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LONDON, SATURDAY, JULY 30, 1887.
direction of Tansor and Cottarstock; then turn
sharply to the left and make for Warmington, CONTENTS.-N° 83.
skirting that village, and keeping on for Elton. NOTES :-Tercentenary of Mary, Queen of Scots, 81-Car- The bridge over the Nene at Elton, near to the nital, 82-Notes to Skeat's ' Dictionary'-John de Cobham,
tionary -John de Cobham, road called the King's Highway, 84-Arbor Day in Canada-Slipshod English-Cromwell's Pastimes-Poet . Poet, 85–Wax Tapers as Offensive Wes till early in the present century, and the ford that PODG-S.W.S.-"Double entendre," 86-Bellingham, 87.
was previously used was not at all adapted for QUERIES :- Brooke of Astley-Oldys, 87-Capt. Cartwright a heavily-laden funeral car. In my volume on
-Pepper Alley-Lyly's 'Euphues-Seventeenth Century 'Fotheringhay and Mary, Queen of Scots' (SimpTokens-W. Rider-Quotations-Singular Crest-Buckden
kin, Marshall & Co., 1886), I said that the distance -Fictitious Imprints, 88 - Cliffe - Heraldry-Knife and Fork-Kirby Hall - Frith - Wickham-Earthen Mound from Fotheringay Castle to Peterborough Cathedral Capt. Glass - Attorney and Solicitor - St. Elene-Justice
| by the route above mentioned “ was about ten Manle-Portrait by Butler-Old London Newspapers, 89.
miles, or rather more." Since then the distance REPLIES :-Records of Celtic Occupation, 90-Strange Manx
han Custom-Motto of Waterton Family-Wm. Yeo, 92-Pan
I supposed, being twelve and a quarter miles. As cake Bell-Prout-Dane's Skin - Shakspeare-Mackenzie's Baronage of Scotland, 93-Cold Harbour-Froude and Ire the funeral procession was more than three hours land-Baroness Bellasis - Hatters-Margaret, Lady Bourchier-Cornish Tokens, 91-Bow Street Runners-National Subscription-Wordsworth -- Lady Bountiful - Customs of
was observed through the entire distance ; and, French Ladies-Bond Family-Epitaph at Arlington, 95E. Easton-Overlain and Overlaid-Refectory-Endorsation
“attended by several horsemen," we may presume - Marriage Custom-Arquebus, 96-King's End Car-Fonts -Wordsworth on Burns-Parody and Burlesque, 97-Bym. bolic Use of Candles-Brougham-Knighting Eldest Sons
queen would not be provided with carriages or Calvert, Lord Baltimore-Bishops in Partibus, 93-Ancient Custom at St. Bartholomew the Great, 99.
horses, but would have to walk the whole distance
with the torch-bearers. NOTES ON BOOKS:-Armitage's Sketches of Church and State -Hewlett's Wendover's Flowers of History '-Swain From the mention of the funeral car, with its son's 'Provincial Names and Folk-lore of British Birds' four horses and attendant horsemen, it is plain Hallen's 'Transcript of Register of Baptisms of Muthill.'
that the body of Mary, Queen of Scots, was conSotices to Correspondents, &c.
veyed by land, and not by water. Yet when I was at Fotheringhay in 1851, and was inquiring into
the local traditions, I found that the prevalent Notes.
idea was that the coffin was conveyed on a barge
by water. I communicated this, with the "Perio" TAE TERCENTENARY OF MARY, QUEEN OF tradition, to Miss Agnes Strickland, and she SCOTS.
quoted the latter tradition in her Mary Stuart,' At the opening, on July 19, of the exhibition but subsequently told me that she had discovered of Mary Stuart relics at the Peterborough Natural a deed of a prior date to 1586, in which the place History Museum (the ancient chapel of St. Thomas “Perio" was mentioned. Since then Mr. Pooley, à Becket, in the Minster Precincts) I read a paper of Oundle, has shown me a deed of the year 1299, on the removal of the body of Mary, Queen of in which mention is made of “ Pyriho." But tradiScots, from Fotheringhay Castle to Peterborough tions die hard ; and when, on the morning after Cathedral, and the state ceremonial of the inter- the opening of the exhibition of relics at Peterment, by order of Queen Elizabeth, on Tuesday, borough, I visited Fotheringhay, I was told, as I August 1, 1587. I described the body as being had been often told before, that "Perry Lane" (as taken from Fotheringhay Castle, at ten o'clock on it is pronounced) was first called “Perio” because Sunday night, July 30, and placed on a funeral car, that word had been prophetically used by Mary, drawn by four caparisoned horses ; and said that Queen of Scots, when she obtained her first sight the torchlight procession made its way by the vil. of the castle, and that, moreover, no sooner had lages of Elton, Chesterton, Alwalton, Orton Water- James I. come to the throne than he gave the ville, Orton Longueville, and Woodstone, crossing order for the destruction of Fotheringhay Castle. the bridge over the Nene at Peterborough, and More than this. I was talking with an intelligent reaching the cathedral between one and two o'clock native of the place on that same day, July 20, conin the early morning of Monday, July 31.
cerning the funeral of Mary Stuart, and I said, I believe this description to be correct. If the “Do you think that they took the body by way faneral procession on leaving Fotheringhay had of Elton or Nassington ?" He replied, “ Neither taken the road to Nassington, Yarwell, and Wang. way. The body was taken by water. They had ford, the distance would have been several miles a large barge brought to the side of the river, greater than by the Elton route. By that way the close to the castle, and they put the coffin in the procession would leave the castle and cross the barge and brought it all the way to Peterborough." Nene by Queen Elizabeth's Bridge, and keep Another old inhabitant, to whom I also spoke on straight on for three-quarters of a mile in the the subject, made me precisely a similar answer. So, after an interval of thirty-six years, I was told Skeat. But I differ from him altogether with the same story that I had been told in 1851. regard to the meaning of carni(or carne-)levarium,
Another tradition concerning the funeral of for he thinks it “means precisely the same as Mary, Queen of Scots, has now received its finish- carnelevamen" (and so far I agree with him), but ing stroke ; and that is, the exact position of her interprets this "& solace of the flesh," whereas I first grave in Peterborough Cathedral. The vergers believe with Littré that carnelevamen (and consefor the last 150 years, and probably for a still quently carnelevarium) means "a taking away of longer period, have always pointed out the slab flesh.”I Even in classical Latin levare-of which in the south aisle of the choir, on to which a person the original meaning seems to have been" to make stepped on leaving the choir, as being the stone light,” “to lift up" (Riddle)-does not always that covered the vault in which for five-and-twenty ="to solace, please, comfort," as Prof. Skeat years the coffin of Mary, Queen of Scots, had been would have us believe ; even in such writers as laid. But the Dean of Peterborough (Dr. Perowne) | Virgil and Ovid it sometimes="auferre, adimere" very recently ordered the grave to be opened, I (Facc.), much more in later writers. Levator, too, is which was done under the direction of Mr. J. T. used by Petronius (Riddle)=thief, so that we canIrvine, the clerk of the works, who found that a not be surprised to find that among the ten meansolid stone wall ran the length of the choir, and ings given to the Low Latin levare by Ducange that no vault could have been possible under that there is not one which accords with Prof. Skeat's particular slab. Another excavation was then made three verbs given above, and only one in which under the adjoining slabs of the aisle without dis- anything akin to them can be found. No; the covering any vault. The dean then directed an Low Latin levare agrees very much more nearly excavation to be made within the choir, at a spot with the Ital. levare, which always means “to lift about two yards north of the supposed vault, and up,' “ to raise," or "to take away," and most here the real vault was discovered, in the position commonly “to take away." In the Italian dialects assigned to it by Brown Willis in his plan of the also it has the same meaning, and therefore the cathedral. Not the least interesting event in this Sicilian carni-livari and the Milanese car-levé must most interesting day was the description, by Mr. mean "the taking away of flesb," and as they= Irvine, of this discovery of the real vault; and the carnelevare=carnem levare (as I have shown in address to the visitors by the dean, as we all stood note t), and carnelevarium is only another and near him by the side of the newly-opened vault of more Latinized form of this, it seems to me inMary, Queen of Scots, the tercentenary of whose dubitable that carnelevarium must also mean "the execution and funeral is now being celebrated at taking away of flesb." Prof. Skeat declares levarium Peterborough by such a collection of loans of to be=levamen, and to mean“ mitigation, consolarelics, from Her Majesty and others, as has never tion," but there is not the very slightest tittle of before this been gathered together. The collection evidence in support of this. Besides this, when will be closed on August 9, having been opened by Prof. Skeat assigns to levamen and levarium the the Marchioness Dowager of Huntly on July 19. meaning of “solace," he is obliged to give caro the
CUTHBERT BEDE. unusual meaning of “flesh=body," a meaning
the Milanese dialect car-leve (Sant' Albino, Diez), both CARNIVAL
meaning carnival; and in the Sicilian and Milanete I am glad to see that Prof. Skeat now (Trans.
dialects livari and levè represent the Ital. inf. levare,
Charpentier (in Duc.) tells us that carnelevale was a Phil. Soc., 1885-1886, p. 288) considers that
Milanese word, and car-leve=carnelevare still remains in carnivalia (a plural form of carnival) is formed Milanese. Carnelevare (or carnem-levare) would be a from carnilevaria by the dropping of the le and word formed on the same plan as carnem-lazare, men the change of r into 1, because I have long held* | tioned in note *. a similar opinion, viz., that carnevale is a shortened I Prof. Skeat says (second edition) that he “can find
no warrant for any such extraordinary interpretation of form of carnelevale (Duc.) and that this latter is an
levamen." He evidently has not consulted Diefenbach's corruption of an old Ital. (or possibly Low Latin) | Glossarium,' for there I find as one of the meanings subst. carnelevaret in the way indicated by Prof. given to levamen “uffhebung," of which the Mod. H..
equivalent Aufhebung=lifting up, and also removal. * I sent a very long note on this word to N. & Qi' suppression. As levare in Low Latin had come chietlv quite three years ago, in which this view was advocated, to mean “to lift up and take away". it was to be ex. but it was never inserted, no doubt on account of its pected that levamen also would sometimes participate in length. The change of r into l is supported by the form this change of meaning. carnasciale = carnelasciale = carnelasciare (Diez) = $ This is No. 10, where it is explained “ debit) carnem-laxare, given by Ducange, and apparently used liberare "="to free or release ” (a classical usage). But only as a substantive, after the manner of Italian infini even here there is the notion of taking away, removing. tives.
Indeed, the verb levare seems to obtain its meaning of + This carnelevare no longer exists, but there can be "alleviate, relieve, ease" chiefly from the notion of lift. little doubt but that it once did exist, as we still find in ing up, and so taking away (a burden or a load). See the Sicilian dialect carni•livari (Trains, Diez), and in Riddle.
which it cannot have in any of the other words in it was permitted to eat flesh, the Lent fast anciently Low Latin, Italian, or Spanish denoting carnival cemmencing on the following day" (i.e., on the and compounded with caro or its equivalents. Monday preceding Ash Wednesday). And DuThese words are: (1) carni(s)privium, privi- cange tells us precisely the same thing on different carnium, carnem-lacare, the Ital. carnasciale (see authority, though he evidently also includes in it note *), and the Span, carnes tolendas. And we the following Monday and Tuesday, whilst Charmay also add, I think, the late and modern pentier is blamed by Prof. Skeat for defining Greek afrókpews (or d' Tokpeas or åtókpla). And carnelevarium, which he says=carniprivium, in (2) carni(capium, carnisprenium (or carni- very much the same way. And so again in the prinium), and carnivora. In all these words 'Dicc. Enciclop. de la leng. Esp.,' Madrid, 1872, I caro and its equivalents are indubitably used in find carnes tolendas defined “los tres dias que prethe meaning of flesh=meat," and so it was also, ceden al miercoles de ceniza,” 80 that here again I contend, in carnelevarium and carnelevale. In Quinquagesima Sunday is included. In the Greek carnelevamen it may possibly bave both meanings, church the abstention from meat began, and still, I but this is the only case. As Prof. Skeat has now believe, begins, much further back, viz., from Sexaabandoned the derivation of carnival from this gesima Sunday. See the ‘Dict. of Chr. Ant.,' s. v. word I need not contest the meaning of the Apocreos." And even at the present time in the carne, though I myself believe it to have been Roman Catholic Church, which has never engenerally understood to mean "meat."
couraged the riotous living and the revelry of the In conclusion, Prof. Skeat seems to be unaware Carnival, I have been informed by Roman Catholics that the days of fasting in some cases began (or that the priests recommend their hearers to prepare even now begin) earlier than Ash Wednesday, themselves for Lent by abstinence from pleasures and so he accuses Littré and others of misunder- as early as Septuagesima Sunday; and this is more standing carnelevarium, and taking it to be a day or less borne out by what I find (8. v.“ Carnival") of fasting when it was really a day of feasting.** In in Addis and Arnold's 'Catholic Dict.'(third edit., the 'Dict. of Christian Antiquities,' s.v. “Carnis- London, 1885), where we are told that "the church privium,” we are told, on the authority of Macer, from Septuagesima onwards assumes the garb of that the word was especially applied to Quinqua- penance and prepares her children, by the saddened gesima Sanday, not because this was itself a fast tone of her office, for the Lenten season." day,tt but because it was “ the last day on which We see, therefore, that the Carnival, while it
meant feasting and revelry to the great majority | It will be noticed that I bave here divided the terms probably, meant fasting or abstinence and reclusion which have been used to denote the Carnival season into
to many members (and those the more influential two classes, of wbich the first (to which I myself would add carnelevamen, carnelevarium, carnelevale, and
ones) of the Roman Catholic Church ; and we can carniml) includes those which signify the taking away consequently understand how it was that two sets or abandonment of meat; whilst the second contains of words, opposite in signification, were invented such as signify the taking or even the devouring of (see note it to mark the two opposite ways in raeat. Of this second class the words carni(3) capium and which the Carnival season was passed. The victory carnivora seem to have been more especially, or perhaps exclusively, devoted to Shrove Tuesday, the last day
would seem to have remained with the partisans before the fast, and this seems to have been the case of the abstinence from flesh, for the majority of with carnasciale in the first class also. Carnisprenium of the terms-and according to my view the great seems to be=carnisprivium, and to denote, like it, the majority, including the word carnival itself II-dethree days immediately preceding Ash Wednesday.
Scheler and Littré, however, defend it. Carnelepomen might no doubt form carnelevame in Ital., just as varium (just as the Sundays in Lent are nominally in. ezamen bas made esame, but I know of no instance in cluded in Lent) could not be kept as a fast day. which & medial m has become l, and therefore I must If The terms included in the first class in note || reject this derivation.
were probably invented by the partisans of abstinence, ** I cannot see that Charpentier limits carnelevarium whilst those of class 2 must certainly have originated with, to the one day, Quinquagesima Sunday, as Prof. Skeat and have been chiefly confined to, the partisans of feastseems to think, He no doubt included under it the fol- | ing and riot. It is far from unlikely, however, that lowing Monday and Tuesday, for he gives carniprivium among these latter there were some at least who, whilst as its equivalent, which commonly included those two enjoying the present, contrasted it regretfully with tbe dage. And the equivalent plural form carnilevaria also gloom so close at hand, and these would think the words points to this,
of the first class aptly chosen. And that this was so is # In the Roman Catholic Church no Sunday is ever a shown by the fact that the latest corruption, and the fast day. Formerly, however, abstinence from flesh meat I one that hag (in its different forms) superseded the rest was enjoined on the Sundays in Lent, but “the faithful and has met with general approval and acceptance-the now receive an annual dispensation from tho abstin- Italian carnevale-means to every Italian flesh, fareence " ( Cath. Dict.,' quoted above, s.v. “ Abstinence''). well!” (Diez. says, “ Abecbied des Fleisches '), for vale The reason that Sunday is not a fast day is obviously is not only Latin but Italian. Prof, Skeat says that our because it was on that day tbat Cbrist rose from the spelling with i is a mistake, that it should be e oro; but dead. Quinquagesima Sunday, therefore, though nomin. eurely if carnival ig=, as he maintains, carnis levarium, ally included among the three fast-days called carnele. | the i is strictly correct, and carnilevarium and carnile.