Imagens das páginas

In handling the right of a war, I am not willing to in our minds, y'et there is no such medium in things intermix matter doubtful with that which is out of themselves.

Watts. doubt ; for, as in capital causes, wherein but one man's

Hippocrates commends the filesh of the wild sow life is in question, the evidence ought to be clear ; 80 above the tame; and no doubt but the animal is more much more in a judgment upon a war, which is capi

or less healthy, according to the air it lives in. tal to thousands.


Arbuthnot on Alimenta. Whatsoever a man imagineth doubtingly, or with Should reason guide thee with her brightest ray, fear, must needs do hurt, if imagination have any

And pour on misty doubt resistless day; power at all; for a man representeth that oftener that

Yet hope not life from grief or danger free, he feareth, than the contrary.

Id. Natural History.

Nor think the doom of man reversed for thee. Solyman said he had 'hitherto made war against

Johnson. Vanity of Human Wishes. divers nations, and always had the victory, whereof If I were to form a judgment from experience rather he doubted not now also.

than theory, I should doubt much whether the capaKnolles's History of the Turks.

city for, or even the possession of, a seat in parliament, What fear we then, why doubt we to incense did really convey much of power to be properly called His utmost ire ?


Burke. He from the terror of this arm so late

But dreadful is their doom, when doubt has driven Doubted his empire.

Id. Paradise Lost.

To censure Fate and pious Hope forego : Thus they their doubtful consultations ended.

Like yonder blasted boughs by lightning riven, Milton.

Perfection, beauty, life, they never know; We have sustained one day in doubtful fight,

But frown on all that pass, a monument of woe. What heaven's high Lord had powerfullest. Id.

Beattie. I doubt not to make it appcar, to be a monstrous Here Cocks heroic burn with rival rage, folly to deride holy things.


And Quails with Quails in doubtful fight engage; All their desires, deserts, or expectations, the Of armed heels and bristling plumage proud, Conqueror had no other means to satisfy, but by the They sound the’insulting clarion shrill and loud. estates of such as had appeared open enemies to him,

Darwin. and doubtless many innocent persons suffered in this Well was taught my brow that pride serene kind.

Hale's Common Law.

Which looks no triumph where no doubt had been; Nor did the goddess doubtfully declare That easy scorn, all tranquil as before, Her altered mind, and alienated care. Dryden. Which speaks no insult, and insults the more ; At first the tender blades of grass appear,

And with calm air, the surest to torment, And buds, that yet the blast of Eurus fear,

Steals angry Spite's last torment, to resent. Stand at the door of life and doubt to clothe the

Dr. T. Brown. year. Id.

Doubting, the act of withholding our assent Those who have examined it, are thereby got past from any proposition on suspicion that we are doubt in all the doctrines they profess. Locke,

not able peremptorily to decide between the In arguing, the opponent uses as comprehensive reasons for and against it. Doubting is distinand equivocal terms as he can, to involve bis adver- guished by the schoolmen into two kinds, dubisary in the doubtfulness of his expressions : and tatio sterilis, and dubitatio efficax. The former therefore the answerer, on his side, makes it his play is that where no determination ensues: in this to distinguish as much as he can.

Id. Let no man, while he lives here in the world, withhold their assent from everything. See

manner the Sceptics and Academics doubt, who doubt whether there is any hell or no, and thereupon Sceptics, &c. The latter is followed by judglive so, as if absolutely there were none. South.

ment, which distinguishes truth from falsehood; In doubtful cases, reason still determines for the such is the doubting of the Peripatetics and Carsafer side ; especially if the case be not only doubtful, tesians. The last in particular perpetually inbut also highly concerning, and the venture be a soul culcate the deceitfulness of our senses, and tell and an eternity.


us that we are to doubt of every one of their Doubtless many men are finally lost, who yet have no men's sins to answer for but their own.


reports, till they have been examined and confirmed by reason.

On the other hand the EpiCan we conclude upon Luther's instability, because in a single notion, no way fundamental, an enemy

cureans teach, that our senses always tell truth; writes that he had some doubtings ? Atterbury.

and that if we go ever so little from them we come The king did all his courage bend

within the province of doubting. Against those four which now before him were,

Doubting, in rhetoric, a figure wherein the Doubting not who behind him doth attend. Daniel. orator appears some time fluctuating, and unde

termined what to do or say.

Tacitus furnishes This is enough for a project, without any name; I doubt more than will be reduced into practice. Swift.

us with an instance of doubting, almost to a deMost of his philosophy is in broken sentences, de- written to the senate: Quid scribam, P. S. aut

gree of distraction, in those words of Tiberius livered with much doubtfulness. Baker on Learning. To teach vain wits a science little known,

quomodo scribam, aut quid omnino non scribam To admire superior sense, and doubt their own.

hoc tempore, dii me deæque pejus perdant quam Pope.

perire quotidie sentio, si scio.

DOUCET', ns. Fr. doucet. A custard. Doubtless, oh guest! great laud and praise were mine,

This word I find only in Skinner and Ainsworth, If after social rites and gifts bestowed,

says Dr. Johnson. The Archælog., vol. xv., I stained my hospitable hearth with blood.

mentions it frequently as a part of the diet of Id. Odyssey.

Charles I. when duke of York. Though doubtfulness or uncertainty seems to be a DOUCINE, in architecture, a moulding, conmediuin between certain truth and certain falschood cave above and convex below, serving commonly

as a cymatium to a delicate corniche. It is like- that the Watling Street entered it near the old wise called Gula.

Biggen-gate. DOUCK'ER, n. s. Colymbus ; from To douck, That the ancient Britons possessed it as a corrupted from To duck. A bird that dips in the military post, anterior to the Roman conquest, is water.

also extremely probable: and that the Romans The colymbi, or doruckers, or loons, are admirably fortified and adapted it to their system of tactics conformed fordiving, being covered with thick is universally admitted. The old tradition, quoted plumage, and their feathers so slippery that water and confirmed by Mr. King in his Munimenta cannot moisten tbem.


Antiqua, vol. ii., is, that · Arviragus, the British DOVE, n. s.

Goth. dufa; Sax. duu, chief, here fortified himself, when he refused to Dove'coTE, Swed. dufwa ; Arm. dube :

pay the tribute imposed by Julius Cæsar; and Dove'HOUSE, perhaps from Heb. 27, to that here, afterwards, king Arthur also held his Dove'like, adj. murmur (Parkhurst), or residence.' Darrell, in his History of Dover

Dove'talled, adj.) from Gr. devw, to purify; Castle, has given currency to another tradition, for the Lat. columba, a dove, is formed from which assigns the foundation of this fortress to solvußis, a diver. A bird of the COLUMBA ge- Cæsar : and Lambard quotes Lidgate and Rosse, nus, which see: a dovecote and dovehouse both

as saying, that they of the castle kept till this mean a habitation for doves.

day certeine vessels of olde wine and salte, which And whanne Jhesus was baptisid, auoon he wente they affirme to be the remayne of suche provision up fro the watir, and lo hevenes weren openod to as he (Cæsar) brought into it.' Cæsar's own narhim: and he saw the Spirit of God comynge downe as rative, however, would lead us to no such cona doure and comynge on him. Wiclif. Matt. iii. clusion. He speaks of being repulsed by the

So shews a snowy dove trooping with crows, inhabitants of this part of Kent; and most probaAs yonder lady o'er her fellows shows.

bly landed, in his first expedition, at Deal. Shakspeare. Romeo and Juliet.

The Roman writers, indeed, do not affect to speak Like an eagle in a dovecot, I

of him as having made any conquest here, but Fluttered your Volscians in Corioli; Alone I did it.

Id. Coriolanus.

merely as having led the way into Britain : et, Love! thou’rt blinder than thyself in this,

Territa quæsitis ostendit terga Britann is. To vex my dore-like friend for my amiss,

The fortifications, and all the works we can And when one sad truth may expiate

now trace of the Romans, upon the hill, near Thy wrath, to make her fortune run my fate.

Dover, are bounded by the deep ditch, and it

Donne. Pampblets are the weekly almanacks, shewing what

will be a vain attempt to search after any miliweather is in the state, which, like the doves of Aleppo, tary works of that people in the castle beyond it.

The form of the camp, the ditch, the parapet, carry news to every part of the kingdom.

T. Ford. 1647. and the octagon building, all point out the hand he doce is sent forth, a fowl both swift and simple. of the Roman engineer and architect. It was She, like a true citizen of the ark, returns.

common for them, where the ground would adBp. Hall. Contemplations. mit of it, to make their camp in the form of a Thou from the first

parallelogram, with the angles rounded off, and Wast present, and with mighty wings outspread, to secure it witn a deep ditch and a high parapet : Dote-like, sat'st brooding on the vast abyss, and this appears to have been the original plan And mad'st it pregnant.


of the Roman camp on this hill, before it was The hawk sets up for protector, and makes havock altered, either by the Saxons or the Normans. in the dovehouse.

L'Estrange. When a man is made up wholly of the dove, with of Dover; and, soon after their conversion to

The former, at an early period, became masters out the least grain of the serpent in his composition, Christianity, the ancient church within the walls be becomes ridiculous in many circumstances of life, and very often discredits his best actions. Addison.

of the castle is said to have been consecrated by He made an administration so chequered and St. Augustine, at the request of king Ethelbert, speckled; he put together a piece of joinery so crossly whose son and successor, Eadhald, founded a indeated and whimsically dove-tailed; a cabinet 'so college near it for secular canons.

In the reign variously inlaid; such a piece of diversified mosaic; of Edward the Confessor, if not before, the great such a tesselated pavement without cement, &c. earl Goodwin was governor of the castle, and is

Character of Lord Chatham. said to have strengthened it by new fortifications. Dove, in geography, a river of England, in It is well known that William the Norinan, when Derbyshire, which rises in the Peak, divides that he was contriving the conquest of England, recounty from Staffordshire, and falls into the Trent, fused to permit earl Harold to depart from Rouen, four miles north of Burton.

until he had bound him by a solemn oath to deDOVE-DALE, one of the most romantic spots liver up, after Edward's death, the castle of in Derbyshire, where the Dove runs in a chasm Dover, with the well of water in it.' between precipitous rocks. It is situated near Domesday Book informs us that, “in the time Ashborn

of king Edward, Dovere paid £18, of which sum DOVER, a cinque-port, sea-port, and market Edward had two parts, and the earl Goodwin the town of Kent, is a place of considerable historical third part of one moiety, and the canons of St. and topographical interest. Camden and others Martin the other. The burgesses have furnished suppose it to derive its name from the British the king with twenty ships once in each year for word Dwfyrrha, which signifies a steep place : fifteen days, and in each ship were twenty-one the Saxons called it Dorfa, and Antoninus, in his men; this they had done because he had freed Itinerary, Dubris. It is probable that the Roman them from sac and soc. Whoever constantly town stood on the south side of the Dour, and resided in the town, and paid custom to the VOL. VII.

2 F


king, was quit of toll throughout England. All successively called after William de Peveril and these customs were in use there when king Hugh de Beauchamp, ancient commanders, and William came into England.' For several the marshalmen who had the superintendence of succeeding centuries, Dover Castle was re- military stores, &c. 8. Port, or Porth's tower, garded as the key and barrier of the whole which took its name from William de Porth, and kingdom ;'and, in every civil broil, the possession was also called Gasting's, froin one of its captains; of this fortress was eagerly sought. Henry II., but now bears the name of Mary's tower, from on his arrival from Normandy, rebuilt the keep, queen Mary, by whom it was re-built. 9. Fiennes and fortified the castle, on the Norman pian, tower, as it was originally named, after Sir John so that its strength was materially increased. Fiennes, now more generally called New-gate, to Louis, the dauphin, besieged it when he landed distinguish it from the ancient entrance; and Conto assist the barons, in the reign of king John; stable's tower, from its having been the occabut was repulsed with great loss, by Hubert de sional residence of the constable or governor of Burgh, then governor.

the castle. 10. Clopton's tower, built by EdIn the civil wars of the seventeenth century, ward IV., and deriving its name from the lord of it was seized for the parliament, hy a merchant a manor assigned for its repair. 11. Godsfoe named Drake, who, on the night of August 1st, tower, so called from an ancient commander. 1642, took it by surprise, with the aid of ten or 12. Crevequer's, Craville's, or the earl of Nor. twelve men only. Ile contrived, by the means folk's tower, a work of great magnificence, which of ropes and scaling ladders, to lead his party to has a subterraneous passage leading to a vault of the top of the cliff on the sea-side, which, being vast extent, and strongly defended: 13. Fitzconsidered as inaccessible, was left unguarded. William's, or St. John's tower, which derived its After these commotions had subsided, this ancient former name from Adam Fitz-William, to whom, pile was, for upwards of a century, left to moulder for his valor at the battle of Hastings, the coninto ruins; though, in 1745, harracks had been queror gave the scarf from his own arm, and its built here sufficiently large to contain a regiment latter name from lord St. John, who held the of soldiers. The wars of the french revolution, lands allotted to it. 14. Averanche's, or Maunhowever, and the many threats of invasion then sel's tower, a fine remain of Norman workmanthrown out, occasioned a great alteration in the ship, so named from Averanche, an ancient comdefences of this coast; and Dover Castle has been mander of this castle, and his successor Maunsel, put in modern times into a respectable state of who was lord warden of the cinque-ports in the defence.

reign of Henry III. 15. Veville, or Pincester It at present consists of an immense mass of tower, so called from two of its commanders, the almost every kind of fortification; and is divided latter of whom assisted Hubert De Burgh in the into two courts, a lower and an upper, defended defence of the castle against the Dauphin. 16. into by deep, broad, and dry ditches, from which Earl Goodwin's tower, built by that nobleman communications with the inner towers have been when governor of the castle. The upper court, made by subterraneous passages. The buildings like the lower one, is surrounded by a strong wali occupy nearly the whole summit of the eminence and various towers; and near the centre stands the which bounds the south-east side of the deep val- spacious keep, erected in the beginning of Henry ley in which Dover stands; the lower court is sur- III.'s reign. This building is in fine preservarounded by an irregular wall, excepting on the tion, and is constructed on a similar plan to those side next the sea, where a considerable part of built by bishop Gundulph, and particularly to the cliff, with the remainder of the wall, was that at Rochester. It is now used as a magazine, thrown down by an earthquake on the 6th of the roof having been rendered bomb-proof. On April, 1680. This wall is called the curtain, and the eastern side of this court are three towers, is flanked, at unequal distances, by a variety of which derive their pames from Gilbert de Mamitowers of different shapes, semi-circular, square, not, or Mainmouth, who was one of the knights polygonal, &c., the workmanship

. of different that accompanied the conqueror to England, and ages. The oldest of them, which is on the eas was appointed marshal of this castle by John de tern side of the castle, bears the name of earl Fiennes : these towers command the whole vallum Goodwin. Nine of the other towers are stated and ascent leading to the principal entrance to to have been built in Norman times, and to have this court; near the south angle of which is derived their names from Sir John de Fiennes, another entrance, by a gate called Palace, or and the eight approved warriors whom he had Subterranean Gate. selected to assist in the defence of this fortress. The new works recently formed for the deThese towers, according to their relative situa- fence of this fortress consist of different batteries, tion on the wall, beginning from the cliff on the furnished with a very formidable train of artillery, western side, are: 1. The Old, or Canons' tower, casemates dug in the solid chalk-rock, magazines, which anciently had a drawbridge and battery. covered-ways, and various subterranean commu2. A pentagonal tower, originally named after nications and apartments for soldiery: the latter its first commander Albrancis, but afterwards are sufficiently spacious for the accommodation Rokesly tower, from one of its captains. 3. of about 2000 men, and, with their inhabitants, Chilhair, or Calderscot tower, built hy Fulbert form a very curious spectacle: light and air are de Lucy, lord of the manor and castle of Chil- conveyed into them by well-like apertures cut in ham. 4. Hurst. 5. Arsic, or Sayes. 6. Gat- the chalk, and by other openings in the face of

These three were named after the cliffs. A new road has also been made, adjacent manors appropriated to their repairs. under the direction of the Board of Ordnance, 7. Peveril, Beauchamp, or Marshal's tower, so from the town to the top of the hill, where it

ton tower.

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joins the Deal road, in a direction to be com the idea of captain Perry, in his report after & manded by the batteries. A branch from this survey in 1718, several jetties have been erected road turns to the right nearly opposite Gatton towards the east, to prevent the encroachments Tower, and enters the castle by a new bridge and of the sea. In 1737 the mole or cross wall was gate. Near the edge of the cliff stands a piece faced with Portland stone, and several flood-gates of brass ordnance, twenty-four feet long, cast at or sluices were constructed in it. When the tide Utrecht in 1544, and called Queen Elizabeth's had receded from the mouth of the outer harbour Pocket Pistol.

the immense back-water. confined by these Dover Castle occupies altogether about thirty- sluices, was conveyed through them, to dislodge five' acres of ground: the hill on which it stands the beach that accumulates at its entrance is very steep and rugged on the side of the town During a violent storm, in 1802, several rods of and harbour; and towards the sea it is a com- the north-pier head were beaten down by the fury plete precipice of upwards of 320 feet from its of the waves. This was immediately rebuilt, in base on the shore. But it is commanded by a most substantial inanner, under the inspection higher eminences both to the north-west hy west of Mr. James Moon, the present harbour-master. and south west. Like other royal castles, it was A dry dock, and several other extensive and imformerly both extra-parochial and extra-judicial; portant works, have also been completed under but, as several of the ancient franchises are either the direction of this able and ingenious gentlelost or disused, the civil power has of late years man. The back-water, which formerly lost its been exercised within its limits, independently of force in passing through the outer harbour, 18 any control from the warden. At the renewal of now carried round it, in cast-iron culverts or the war, in 1803, the heights on the western side tunnels, seven feet in diameter, to the extremity of the town were strongly fortified, agreeably to of the south-pier head, where it branches off in the modern system, and a new military road lead- directions, and effectually removes the beach ing to them made. Other fortifications here are from the entrance of the harbour, during the Archliff Fort, at the extremity of the pier, and spring tides. These works were accomplished Amherst Battery, at the north Pier-head: these, by Mr. Moon in 1822. The depth at spring acting in conjunction with the heights and castle, tides is now between eighteen and twenty feet, entirely command the road to the town.

and at neap tides about fourteen; so that ships The harbour of Dover was evidently at one of 400 or 500 tons may enter in safety. time considerably more inland, particularly The town of Dover was formerly defended by towards the north-east. At what period the an a strong embattled wall, which included a space cient haven became useless is not known, but it of about half a mile square, and in which were was a flourishing harbour in Edward the Con- ten gates; though not a trace of the wall or gates fessor's time. A round tower was built on the now remains, except of the foundation in some south-west side of the present harbour, A.D. places. From the hills above, the town has an 1500, to protect the shipping from the violence interesting appearance. It extends in contrary of the south-west winds: to this tower it is said directions, to the east, south-west, and north, the vessels were moored by rings; and the haven three long streets meeting at one point in the was called Little Paradise. In 1533 Sir J. centre. There were formerly six parishes, each Thompson, then holding the living, first pro- of which had its distinct church ; four of these jected a pier at Dover, which was begun at Arch- edifices have long been destroyed, with the excliff, on the south-west side of the bay, and ception of some parts of those of St. Nicholas and carried out directly eastward into the sea, to an St. Martin-le-Grand; and the town is now diextent of 131 rods. The bottom was laid with vided into the two parishes of St. Mary the Virvaststones, of twenty tons weight, brought from gin, and St. James the Apostle. Great part of Folkstone hy water. The king himself came the priory buildings still remains : a Maison Dieu, several times to Dover to view the works, and is or hospital, on the left of the entrance to the stated by Ilarris to have expended about £80,000 town, was endowed by Hubert de Burgh, the on this pier. Attempts were made in the two great justiciary of England, about the beginning following reigns to forward the work, but no ef- of the reign of Henry III.; after the dissolution, fectual advance was made till the time of Eliza- this was converted by queen Mary into an office beth, to whom Sir Walter Raleigh presented a for victualling the navy, to which use it was apmemorial, stating that “no promontory, town, propriated up to the close of the late war. In or haven, in Christendom, is so placed hy nature times of war, all ships in the downs, belonging to and situation, both to gratify friends and annoy the royal navy, are supplied hence by vessels enenemies, as this town of Dover.' An immense gaged for that purpose. quantity of beach thrown up by the sea, had St. Mary's, the principal cnurch of modern formed a bar across the harbour in her reign, times, is a spacious and curious edifice, in length which totally impeded the passage. The queen about 120 feet, in breadth fifty-five, consisting of therefore now granted the town the free exporta- a nave and aisles, with a tower at the west end. tion of 30,000 quarters of wheat, 10,000 quarters It is said to have been huilt by the priory and of barley, and 4000 tons of beer, in aid of the convent of St. Martin, in the year 1216. The expense; and for the same purpose a duty of 3d. west front is of Norman architecture, as are also per ton was laid on every vessel passing this the first three arches and their supporting columns port above twenty tons burden : this duty pro- on each side of the nave. Two years after the duced about £1000 annually in 24 and 25 Eliz. dissolution, this church, which had previously Its repairs have been since provided for hy seve- belonged to the Maison Dieu, was ral grants and acts of parliament. Agreeably 10 parishioners by Henry VII., who was then at

iven to the

Dover; and every house-keeper, paying scot and which want of space alone compels us thus to lot, has now a right to vote in the election of a pass over), or prospects more interesting. Shaksminister. The other church, St. James's, is an peare's beautiful description of the cliff that bears irregular structure, and its interior, which is kept his name, on the south-west of the harbour, is particularly neat and clean, displays its origin well known. to have been Norman: it has a square tower, Dover, a considerable township of the United built in arches, directly over the centre of the States, in Stafford county, New Hampshire; innorth aisle, and the pulpit is placed under it. corporated in 1633. It is situated on the south

This town is governed by mayor, twelve side of Cochecto River, about four miles above jurats, and thirty-six common-council-men; from its junction with Salmon Fall River, which togethe latter of whom a town-clerk and chamberlain ther form the Piscataqua. Ten miles south by are annually chosen. The mayor was formerly east of Rochester. elected by the resident freemen, in St. Mary's Dover, a large township of New Jersey, in church, on the 8th of September, the nativity of Monmouth county, between Shrewsbury and New the Virgin. The two members of parliament were Stafford, extending from the sea to the county also chosen in St. Mary's church by the whole line. body of freemen, resident and non-resident, in Dover, a township of Massacnusetts, in Nor. number about 2300. But in 1826 these elections folk county, incorporated in 1650. It lies filwere removed by act of parliament to the town teen miles southward of Boston. hall, or to hustings erected in the market place. Dover, the metropolis of Delaware state, in Freedom is acquired by birth, 'servitude, mar Kent connty, on the south-west side of Jones riage, and burgage tenure: the franchise obtained Creek, about four miles and a half north-west by marriage ceases at the death of the wife, and from its mouth, in the Delaware ; twelve miles that by tenure at the alienation of the freehold. from Duck Creek; forty-eight from Wilmington;

Both in times of peace and war the trade of and seventy-six S. S. W. of Philadelphia. This Dover is extensive; this being the principal town has a lively appearance, and drives on a place of embarkation for the continent. From considerable trade with Philadelphia, chiefly in thirty to forty vessels, exclusive of packets, are flour. employed in the passage to the opposite shores : Dover, a small town in York county, Pennsylsome are from sixty to seventy tons burden each; vania, seated on the Fox Run. and have been considered as the handsomest Dover, STRAITS OF, the narrow channel sloops in the kingdom. They have frequently between Dover and Calais, which separates Great reached Calais, with a favorable wind, in three Britain from the French coast.

Britain is suphours : the shortest passage ever known was two posed by many to have been once peuinsulated, hours and forty minutes. Several steam vessels the present straits occupying the site of the isthare now also employed in the passage to the con mus which joined it to Gaul. “No certain cause,' tinent, which, as well as his majesty's steam says Mr. Pennant, in his Arct. Zool. lol l. packets stationed here, well sustain the honor of Introd. p. ii., 'can be given for the mighty conthe ports for elegant accommodations. In the vulsion which tore us from this continent; year 1778 an act was obtained for the better whether it was rent by an earthquake, or whether paving, cleansing, lighting, and watching the it was worn through by the continual dashing of iown; and, in 1822, an act was passed to light the waters. The correspondency of strata,' he it with gas, which has been very completely car- adds, on part of the opposite shores of Britain ried into effect: so that Dover may now be said and France, leaves no room to doubt but that they to be, on the whole, well paved and lighted. were once united. The chalky cliffs of Blancnez

Dover is distant seventy-two miles from Lon- between Calais and Bologne, and those to the don, sixteen from Canterbury, twenty-two from westward of Dover, exactly tally: the last are Margate, and eighty-eight from Brighton. It has vast and continued; the former short, and the tertwo weekly markets, viz. on Wednesday and mination of the immense bed. Between Bologne Saturday; the latter being the principal. There and Folkstone (about six miles from the latter) is is an annual fair, which begins on ihe 22d day another memorial of the junction of the two of November, and continues three market days. countries; a narrow submarine hill, called the The number of persons of all ranks passing Rip-raps, about a quarter of a mile broad, and through the town, is generally very great. In- ten miles long, extending eastwards towards the cluding the garrison of Dover Castle, and the Goodwin Sands. Its materials are boulder-stones, heights, together with those districts of other adventitious to many strata. The depth of water parishes which form a part of the town, the popu- on it, in very low spring rides, is only fourteen lation may, with much probability, be fixed at feet. The fishermen from Folkstone have often from 16,000 to 18,000. It has of late become a touched it with a fifteen feet oar; so that it is favorite watering place. Numerous lodging justly the dread of navigators. Many a tall ship houses have been erected, and fitted up in an has perished on it, and sunk instantly into twenelegant style, for the accommodation of visitors, ty-one fathoms of water. In July, 1782, the and many others are in progress. During the Belleisle of sixty-four guns struck, and lay on it bathing season, musical promenades are estab- during three hours; but, by starting her beer and lished at Batcheller's King's Arms Library and water, got clear off.' These celebrated straits are Assembly Rooms, and at Warren's Marine Li- only twenty-one miles wide in the narrowest part: brary. The former is an extensive and elegant from the pier at Dover to that of Calais twentystructure, and was finished in 1826. No place four. It is said that their breadth is diminishcan boast of local attractions more numerous (and ing, and that they are two miles narrower than

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