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LIST OF WOOD-ENGRAVINGS.

FIG. PAGE

1. Vegetable cells from a young shoot of Solanura tuberosum . 5

2. Cartilage-cells from the margin of ossification of growing cartilage 7

3. Different kinds of cells and cell-formations. a. Hepatic cell. b.

Connective-tissue corpuscle, e. Capillary vessel, d. Stellate cell
from a lymphatic gland, e. Nerve-cell from the cerebellum . 9

4. Formation of vegetable cells, according to Schleiden . . 10

5. Pigment-cell (from the eye), smooth muscular fibre-cell (from the

intestines), portion of a nerve-fibre with a double contour 12

6. Cartilage from the epiphysis of the humerus of a child . P 14

7. Cortical layer of a tuber of Solanum tuberosum . . 18

8. Longitudinal section of a young shoot of Syringa . 20

9. Pathological proliferation of cartilage from a costal cartilage 21

10. Young ova from the ovary of a frog . . . .22

11. Cells from catarrhal sputa (pus- and mucus-corpuscles, and a pig

ment-cell) . . . . . .22

12. Diagram of the globular theory . .26

13. Diagram of the investment- (cluster-) theory . . .26

14. Cylindrical epithelium from the gall-bladder . .31

15. Transitional epithelium from the urinary bladder . .31

16. Perpendicular section through the surface of the skin of a toe

(epidermis, rete Malpighii, papillae) . . .33

17. Diagrammatic representation of a longitudinal section of a nail in

normal and pathological conditions . . .37

18. A. Development of sweat-glands. B. Portion of the duct of a

sweat-gland . . . . .40

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PIG. PAGK

19. A. Bundle of ordinary connective tissue. B. Development of con

nective tissue according to Schwann's plan. C. Development of connective tissue according to Henle's plan . . .42

20. Young connective tissue from the embryo of a pig . . 44

21. Diagram of the development of connective tissue . . 45

22. Section through the growing cartilage of a patella . . 46

23. Primitive muscular fasciculi in different conditions . .51

24. Muscular elements from the heart of a puerperal woman . . 53

25. Smooth muscular fibres from the urinary bladder . . 55

26. Small artery from the base of the cerebrum . . .58

27. Diagrammatic representations of hepatic cells. A. Physiological

appearance. B. Hypertrophy. C. Hyperplasy . . 65

28. Portion of the periphery of the liver of a rabbit, with the vessels

injected . . . . . .73

29. Natural injection of the corpus striatum of a lunatic . . 75

30. Injected preparation from the muscular coat of the stomach . 76

31. Vessels in the cartilage of the calcaneum of a new-born child . 7S

32. Bone. Longitudinal section from the cortex of a sclerotic tibia . 79

33. Bone. Transverse section . . . .80

M. Bone-corpuscles from a morbid formation of bone in the dura mater

of the brain . . . . . .81

M. Section of an osseous plate from the arachnoid of the brain . 85

36. Longitudinal and transverse section from the semilunar cartilage

of the knee-joint of a child . . . .87

37. Transverse section from the tendo Achillis of an adult . . 90

38. Transverse section from the interior of the tendo Achillis of a new

born child . . . . . .92

39. Longitudinal section from the interior of the tendo Achillis of a

new-born child . . . . .93

40. The abdominal end of the umbilical cord of a nearly full-grown

foetus, injected . . . . .96

41. Transverse section through a part of the umbilical cord . . 98

42. Transverse section of the mucous tissue of the umbilical cord . 100

43. Elastic networks and fibres from the subcutaneous tissue of the

abdomen ...... 102

44. Injection of the vessels of the skin; vertical section . . 105

45. Section from the dartos ..... 106

46. Small artery from the tendinous sheath of an extensor muscle . Ill

47. A. Epithelium from the femoral artery. B. Epithelium from veins

of considerable size . . . . .114

48. Epithelium from the vessels of the kidney. A. Flat, spindle-shaped

cells from a new-born child. B. Ribbon-like plate of epithelium
from an adult ..... 114

49. Irregular contraction of small vessels from the web of a frog's foot

after the application of stimuli. Copied from Wharton Jones . 118

LIST Ol1 ENGRAVINGS. xix

flG. PAGE

50. Coagulated fibrine from human blood . . . 136

61. Nucleated blood-corpuscles from a human fetus, six weeks old . 138

M. Blood-corpuscles from an adult .... 139

53. Crystals of Haematoidine ..... 143

54. Pigment from an apoplectic cicatrix in the brain . . 144

55. Crystals of Haemine from human blood . . . 145

56. Colourless blood-corpuscles .... 148

57. Colourless blood-corpuscles in variolous leucocytosis . . 150

58. Fibrine clot from the pulmonary artery, and a portion of a granule

composed of thickly crowded colourless blood-corpuscles, in leuco-

cytosis ...... 151

59. Capillary stream in the web of a frog's foot . . . 152

60. Diagram of a bleeding-glass, with coagulated hyperinotic blood . 154

61. Sections through the cortical substance of human mesenteric glands 174

62. Lymph-corpuscles from the interior of the follicles of a lymphatic

gland . . . . . .175

63. Pus-corpuscles and their nuclei in Gonorrhoea . . . 179

64. Inspissated, cheesy pus ..... 180

65. Inspissated, haemorrhagic pus, some of it in process of disintegration,

from a case of Empyema . . . .181

66. Pus engaged in fatty metamorphosis . . .182

67. Section through the cortex of an axillary gland from an arm, the

skin of which had been tattooed .... 185

68. Reticulum of an axillary gland, filled with cinnabar, from an arm

which had been tattooed .... 186

69. Valvular thrombosis of the saphenous vein . . . 198

N. Puriform mass of debris from softened thrombi. A. Granules seen

in disintegrating fibrine. B. Colourless blood-corpuscles set free

by the softening; some of them engaged in retrograde metamor-

phosis. C. Red blood-corpuscle3 undergoing decolorization and

disorganization ..... 199

71. Autochthonous and prolonged thrombi from branches of the femoral

veins ...... 205

72. Embolia of the pulmonary artery .... 206

73. Ulcerative endocarditis affecting the mitral valve, from a puerperal

woman ...... 208

74—75. Capillary embolia in the tufts (penicillin) of the splenic artery

after endocarditis ..... 209

76. Melanaemia. Blood from the right heart . . . 222

77. Transverse section through one of the trunks of the brachial plexus . 230

78. Grey and white nerve-fibres .... 231

79. Medullary hypertrophy of the optic nerve within the eye . . 233

80. Drops of medullary matter. A. From the medullary sheath of

cerebral nerves after they have become swollen up with water. B.

Drops from disintegrating epithelium from the gall-bladder . 234

no. Pai.k

81. Broad and narrow nerve-fibres with the medullary matter irre-

gularly swollen up . . . . 236

82. Yaterian or Pacinian body from the subcutaneous tissue of the end

of a finger ...... 239

83. Nervous and vascular papillae from the skin of the end of a finger . 241

84. The fundamental substance of an acuminate condyloma of the penis

with abundant growth of papillae .... 245

M. A. Vertical section through the whole thickness of the retina. B,

C (after H. Miiller). Isolated radiating fibres . . 249

M. Division of a primitive nerve-fibre .... 252

87- Nervous plexus from the submucous tissue of the intestinal canal of

a child . . . .254

88. Elements (ganglion-cells and nerve-fibres) from the Gasserian

ganglion ..... . 258

89. Ganglion-cells from the great nervous centres. A, B, C. From the

spinal marrow. D. From the cortex of the cerebrum . . 260

90. The half of a transverse section from the cervical part of the spinal

marrow ...... 266

91. Diagrammatic representation of the disposition of the nerves in the

cortex of the cerebellum, after Gerlach . . . 269

92. Transverse section through the spinal marrow of Petromyzon fluvia-

tilis . . . . .270

M. Pale fibres from the spinal marrow of Petromyzon fluviatilis . 272

94. Ependyma ventriculorum and neuro-glia. Ca. Corpora amylacea . 275

95. Cellular elements of the neuro-glia .... 278

96. Diagrammatic representation of a transverse section of the spinal

marrow in partial, grey atrophy .... 281

97. Diagram of the condition of the molecules of a nerve, A, when at

rest, B, when in an electrotonic state—from Ludwig . . 290

98. Convoluted tubule from the cortex of the kidney in morbus

Brightii . . . . . .296

99. Parenchymatous keratitis ..... 301

100. Perpendicular section of the cornea of the ox, from His . . 303

101. Horizontal section of the cornea, parallel to the surface, from His . 304

102. Parenchymatous keratitis ..... 305

103. Division of nuclei in the cells of a melanotic tumour of the parotid

gland ...... 306

104. Cells from the marrow of bones, after Kolliker . . 308

105. Division of nuclei in primitive muscular fasciculi from the immediate

neighbourhood of a cancerous tumour . . . 309

106. Intra-capsular multiplication of cells in the central substance of an

intervertebral cartilage ..... 310

107. Adipose cellular tissue from the panniculus adiposns. A. Ordinary

subcutaneous tissue, with fat-cells. B. Atrophic fat . . 322

108. Interstitial growth of fat in muscle . . . 324

LIST OF ENGRAVINGS. xxi

PIG. PAGE

109. Intestinal villi, showing the absorption of fat. A. Normal intestinal

villus. IS. Villus in a state of contraction. C. Human intestinal

villus during the absorption of chyle. D. In a case of retention

ofchjle . . . . . .326

110. The adjoining halves of two hepatic acini, shewing the zones occupied

by fat, the amyloid matter and pigment . . . 331

Ill. Hair-follicle with sebaceous glands from the skin . . 335

112. Mammary gland during lactation, milk and colostrum . . 33G

113. Fatty degeneration of cerebral arteries. A. Fatty metamorphosis of

the muscular cells of the circular-fibre coat. B. Formation of fat-

granule cells in the connective-tissue corpuscles of the internal

coat . . . . .340

114. Fatty degeneration of the muscular substance of the heart in different

stages ...... 343

115. Corpora lutea in the human ovary .... 345

116. Vertical section through the walls of the aorta at a sclerotic part,

in which an atheromatous depot is already in the course of

formation ...... 356

117- The pultaceous atheromatous matter from a depot in the aorta.

ad, Fluid fat. b. Amorphous grunularly- wrinkled flakes of tissue.

e, e'. Crystals of cholestearine .... 357

118. Vertical section from a sclerotic plate in the aorta (internal coat), in

process of fatty degeneration .... 359

119. Condylomatous excrescences of the mitral valve . . 363

120. Laminated prostatic amyloid bodies (concretions) . . 370

121. Amyloid degeneration of a small artery from the submucous tissue

of the small intestines ..... 374

122. Amyloid degeneration of a lymphatic gland . . . 383

123. Corpora amylacea from a diseased lymphatic gland . .383

124. Proliferation of the growing cartilage of the diaphysis of the tibia of

a child (longitudinal section) .... 400

125. Endogenous new formation; cells containing vesicles (physaliphores).

A. From the thymus gland of a new-born child, B, C. Cancer-

cells . . . . . .401

126. Vertical section through the ossifying border of a growing astragalus

(pathological irritation) .... 412

127—128. Horizontal sections through the growing cartilage of the tibia,

from a human foetus seven months old . 415

129. Line of demarcation in a piece of necrosed bone, from a case of

paedarthrocace, bone-territories .... 418

130. Periosteal growth of the cranial bones (parietal bone of a child) . 424

131—132. Soft osteoma from the jaw of a goat . . 428,430

133—134. Ricketty diaphysal cartilage, transformation into medullary

and osteoid tissue; calcification and ossification . 434, 436

135. Fracture of the humerus in process of healing; formation of callus . 440

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