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Bodies seem to have an intrinsick principle of

A giant huge and tall, alteration, or corruption, from the dissolubility of their Who him disarmed, dissolute, dismayed, parts, and the coalition of several particles endued Unawares surprised.

Faerie Queene. with contrary and destructive qualities each to other.

Hc determined to make a present dissolution of the Hale's Origin of Mankind. world.

Hooker. DISSOLVE', 0.a. & n. Lat. dissoldere,

Such stand in narrow lanes, Dissolv'ENT, n. s. & adj. (from dis,

And beat our watch, and rob our passengers; Dissolv'ER,

der, and solverc, While he, young, wanton, and effeminate boy, Dissolv'IBLE, adj. to loose. To dis Takes on the point of hon sur, to support

So dissolute a crew. unite the parts of a thing by moisture or by

Shakspeare. Richard II. heat; to melt; liquefy: hence, figuratively, to I am as subject to heat as butter; a man of condestroy a union, compact, or delusion, as well tinual dissolution and thaw.

Id. as to dissipate obscurity or doubt. Dissolvent

Merry Wives of Windsor. is having the power of dissolving; dissolver is The life of man is always either increasing wwards synonymous with it as a substantive : dissolvible ripeness and perfection, or declining and decreasing is, liable to liquefy or disperse by dissolution. towards rottenness and dissolution. Raleigl's History. I haue a desier to be dissolued and to be with Crist,

Weigh iron and aqua-fortis severally; then dis

solve the iron in the aqua-fortis, and weigh the dissoit is mych more bettre. Wiclif. Filipensis 1.


Bacon. And I have heard of thee, thut thou canst make Neither doth God say, I was the God of Abraham, interpretations and dissolve doubts. Dan. v. 16. Isaac, Jacob ; but I am. The patriarchs still live, If there be more, more woeful, hold it in;

after so many years of dissolution. For I am almost ready to dissolve,

Bp. Hall's Contemplations, Hearing of this.

Shukspeare. King Lear. Yet, I deny not, but dissolute men, like unskilful She and I, long since contracted,

horsemen, which open a gate on the wrong side, may, Are now so sure that nothing can dissolve us. Id.

by the virtue of their office, open heaven for others, By the king's authority alone, anıt by his writs, and shut themselves out.

Fuller. parliaments are assembled; and by him alone they A longing after sensual pleasures is a dissolution of are prorogued and dissolved, but each house may ad- the spirit of a man, and makes it loose, soft, and journ itself.

Bacon to Villiers.

wandering, unapt for noble or spiritual employments. Down fell the duke, his joints dissolned asunder,

Bp. Taylor. Blind with the light, and stricken dead with wonder.

We expected

Fairfax. Immediate dissolution, which we thought Witness these ancient empires of the earth

Was meant by death that day. In height of all their flowing wealth dissolved.

Milton Paradise Lost. Milton.

They cooled in zeal, Angels dissolved in hallelujahs lie. Dryden.

Thenceforth shall practise how to live secure, The commons live, by no divisions rent;

Worldly, or dissolute, on what their lords
But the great monarch's death dissolves the

Shall leave them to enjoy.

Id. Id. If we look into the common management, we shall In man and viviparous quadrupeds, the food, mois. have reason to wonder, in the great dissoluteness of tened with the spittle, is first chewed, then swallowed manners which the world complains of, there are any into the stomach, where, being mingled with dissolvent footsteps at all left of virtue.

Locke. juices, it is concocted, macerated, and reduced into a Is a man confident of wealth and power? Why chyle.

Ray. let him read of those strange unexpected dissolutions As wax dissolves, as ice begins to run

of the great monarchies and governments of the And trickle into drops before the sun,


South. So melts the youth, and languishes away.

The true spirit of religion banishes indeed all Addison's Ovid.

levity of behaviour, all vicious and dissolute mirth ; Such things as are not dissolvable by the moisture of but, in exchange, fills the mind with a perpetual the tongue, act not upon the taste.


Addison's Spectator. Spittle is a great dissolvent, and there is a great That mind is dissolute and ungoverned, which quantity of it in the stomach, being swallowed con must be hurried out of itself by loud laughter or senstantly.


sual pleasure, or else be wholly inactive. Steele. Fire, and the more subtle dissolver, putrefaction, by dividing the particles of substances, turn them black.

Would they have mankind lay aside all care of Id.

provisions by agriculture or commerce, because possiThe snow dissolved, no more is seen,

bly the dissolu.ion of the world may happen the next The fields and wood, behold! are green.

moment ?

Bentley Johnson.

In the next place, Sir, I am clear that the act of Despotic love dissolves the bestial war. Darwin.

union, reciting and ratifying one Scotch and onc Eng.

lish act of parliament, has not rendered any change DIS'SOLUTE, adj. Fr. dissolu ; Italian, whatsoever in our church impossible, but by a dissoDis'sOLUTELY, adv. Span. and Port. disso- lution of the onion between the two kingdoms. Dis'sOLUTENESS, n. s. luto; Lat. dissolutus,

Burke. DissoLUẤTION. from dis and solvere,

A dissolution of all bonds ensued; solutus, to loose. Unrestrained by law or morals; The curbs invented for the nlish mouth debauched ; luxurious. Dissolution is more

Of headstrong youth were broken. Corper. generally applied in the literal sense, and to DISSOLUTION, in physics, a general name for death. Dissoluteness, to behaviour or man all reductions of concrete bodies into their smallners : yet both occur in the latter sense; and est parts, without regard either to solidity or fluidissolution is used by lord Bacon for the sub- dity; though in the usual acceptation of the word stance formed by dissolving a body.

among authors, it is restrained to the reduction


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of solid bodies into a state of fluidity; which is Weave thou to end this web which I begin: more properly expressed by solution. See Che I will the distaff hold, come thou and spin. MISTRY.

Fairfar. DIS'SONANCE, n. s.? Fr. dissonance; Ital. In sum, proud Boreas never ruled feet,

Dıs'sonant, adj. S dissonanza ; Lat. disso- Who Neptune's web on danger's distaff spins, nantia, from dis, diversely, and sonans, sonantis,

With greater power than she did make them weni sounding. Harshness, or jargon of sounds; dis

Each way, as she that age's praise did bend.

Sidney. agreement: dissonant is in harmonious; and

See my royal master murdered, hence incongruous; disagreeing; followed by

His crown usurped, a distaff in the throne. from, and less correctly by to.

Dryden. Though he nought fonde yet would he lie


my civil government some say the crosier, some Discordaunt er fro armonie,

say the distaf', was too busy. And dissonid fro melodie;

Howel's England's Tears. Controve he would, and foule faile,

I can no more pardon a fair one for endeavouring With hornpipis of Cornewaile.

to wield the club of Hercules, than I could him for atChaucer. Romaunt of the Rose. tempting to twirl her distaff.

Goldsmith. Still govern thou my song,

DISTA’IN, v. a. Dis and stain. To stain ; But drive far off the barbarous dissonance

to tinge with an adventitious color; hence to blot Of Bacchus and his revellers.


or obliterate. What can be more dissonant from reason and nature, than that a man, naturally inclined to clemency,

For certainly all these mowe out suffice should shew himself unkind and inhuman?

To' apperin with my ladie in no wise,

For as the sunne woll the fire distain,
Hakewill on Providence.
With to; less properly.

So passith all my ladie soverain.


Legend of Women. When conscience reports any thing dissonant to truth, it obliges no more than the falsehood reported

He understood, by it.


That lady, whom I had to me assigned, Dire were the strain, and dissonant, to sing

Had both distained her honourable blond, The cruel raptures of the savage kind. Thomson.

And eke the faith which she to me did bind.

Faerie Queene DISSUADE' v.a.

Fr. dissuader;

The worthiness of praise distains his worth, Dissua DE'R, n. s. Span. dessuadir; If he that’s praised himself bring the praise forth. Dissu AʼSION, Lat. dissuadere :

Shakspeare. Disst A'sive, udj. & n. s. dis, opposite, and Nor ceased his arrows, till the shady plain suadere, to persuade. To dehort; divert from, by Seven mighty bodies with their blood distain. persuasion: dissuader is he who endeavours to do

Dryden's Virgil. this; and dissuasion the act or means of doing it.

Place on their heads that crown distained with

gore, Which those dire hands from my slain father tore. We submit to Cæsar, promising

Pope. To pay our wonted tribute, from the which

DISTASTE', n. s. ? Dis and taste.

DisWe were dissuaded by our wicked queen. Shakspeare. Cymbeline.

DISTASTE'FUL, adj. I relish; aversion of the Not diffident of thee do I dissuade

palate; disgust: the verb being derived froin Thy absence from my sight.

the noun, and both often applied figuratively. Milton's Paradise Lost. Dangerous conceits are in their nature poisons, What is meant by dissuading ; it is making a man

Which at the first are scarce found to distaste, to change his opinion, and unfixing of the mind. But, with a little act upon the blood,

Bp. Taylor.

Burn like the mines of sulphur. Endeavour to preserve yourself from relapse by

Shakspeare. Othello. such disruasions from love, as its votaries call invec

After distusteful looks, tives against it.


With certain half-caps, and cold moving nods,
They froze mc into silence.

I'd fain deny this wish, which thou hast made ;

Timon. Or, what I can't deny, would fain dissuade.

The king having tasted of the envy of the people, for

Addison's Ovid. his imprisonment of Edward Plantagenct, was doubtWhat more powerful dissuasire from suspicion, jea- ful to hcap up any more distastes of that kind by the lousy, and anger, than the story of one friend mur imprisonment of De la Pole also. dered by another in a duel. Bp. Horne.

Bacon's Henry VII. DISSYLLABLE, n. s. Acooullaßos. A word least the more judicious part of it, which seems much

It is in the general behalf of society that I speak, at of two syllables.

distasted with the immodest and obscene writing of No man is tied, in modern poetry, to observe any many in plays.

Ben Jonson. farther rule in the feet of his verse, but that they be The ground might be the distasteful averseness of dyrsyllables ; whether spondee, trochee, or iambique, the Christian from the Jew.

Browne. it matters not.


On the part of heaven, He (Shakspeare) seems to have been the very ori

Now alienated, distance and distaste, giaal of our English tragical harmony; that is, the Anger, and just rebuke. barmony of blank verse, diversified often by dissyllable,

Milton's Paradise Lost. ad trissyllable terminations.

Dennis. None but a fool distasteful truth will tell;
DISTAFF, 1. s.

So it be new and please, 'tis full as well.
Sax, dæstaff, from diege,

Dryden. the thigh, and staff, because females while

Distasteful humours, and whatever else may render spinning fit it to the thigh.'—Minsheu. The the conversation of men grievous and uneasy to one staff from which the flax is drawn off in spinning: another, are forbidden in the New Testament. used as an emblein cî the sex.

Tillotson, Vol. VII.


I am unwilling to believe that he doth it with a de. sport too well to hunt any but those who can stand a sign to play tricks, and fly-blow my words to make good chase; and authors are the only objects in na. others distaste them.

Stillingfleet. ture, which are magnified by distance, and diminished With stern distaste avowed,

by approach.

Cumberland. To their own districts drive the suitor crowd.

Be silent! How the soldiers' rough strain seems
Pope's Odyssey. Softened by distance to a hymn-like cadence!

Fr. distance ;

DISTANCE, v. a. & n. s.?
Dis'tant, adj.

Dis and temSpan. distancia; DISTEM'PER, v. a. & n. s. Ital. distanza; Lat. distantia, from dis, asunder,

DISTEM'PERATE, adj. per.

To disand stans, stantis, standing. The extent of space

DISTEM'PERATURE, n. S. order; disease; between two standing bodies. The verb seems disturb; render disaffected; to temper colors here derived from the noun. Distant is, remote anew. As a substantive, it expresses disorder; in place, time, or nature; and in any degree: disproportion; or disease of any kind; and has hence, not obvious; not intelligible.

the same use among painters as the adjective. We come to see fight; to see thy pass, thy stock,

Distemperate is, immoderate; and distemperathy reverse, thy distunce.

ture, habitual or extreme disorder; violence. Shakspeare. Merry Wives of Windsor.

Tell how the world fell into this disease,
Banquo was your enemy,
And how so great distemperature did grow.

Daniel. So is he mine ; and in such bloody distance,

Thy earliness doth me assure That every minute of his being thrusts

Thou art uproused by some distemperature. Against my nearest of life. Shakspeare, Macbeth.

Shakspeare. A good merchant never demands out of distance of

There is a sickness, the price he intends to take. If not always within Which puts some of us in distemper ; but the touch, yet within the reach of what he means to I cannot name the disease, and it is caught sell for.


Of you that yet are well. Id. Winter's Tale. This heaven which we behold

Young son, it argues a distempered head, Distant so high.


So soon to bid good-morrow to thy bed.
On the part of heaven,

Id. Romeo and Juliet. Now alienated, distance and distaste,

Aquinas objecteth the distemperate heat, which he Anger, and just rebuke, and judgment given. Id.

Eupposeth to be in all places directly under the sun. This was the horse that ran the whole field out of

Raleigh's History. distance, and won the race.

L'Estrange. The true temper of empire is a thing rare, and We have as much assurance of these things, as

hard to keep; for both temper and distemper consist of contraries.

Bacon, things future and at a distance are capable of.


I was not forgetful of those sparks, which some That which gives a relievo to a bowl, is the quick men's distempers formerly studied to kindle in parlia

ment. light, or white, which appears to be on the side near

King Charles. est to us, and the black by consequence distances the

He distempered himself one night with long and object.

Dryden's Dufresney.
hard study.

Boyle's History of Fluida.

Distempered zeal, sedition, cankered hate,
I hope your modesty

No more shall vex the church and tear the state. Will know what distance to the crown is due.

Dryden. Dryden.

They heighten distempers to diseases. Distance is space considered barely in length

Suckling. between any two beings, without considering any

Sin is the fruitful parent of distempers, and ill lives thing else between them.

occasion good physicians.

South. It was one of the first distinctions of a well-bred

They were consumed by the discommodities of the man to express every thing obscene in modest terms country, and the distemperature of the air, Abbot. and distant phrases.

Addison's Spectator.

When I behold a fashionable table set out in Cæsar is still disposed to give us terms,

all its magnificence, I fancy that I see gouts and And waits at distance till he hears from Cato.

dropsies, fevers and lethargies, with innumerable Addison.

other distempers, lying in ambuscade among the dishes. If a man makes me keep my distance, the comfort is,

Addison. he keeps his at the same time.

Swift. A night of fretful passions may consume, These dwell at such convenient distance,

All that thou hast of beauty's gentle bloom, That each may give his friend assistance. Prior.

And one distempered hour of sordid fear I help my preface by a prescript, to tell that there Print on thy brow the wrinkles of a year. is ten years distance between one and the other. Id.

Sheridan. Each daring lover, with adventurous pace,

DISTEMPER, in painting, a term used for workPursued his wishes in the dangerous race ; ing up of colors with something besides water or Like the swift hind the bounding damsel flies, oil. If the colors are prepared with water, that Strains to the goal ; the distanced lover dies. Gay. kind of painting is called limning; and if with "Tis by respect and distance that authority is upheld. oil, is called painting in oil, and simply painting.

Atterbury. If the colors are mixed with size, whites of eggs, The wondrous rock the Parian marble shone, or any such proper glutinous or unctuous matter, And seemed to distant sight of solid stone. Pope.

and not with oil, then they say it is done in disThe senses will discover things near us with suffici- temper. · ent exactness, and things distant also, so far as they DISTEND', v. a.

Fr. distendre ; relate to our necessary use.

Watts's Logick.

Drstent', n.s. & past. part. Lat. distendere ; The worse living authors fare now, the better they Disten’TION, n. s. from dis, asunder, will succeed with posterity; for the critics love the and tendere, to stretch. To stretch breadth-wise.




Some others were new driven and distent

Now, gentlemen, I go Into great ingols and to wedges square,

To turn an actor, and a humourist, Some in round plates withouten moniment.

Where, ere I do resume my present person,

Spenser. We hope to make the circles of your cyes Those arches are the gracefullest, which, keeping

Flow with distilled laughter. Ben Jonson. precisely the same height, shall yet be distended one Besides those grosser elements of bodies, salt, sulfourteenth part longer, which addition of distent will phur, and mercury, ingredients of a more subtle nature, confer much to their beauty, and detract but little extremely little, and not visible, may escape at the from their strength. Wotton. junctures of the distillatory vessels.

Buyle. Thus all day long the full distended clouds

The dew, which on the tender grass, Indulge their genial stores.


"The evening had distilled, Wind and distention of the bowels are signs of a

To pure rose-water turned was, bad digestion in the intestines; for in dead animals,

The shades with sweets that filled. when there is no digestion at all, the distention is in

Drayton. the greatest extremity.


From his fair head
Perfumes distil their sweets.

DISTICH, n. s. Fr. distique ; Ital. Span.
and Port. disticho; Lal. distichon ; Gr. Ôisixov, a

Water by frequent distillations changes into fixed earth.

Newton, song of two verses, i.e. övw two, and

τίχος Swords by the lightning's subtle force distilled, verse, from sexw to step, because ancient verses

And the cold sheath with running metal filled. were measured by the steps. A couplet; a cou

Addison. ple of lines; an epigram consisting only of two

When you set about composing, it may be necessary verses.

for your ease and better distillation of wit, to put on The French compare anagrams, by themselves, to your worst clothes, and the worse the better. gems; but when they are cast into a distich, or epi

Swift. Advice to a young Poet. gram, to gems enchased in enamelled gold.

In vain kind seasons swelled the tecming grain ;
Camden's Remains. Soft showers distilled, and suns grew warm in vain.
The bard, whose distich all commend,

Pope. In power, a servant; out of power, a friend, The Arabians invented distillation; and thus, by ob

taining the spirit of fermented liquors in a less diluted

Darwin. DISTICHIASIS, in surgery, a disease of the state, added to its destructive quality. eye-lids, when under the ordinary eye-lashes By act of parliament, distillers are not at liberty to

grows another extraordinary row of hair, draw off any low wines before they have charged which frequently eradicates the former, and their wash-stills with wash or wort. Hey's Gauger. pricking the membrane of the eye, excites pain,

We shall only bere remark, that when a wash-back, and brings on a defluxion. It is cured by pull- or other distillery utensil, cannot be accurately meaing out the second row of hairs with nippers, sured by any other mode, recourse must be had to the

method of equidistant ordinates.

1. and cauterising the pores out of which they issued.

Distillation is the art of separating the voDISTI'L v. a. & v. n.

Fr. distiller; Sp

latile and spirituous from the fixed and watery parts DistillA’TION, n. s.

destilar; Ital. des- of fermented liquors.
DISTIL'LATORY, adj. tillare ; Lat. distil When a fluid which has undergone the vinous
Disti'LLER, 1. S. lare, from stillo; Gr. fermentation is exposed to the action of heat,
DISTI'LLERY, n. s.& adj. salatw, to drop the vapor which arises from it is, when collected

To let fall in,

and condensed by the reduction of its temperareduce to, drops ; to extract spirit in drops by a ture, again converted into a fuis : but the fluid peculiar process; to diffuse. As a neuter verb, thus obtained is found to have different properto drop, or fall in drops; to flow gently; to use

ties to that from which it was derived, and it rea still. Distillation is the art of distilling; ceives the name of spirit. This spirit consists of distillatory, belonging to that art. Distiller, one water, and a peculiar fluid called alcohol. Alwho practises it: and distillery, the place of dis- cohol, in combination with more or less water, tilling; or, as an adjective, belonging to such a and flavored by the aroma of the different subplace. Distilment is used by Shakspeare for that stances from which it is obtained, forms brandy, which is produced by distillation.

rum, geneva, and all the various descriptions of

spirit known in commerce. The art of the disThey pour down rain, according to the vapour there- tiller consists in selecting the most convenient of, which the clouds do drop and distil upon man übundantly.

mode of heating the fermented fluid, and of con

Have I not been

densing the vapor it affords, while he prevents Thy pupil long; Hast thou not learned me how the intermixture with his products of whatever To make perfumes, distil, preserve ? Shakspeare.

would injure their flavor. To accomplish these There hangs a vapourous drop, profound;

purposes, although they are apparently simple, it I'll catch it ere it comes to ground;

is found that great care and skill are required. And that, distilled by magick slights,

The distillations performed by the chemist, Shall raise up articial sprights.

Id. with the retort, the 'alembic, the lamp-furnace, Upon my secure hour thy uncle stole, the pneumato-chemical and Woulfe's apparatus, And in the porches of mine ears did pour

for obtaining gaseous and volatile products in The leperous distilment.

Id. general, are essentially the same as the distillaThe Euphrates distilleth out of the mountains of tions conducted for the 'commercial purpose of krmenia, and falleth into the Iph of Persia. obtaining spirit; but the scale is different, the Raleigh's History. chemist having his whole apparatus so completely


under his eye that he can adjust the heat and ground: it is Prussian rye they employ. A little other circumstances with much nicety. In using, malt added to rye improves the flavor, but not the for example, when he has vapor to condense, the quantity of the spirit. lamp-furnace, a wet sponge placed on the beak of The substances from which spirit is obtained are the retort will suffice : but the commercial dis- usually barley, wheat, oats, rye, sugar, or molastiller requires, for the purpose of condensation, a In countries where the grape ripens in the large convoluted tube, passing through an im- open air, wine is distilled for this purpose: hence mense body of water, which must be constantly the superiority of the brandies of France; the renewed: the difference of scale, therefore, re- spirit afforded by good wines containing the finest quires more than a mere enlargement of the aroma of all products capable of yielding alcohol. apparatus, and there has in fact been found ample When grain is used it is malted according to the scope for improvements in the art.

usual process, like barley for brewing; and the The quantity and excellence of the spirit pro- fermentation is conducted in the same manner. duced by the French, in consequence of the al- After fermentation, the fluid intended to be terations they have made in the old method of distilled is called wash, and it is ready for the distilling (the most improved form of which, by still. Saintmarc, we shall presently describe), have de A still consists of a boiler, which contains the cisively shown the value of the new plans, wash; and a tube, in passing through which the which

may be adopted without the disadvantage vapors are condensed : the tube is convoluted, of increasing the first cost or complexity of the in order that it may have a great length in a moapparatus. They consist in the application of derate compass, and it is thence called the worm. Woulse's apparatus to this purpose. Wine being The boiler formerly used was a cylinder, the put into the boiler, and into all the intermediate height of which was in general one-half greater receivers between the boiler and the worm, the than its diameter; but the French, who have altube from the boiler plunges into the wine of ways been foremost in the improvements which the first receiver, to which it communicates suf- this art has received, have introduced a much suficient heat to raise its contents in vapor: this perior form. The height of the boiler has been vapor has the same effect on the wine of the considerably diminished, its width augmented, next receiver; and after the continuation of the and instead of being cylindrical it widens upward process through as many receivers as may be gradually to within about three or four inches of thought proper, the whole of the vapor finally ex the top; there the sides are curved into an arch, tricated is condensed in the usual way by passing and become narrower. nence its form is in fact through a worm. By this truly ingenious appara- similar to that of a common tea-kettle: the mouth tus, spirit of various degrees of concentration may cd, as is shewn in plate DistillATION, is of the be obtained at one operation, according as the pro- same diameter as the bottom ab. To the boiler is duct of the first, the second, or any other receiver fitted a conical head, in the interior of which, is taken; the consumption of fuel is extremely round the lower edge, is a channel, destined to small, the product excellent, as well as greater in receive the liquid condensed against the sides, quantity than by any other means; and by using and which, instead of returning to the boiler, is water instead of wine, in the boiler, the possibi- conveyed into the worm. In the old construclity of an empyreumatic taste is prevented. tion the head communicated with the worm by

In distilling from grain an oil is apt to come an inclined tube of a very small diameter; but over, which injures the taste of the spirits ; it is now the tube in this situation, at its base fg, is as usual to keep it back hy adding a little sulphuric wide as the head, and diminishes in diameter as acid to the wash.

it approaches the worm, into which it opens. AnoThe comparative salubrity of the spirit or ge- ther important difference, between the improved neva made in Holland is notorious, and it has boiler and the old one, consists in the shape of been supposed that nothing like it can be pro- the bottom: the old ones were flat; this is conduced in this country; put it appears to be cave. By this means the heat received is nearly entirely the result of the care they take in their equal at every point directly exposed to the fire; processes. They use the most perfect grain, and and, as the bottom is convex within the sediment use it only when perfectly malted, aware that a from the wash falls round its edge, where, from fourth part more spirit is obtained from such its resting on the brick-work and not receiving grain than from that of which the germination the direct heat, it is not liable, from being burnt, has been checked too soon, or suffered to continue to give an empyreumatic taste to the spirit. Two too long. The best Hollands is prepared from inches of the circumference of the bottom rest on wheat, which is the fittest grain for this use, and brick-work. The boiler is filled by the aperis more productive than barley; but rye yields ture o. about one-third more spirit than wheat, and is In the old construction of the furnace the heat more extensively used in Holland. The fermen was applied only to the bottom of the boiler; tation is continued about three days: the first and a further loss was sustained by placing, as is distillation is extremely slow, and the observation still common in furnaces generally, the centre of of this point is essential ; the second distillation the grate under the centre of the boiler: without or rectification is done with juniper berries. The reflecting that the stream of air towards the most rigid cleanliness is observed, and the ves. chimney always carries the heat and flame in an sels are cleansed with lime-water instead of soap, oblique direction towards the end of the boiler. which would give the liquor a urinous taste. At present the end of the grate next the chimney They use the rye grown on a calcareous soil, is not placed further back than the middle of the and never, if they can avoid it, that of fat clayey boiler, and the heated air is conducted round the

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