BUNHILL FIELDS AND THE CROMWELL FAMILY his first wife and her parents, whose name was (7th S. iii. 268, 413). — To any reader of N. & Qi' Tidman. interested in Bunbill Fields, and who may have I may be allowed to add that a nice little guidebeen puzzled by my stating that I found Dr. book or History of the Bunbill Fields Burying Rippon's copies of inscriptions at the British Ground,' published this year, is to be obtained Museum, while at the same time MR. ROBERTS from the very civil keeper of the ground; it conBROWN writes that they are preserved in the tains a plan and some good sketches of the princilibrary of Heralds' College, I would say that we pal tombs. In the account there is an interesting are both right. The British Museum volumes con- l quotation from the diary of a lady who had seen tain the inscriptions apparently the original notes Dr. Rippon at work, “laid down upon his side made on the ground - from A to P, with the ex. between two graves, and writing out the epitaphs ception of H. Those from Q to Z, not being at word for word. He had an inkhorn in his buttonGreat Russell Street, may be with the Heralds, or hole, and a pen and book," &c. A veritable “Old there may be a complete transcript at the College ; Mortality," as the writer of the account calls him, but as to this, on inquiring there, I failed to obtain | “dwelling much among these tombs, and doing a information because I was unwilling to pay five work for which his memory ought to be kept for ever shillings for it. At the British Museum, besides fresh and green.” Finally the worthy Dr. Rippon the inscriptions pasted into the large volumes, the I was himself laid to rest among the graves on the names arranged alphabetically but not extending record of which he had bestowed so much patient beyond letter P, there is a small book containing | labour. He died in 1836, in bis eighty-sixth year. inscriptions, apparently copies of original notes,

W. L. RUTTON.

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