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Preface To First Edition . . . . . vii

Second Edition ..... xiii

Translator's Preface . . . . . xv

List Of Wood Engravings ..... xvii

LECTURE I.—Cells And The Cellular Theory . . 1

Introduction and object. Importance of anatomical discoveries in the

history of medicine. Slight influence of the cell-theory upon patho-

logy. Cells as the ultimate active elements of the living body. Their

nature more accurately defined. Vegetable cells; membrane, con-

tents, nucleus. Animal cells; capsulated (cartilage) and simple.

Nuclei of. Nucleoli of. Theory of the formation of cells out of free

cytoblastema. Constancy of nucleus and its importance in the main-

tenance of the living cell. Diversity of cell-contents and their import-

ance as regards the functions of parts. Cells as vital unities. The

body as a social organization. Cellular, in contradistinction to humoral

and solidistic, pathology.—Explanation of some of the preparations.

Young shoots of plants. Growth of plants. Growth of cartilage.

Toung ova. Young cells in sputa.

LECTURE IL-- Physiological Tissues . . . . U

Falsity of the view that tissues and fibres are made up of globules (ele-

mentary granules). The investment theory (Umhullungstheorie).

Equivocal (spontaneous) generation of cells. The law of continuous

development.—General classification of the tissues. The three cate-

gories of General Histology. Special tissues. Organs and systems, or

apparatuses.—The Epithelial Tissues. Squamous, cylindrical, and

transitional epithelium. Epidermis and rcte Malpigii. Nails, and

their diseases. Crystalline lens. Pigment. Gland-cells.—The Con-

Nective Tissues. The theories of Schwann, Henle, and Reichert.

My theory. Connective tissue as intercellular substance. Cartilage

(hyaline, fibre- and reticular). Mucous tissue. Adipose tissue. Anas-

tomosis of cells ; juice-conveying system of tubes or canals.


LECTURE III.—Physiological And Pathological Tissues 49

The higher animal tissues: muscles, nerves, vessels, blood.—Muscles.

Striped and smooth. Atrophy of. The contractile substance and

contractility in general. Cutis anserina and arrectores pilorum.—Vessels.

Capillaries. Contractile vessels. Nerves.—Pathological tissues (Neo-

plasms), and their classification. Import of vascularity. Doctrine of

specific elements. Physiological types (reproduction). Heterology

(heterotopy, heterochrony, heterometry) and malignity. Hypertrophy

and hyperplasy. Degeneration. Criteria for prognosis.—Law of con-

tinuity. Histological substitution and equivalents. Physiological and

pathological substitution.

LECTURE IV.—Nutrition And Its Channels . . .72

Action of the vessels. Relations between vessels and tissues. Liver.

Brain. Muscular coat of the stomach. Cartilage. Bone.—Dependence

of tissues upon vessels. Metastases. Vascular territories [Gefasster-

ritorien] (vascular unities). Conveyance of nutriment in the juice-

conveying canals (Saftkanale) of the tissues. Bone. Teeth. Fibro-

cartilage. Cornea. Semilunar cartilages.

LECTURE V.—Nutrition, And Conveyance Of The

Nutritive Juices 89

Tendons. Cornea. Umbilical cord.—Elastic tissue. Corium.—Loose

connective tissue. Tunica dartos.—Importance of cells in the special

distribution of the nutritive juices.

LECTURE VI.—Nutrition And Circulation . .109

Arteries. Capillaries Continuity of their membrane. Its porosity.

Haemorrhage by transudation (per diapedesin). Veins. Vessels during

pregnancy.—Properties of the walls of vessels: 1. Contractility.

Rhythmical movement. Active or irritative hyperemia. Ischaemia.

Counter-irritants. 2. Elasticity and its importance as regards the

rapidity and uniformity of the current of blood. Dilatation of the

vessels. 8. Permeability. Diffusion. Specific affinities. Relation

between the supply of blood and nutrition. Glandular secretion

(liver). Specific action of the elements of tissues.—Dyscrasia. Its

transitory character and local origin. Dyscrasia of drunkards. Ha- e-

morrhagic diathesis. Syphilis.

LECTURE VII.—The Blood 134

Eibrine. Its fibrillic. Compared with mucus, and connective tissue.

Homogeneous condition.—Red blood-corpuscles. Their nucleus and

contents. Changes of form. Blood-crystals (HaMnatoidine, Haemine,

Haematocrystalline).—Colourless blood-corpuscles. Numerical propor-

tion. Structure. Compared with pus-oorpuscles. Their viscosity and

agglutination. Specific gravity. Crusta granulosa. Diagnosis between

pus-, and colourless blood-corpuscles.


LECTURE VIII.—Blood And Lymph . . . .156

Change and replacement of the constituents of the blood. Fibrine. Lymph

and its coagulation. Lymphatic exudation. Fibrinogenous substance.

Formation of the buffy coat. Lymphatic blood, hyperinosis, phlogistic

crasis. Local formation of librine. Transudation of fibrine. Formation

of fibrine in the blood.—Colourless blood-corpuscles (lymph-corpuscles).

Their increase in hyperinosis and hypinosis (Erysipelas, pseudo-erysi-

pelas, typhoid fever). Leucocytosis and leukaemia. Splenic and lym-

phatic leukaemia.—The spleen and lymphatic glands as blood-making

organs. Structure of lymphatic glands.

LECTURE IX.—Pyemia And Leucocytosis . . .177

Comparison between colourless blood- and pus-corpuscles. Physiological

reabsorption of pus; incomplete (inspissation, cheesy transformation),

and complete (fatty metamorphosis, or milky transformation). Intra-

vasation of pus.—Pus in the lymphatic vessels. Retention of matters in

the lymphatic glands. Mechanical separation (filtration). Coloration

by tattooing. Chemical separation (attraction): Cancer, Syphilis.

Irritation of lymphatic glands, and its relation to leucocytosis.—Digestive

and puerperal (physiological) leucocytosis. Pathological leucocytosis

(Scrofulosis, typhoid fever, cancer, erysipelas).—Lymphoid apparatuses:

solitary and Peyerian follicles of the intestines. Tonsils and follicles of

the tongue. Thymus. Spleen.—Complete rejection of pyaemia as a

dyscrasia susceptible of demonstration morphologically.

LECTURE X.—Metastatical Dyscrasia . . .196

Pyaemia and phlebitis. Thrombosis. Puriform softening of thrombi.

True and false phlebitis. Purulent cysts of the heart,-- Embolia. Im-

port of prolonged thrombi. Pulmonary metastases. Crumbling away

of the emboli. "Varying character of the metastases. Endocarditis and

capillary embolia. Latent pyaemia.—Infectant fluids. Diseases of the

lymphatic apparatuses and secreting organs. Chemical substances in

the blood; salts of silver. Arthritis. Calcareous metastases. Diffuse

metastatic processes. Ichorrhaemia. Pyaemia as a collective name.

—Chemical dyscrasia'. Malignant tumours, especially cancer. Diffu-

sion by means of contagious parenchymatous juices.

LECTURE XI.—Pigmentary Elements In The Blood.

Nerves 220

Melanaemia. Its relation to melanotic tumours and colorations of the

spleen.—Bed blood-corpuscles. Origin. Melanic forms. Chlorosis.

Paralysis of the respiratory substance. Toxicaimia.—The nervous sys-

tem. Its pretended unity.—Nerve-fibres. Peripheral nerves: their

fasciculi, primitive fibres, and perineurium. Axis-cylinder (electrical

substance). Medullary substance (Myeline). Non-medullated and

medullated fibres. Transition from the one kind to the other: hyper-

trophy of the optic nerve. Different breadth of the fibres. Their ter-

minations. Pacinian and tactile bodies.


LECTURE XII.—The Nervous System . . .243

Peripheral terminations of the nerves. Nerves of special sense. The skin

and the distinction of vessel-, nerve- and cell-territories in it. Olfactory

mucous membrane. Retina.—Division of nerve-fibres. The electrical

organ of fishes. Muscles. Further consideration of nerve-territories.—

Nervous plexuses with ganglioniform enlargements. Intestines.—Errors

of the neuro-pathologists.—The great nervous centres. Grey substance.

Ganglion- (nerve-) cells containing pigment. Varieties of ganglion-

cells; sympathetic cells in the spinal marrow and brain, motor and

sensitive cells. Multipolar (polyclonous) ganglion-cells. Different

nature of the processes of ganglion-cells.

LECTURE XIII.—Spinal Cord And Brain . . .26-4

The spinal cord. White and grey matter. Central canal Groups of

ganglion-cells. White columns and commissures.—The medulla ob-

longata and the brain. Its granular and bacillar layer.—The spinal cord

of the petromyzon and its non-medullated fibres.—The intermediate

substance (interstitial tissue). Ependyma ventriculorum. Neuro-glia.
Corpora amjlacea.

LECTURE XIV.—Activity And Irritability Of Cel-

Lular Elements. Different Forms Of Irritation . 283

Life of individual parts. The unity of the neurists. Consciousness. Ac-

tivity of individual parts. Excitability (irritability) as a general crite-

rion of life. Meaning of irritation. Partial death. Necrosis —Function,

nutrition, and formation, as general forms of vital activity. Difference

of irritability according to the different forms of activity.—Functional

irritability. Nerves, muscles, ciliated epithelium, glands. Fatigue and

functional restitution. Stimuli. Their specific relations. Muscular

irritability.—Nutritive irritability. Maintenance and destruction of

elements. Inflammation. Cloudy swelling. Kidney (morbus Brightii)

and cartilage. Neuro-pathological doctrines. Skin, cornea. The

humoro-pathological doctrines. Parenchymatous exudation, and paren-

chymatous inflammation.—Formative irritation. Multiplication of

nucleoli and nuclei by division. Multi-nuclear cells; marrow-cells

and myeloid tumours. Comparison between formative muscular irri-

tation and muscular growth. Multiplication (new-formation) of cells

by division. The humoro- and neuro-pathological doctrines.—Inflam-

matory irritation as a compound phenomenon. Neuro-paralytical

inflammation (Vagus, Trigeminus).

LECTURE XV.—Passive Processes. Fatty Degenera-

Tion ......... 316

Passive processes in their two chief tendencies to degeneration; Necro-

biosis (softening and disintegration) and induration.—Fatty degenera-

tion. Histological history of fat in the animal body; fat as a component

of the tissues, as a transitory infiltration, and as necrobiotic matter.—

Adipose tissue. Polysaroia. Fatty tumours. Interstitial formation of

fat. Fatty degeneration of muscles.—Fatty infiltration. Intestines;

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