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LONDON, SATURDAY, JULY 2, 1887.

|fetched, and impossible etymologies. His vagaries

1 are bad enough when restricted to “Anglo-Saxon”
CONTENTS.No 79.

etymologies, but when he embarks on the quest

NOTES:-Records of Celtic Occupation, 1-' Fame's Memo-1 for “ Celtic" traces, he seems to divest himself of

Hall.' S-Ale-Tasters, 4-Cure for Whooping Cough-Chal-

cedony_Bibliograpby of School Magazines, 5-A Century | the last rag of common sense. Forthwith every-

Old — Price of Tobacco - St. Erkenwald—"Woman" or thing assumes & Celtic tinge, and traces of

"Female"-Bouter, 6.

Celtic occupation are found in every field. It is

QUERIES :-Ranting, Roaring Willie'-Horton-Source of a question whether these frantic endeavours to
Quotation Wanted-Bolognian Enigms-Feast of St. George
-Jubilee of George III.-Marson of Holborn-Creature=

prove that we English are not ourselves, but some-
Drink, 7-West - Lee, King of the Gipsies - Society of
Friendly Brothers-'La Russie Juive'-Bcotland and Liberal-

a natural love of paradox, or from an indiscrimi-
ism-Mackenzie's Manuscript-Pre-Existence-Matemans-
Siege of Bolton-Westminster Abbey Tenor Bell, 8-Clai-

nate attachment to the principle nullius addictus
borne, of Westmoreland-Galileo-Extirp-Stocks and the jurare in verba magistri. The consideration that

Pillory-Irish Privy Council Records-Reprint of the First
i Folio-Orestes Brownson-John Frost-Cargo-Country

not one in a hundred of these “Celtic" claims is

Box,' 9-King's End Car-Authors Wanted, 10.

ever substantiated does not seem to discourage

REPLIES :-Religious Orders, 10-Bunbill Fields, 11_"De their manufacture. The fact that the people who

fence, not Defiance," 12- Plea for the Midsummer Fairies'
-Goldwyer, 13-Jacob the Apostle-Earthquakes-Sir T.
Erpingham, 14-Brougham-Precedence in Church-Hugue-

almost invariably choose Teutonic words to work
pot Familieg-Owner of Coat of Arms-Orpen-Yam-Anti-

are no
zugler-Jordeloo_Bluestockingism-Pycroft's 'Oxford Me-
moirs 15 mother mess world in Nocimer | Celtic elements in English local names. If there
Noiseg-Sitwell, 16-Baroness Bellasis-To Rally-"Nom

be, it is singular that they should so successfully

de plume”-Arabella Churchill-Arms of Sir Francis Drake, elude the grasp of the army of “Celtic" etymo-

17-First Principles of Philology-A Pair of Kidderminster

Swanns-Motto of Waterton Family-Scarlett: Anglin, 18

logists who so persistently dig for them.

-Eddystone-Hampshire Plant-Names, 19.

MR. Addy's offences are not so grave as those

NOTES ON BOOKS:-Lumby's Ranulphi Higden Poly of the average “ Celtic” advocate. He wisely

chronicon,' Vol. IX.-Burrows's Family of Brocas of

Beaurepaire'-Benham's Dictionary of Religion - Brand's

* London Life seen with German Eyes.'

logical offence to derive the surname Bright from

the A.-S. Bryt, a Briton. This A.-S. Bryt is a

Notices to Correspondents, &c.

very exceptional designation for a Welshman. He

is mostly a Wealh; sometimes, to distinguish him

Notes.

from the Wealas of Cornwall and Strathclyde, he

is a Bryt-Wealh. In one or two cases only is he

RECORDS OF CELTIC OCCUPATION IN LOCAL a Bryt. No argument can be founded upon the

NAMES,

Middle-English Brut, a Briton, for the use of this

I am sorry to see that MR. ADDY (7th S. iii. 421) | form arose from the erroneous derivation of Bryt
is infected with the craze for discovering traces of from the Trojan Brutus, one of Geoffrey of Mon-
Celtic occupation in English local names. MR.

mouth's inventions. The phonological evidence is
ADDY comes to the astounding conclusion that even stronger than this. Any one studying Middle-
there existed, side by side with the English and English must be struck with the permanence of the
Danish villages, settlements inhabited exclusively Teutonic guttural spirant and its distinct notation.
by Celts, who kept themselves entirely distinct from Though it seems to have evaporated from the
the Teutonic invaders. This is as difficult to be- modern pronunciation, it was a distinct sound,
lieve as Mr. Coote's conception that the Anglo- not produced without an effort, in M.E. I believe
Saxons were simply a foreign standing army living there is no instance on record of this guttural
entirely separate from the, of course, purely Celtic spirant being forced into a word. It is in all
population, who would have been, apparently, still cases original. No phonologist will, therefore, be-
drawn up in line resting on their weapons had not lieve that it was inserted in Bryt in the cases
the Normans annihilated them at Hastings. Some cited by MR. ADDY, and every phonologist would
of MR. ADDY's evidence is derived from field-names. hold that Bright is identical with the adjective
Of late years a great deal of nonsense has been bright. And phonology, as usual, is right. The
written about what we can learn from the study of instance of Brighton from Brighthelmston at once
field-names. This study is not without its value; explains the origin of the surname Bright and its

but I must protest against the notion that we are use in local names.* Bright is here a shortening

to revise our early history by the light it yields. of the personal name Bright-helm=A.-S. Beorht-

Before we can derive any lessons from these names helm. There are many A.-S. names beginning

they will have to be studied in accordance with, with the stem Beorht=bright. It is well estab-

and not in direct contravention to the laws of

philology.

* Similarly, Bright-well, Oxfordshire, is Beorhtan-wiell

This latter method is in great favour

(see · Cart, Sax.,' ii, 72, 37; 595, 32), that is, the well of
with the ordinary local etymologist, who has a man named * Beorht.a or a woman named * Beorht-e
usually an intense passion for picturesque, far- l (the same name as Bertha).

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