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country on each side of the Nile, as far as Sen- it is proclaimed by a public crier throngh the naar, under his subjection, and for this purpose streets of Cairo. About this time it has usually he sent an army, under his youngest son Ismael. risen five or six cubits; and, when it has risen Of the activity and rapid progress of this young to sixteen, great rejoicings are made, and people officer, his humanity and traits of generosity cry out Waffah Allah, i. e. God has given abuntowards his prisoners and the conquered inha- dance. This commonly takes place about the bitants, several instances are recorded. One end of July, or before the 20th of August; and single act of severity, however, proved fatal to the sooner it takes place, so much the greater him. He had ordered, when at Sennaar, one are the hopes of a good crop. Sometimes, of the chiefs of that country to be bastinadoed, though rarely, the necessary increase does not who seized the first favorable occasion to avenge take place till later. In 1705 it did not swell himself. Ismael had gone to a village at some to sixteen cubits till the 19th of September, the little distance from Sennaar, with a small guard consequence of which was, that the country was of forty men; the chief, with a party, followed depopulated by famine and pestilence. We may him thither, and, surprising his lodgings by easily imagine, that the Nile cannot overflow the night, stabbed him to the heart with a poniard, whole country of itself, in such a manner as to and most of his guards fell in the scuffle. render it fertile. There are, therefore, innume
One of the objects of this expedition was that rable canals cut from it across the country, by of recruiting his army with the blacks of Sennaar, which the water is conveyed to distant places, Shendy, Kordofan, and the neighbouring coun- and almost every town and village has one of tries, which was accomplished to the number of these canals. In those parts of the country from 16,000 to 18,000 men. These unhappy which the inundation does not reach, and where beings were all of them, in the first place, vac more water is required than it can furnish, as cinated, and were then instructed in manual ex- for watering of gardens, &c., they have recourse ercise and military evolutions, in the European to artificial means for raising it from the river. mode, by some French officers. The hopes of Formerly they made use of Archimedes's screw, the pacha, however, were greatly disappointed in. but now, in place of it, they have the Persian these black troops. They were strong able- wheel. This is a large wheel turned by oxen, bodied men, and not averse from being taught; having a rope hung with several buckets which but when attacked by disease, which soon broke fill as it goes round, and empty into a cistern at out in the camp, they died like sheep infected the top. Where the banks of the river are high, with the rot; such was the dreadful mortality that they frequently make a basin in the side of them, ensued, that, out of 18,000 of these unfortunate near which they fix an upright pole, and another men, 3000 did not remain alive at the end of two with an axle across the top of that, at one end years.
of which they hang a great stone, and at the He now had recourse to a regular conscrip- other a leathern bucket; this bucket, being drawn tion of the Arabs or Fellahs, of whom he seized down into the river by two men, is raised by about 30,000 indiscrimately, and had them con- the descent of the stone, and emptied into a veyed to Upper Egypt under a military guard. cistern placed at a proper height. This kind of These, with the remains of the black slaves, a machine is used chiefly in the upper parts of few Berbers, and the Mameluke officers, com- the country, where the raising of water is more pose the pacha's present army. Twelve Euro- difficult than in places near the sea. peans, chiefly Italians, were employed as instruc- of their gardens or plantations want water, it is tors; at their head is placed colonel Léve, conveyed from the cisterns into little trenches, formerly aid-de-camp to Marshall Ney. A and from thence conducted all round the beds new conscription took place in 1814, of 15,000 in various rills, which the gardener easily stops more, it being the intention of Mohammed Aly by raising the mould against them with his foot, to keep up an army of 40,000 men, one batta- and diverts the current another way as he sees lion of which is to be stationed at Alexandria, occasion. The rise of the inundation is meato be trained as marines for his navy, which is sured by an instrument adapted for the purpose, to consist of forty vessels of different rates, the called mikeas, which we translate nilometer. It seamen being entirely Arabs. His adoption of is a round tower near Cairo, with an apartment, European tactics has been thought by some in the middle of which is a cistern neatly lined travellers to be preparatory to throwing off his with marble. The bottom of this cistern reaches allegiance to the Porte, to whom it is supposed to that of the river, and there is a large opening, he has given irreparable offence by his former by which the water has free access to the inside. protection of the Greeks: he has lately, how- The rise of the water is indicated by an octaever, made the amende honorable, we presume, gonal column of blue and white marble, on by his expedition against the Greeks; and his which are marked twenty cubits of twenty-two presents to the Porte have been splendid and inches each. The two lowermost have no subconstant.
divisions, but each of the rest is divided into We again advert to the statistical and other twenty-four parts, called digits; the whole peculiarities of this interesting country, with a heighi of the pillar being thirty-six feet eight view to furnishing the reader with the latest inches. When the river has attained its proper information of travellers on these points. height, all the canals are opened, and the whole
The nver Nile, when swelled by the rains country laid under water. During the time of which ta.t in A begins to rise in Egypt the inundation a certain vertical motion of the about the month of May; but the increase is in- waters takes place; but, notwithstanding this, considerable till towards the end of June, when the Nile is so easily managed, that many fields
Cower than the surface of its waters are preserved trial, were sold at the rate of from 11d. to 13d. from injury merely by a dam of moistened per pound. Some thousand bales hare, in the earth, not more than eight or ten inches in thick- interval, been sent to France, Italy, and the ness. This method is used particularly in the South of Germany. In 1823 the crop was so Delta when it is threatened with a flood. As abundant that, after supplying the demands of the Nile does not always rise to a height suffi- the countries bordering on the Mediterranear, cient for the purposes of agriculture, the former it is calculated that at least 50,000 bags may be sovereigns of Egypt were at vast pains to cut exported to England in the course of the present proper canals to supply the deficiency. Those year; and the pacha is still extending the culture which convey the water to Cairo, into the pro- of this useful plant, on tracts of country long vince of Fayoom, and to Alexandria, have neglected, by clearing out the ancient canals always been best taken care of by the govern- and digging others, which communicate with the ment.
Nile ; so that the crop of 1824 was expected to The lands inundated by the Nile, as we have double that of the preceding, and in future observed, are exceedingly fertile; and though years will, in all probability, equal the whole of they have successively from year to year, with- what is now imported from America, to which it out intermission, borne one and frequently two is by no means inferior. This new source of crops, and without any rational system of in- supply acquires additional importance from the vigoration by manure or otherwise, for more consideration, that it will be brought to England than 3000 years, they still continue to do the in British shipping, and will lead to a material same without any perceptible impoverishment, increase of our export trade to Egypt. and without any further tillage than the adven Mohammed has recently engaged himself in sitious top-dressing of black slimy mould, by opening the ancient canals and digging new the overflowing of the river. But the produc- ones. Among these the canal of Mahmoudiah tiveness of the soil, where the inundation does is particularly deserving of notice, and connects not reach, has been greatly over-rated. The the harbour of Alexandria with the Nile, at crops of wheat in particular are scanty, not Fouah; by which the whole produce of Egypt above five or six for one ; but for maize and can be brought without danger or interruption dourra, or millet, the soil appears to be pecu- to the port of shipment. In the winter of 1817, liarly adapted; and these two species of grain, when a scarcity of grain prevailed all over with rice, lentils, and various kinds of pulse, Europe, ships flocked to Egypt where there was constituting the principal food of nine-tenths of abundance; but owing to the bar at the mouth the inhabitants, allowed the government, who of the Nile, near Rosetta, and the tempestuous usurped the monopoly, to export the greater part weather along the coast, none of it could be conof, the wheat produced. Since the peace of veyed in time to the vessels that were waiting at Europe, however, this branch of commerce has Alexandria, to the number of 300 sail, some of nearly ceased, in consequence of the increased which ultimately departed with half cargoes, and cultivation of that grain in other countries. At others went away in ballast; thus the losses beone period not less than 800 or 900 European came incalculable, and the disputes endless. It vessels annually sailed from Alexandria, for was now that the advantages of a navigable Marseilles, Genoa, Leghorn, Trieste, Malta, and canal were seen by the pacha, who accordingly Constantinople, freighted with articles of raw set about the stupendous undertaking. All the produce in exchange for hard money or for the laboring classes of Lower Egypt were pot in manufactures of those respective countries; requisition, and a month's pay advanced them to while two or three cargoes were all that could be provide biscuit and provisions. To each village got together for England. But, in the year 1821, and district was marked out the work allotted to an experiment was made by an English mer- it. The Arabs were marched down in thousands chant, of a cargo of linseed for crushing; when and tens of thousands, under their respective it was found that, notwithstanding the freight chiefs, along the line of the intended canal; and, (on account of the greater distance) doubled however exaggerated it inay appear, we have the that which is paid from Russia, it would answer best authority for stating that the number enas a return for British exports, if relieved from ployed at one time exceeded 250,000 men. In the heavy quarantine duty, to which Baltic seed about six weeks the whole excavation was completis not subject; this duty was accordingly miti- ed, and the people returned home to their respective gated by the lords of the treasury, and, in con- occupations; but in the autumn a few thousands sequence, the exportation direct from Egypt to were called upon to face parts with masonry, England increased last year to 25,000 quarters, and make the whole navigable for vessels of cooand gave employment to more than twenty Bri- siderable burden. This work is about fortytish ships. An article of the very first import- eight miles in length, ninety feet in breadth, and ance to the commerce and manufactures of from fifteen to eighteen feet in depth. It was England has recently been raised in Egypl, and opened with great pomp on the 7th of Deto such an extent as to have surpassed all ex- cember 1819. pectation. We allude to cotton wool, not of Until lately the arts and all kinds of learning the usual coarse kind hitherto grown in Egypt, were at a very low ebb among the Egyptians. but of a very superior quality, raised from Even the most simple of the mechanical profesBrasil seed. The first essay was made by order sions are still in a state of infancy. The work of of the pacha, in the year 1822, when the crop their cabinet-makers, gunsmiths, and loeksmiths, yielded about 25,000 bags, of two cwt. each. is clumsy; and their manufactures of gunÅ few bags of this cotton, sent to Liverpool on powder and sugar, though much improved are
still indifferent. The only thing in which they Mr. Bruce supposes not to be above one fout can be said to have arrived at any degree of in fifty; so that the carriages must have gone perfection, is the manufacture of silk stuffs ; very easily, and rather required something to though even these are far less highly finished retard their velocity than any force to pull them than those of Europe, and likewise bear a much forward. Concerning the mountains in general, higher price. One extraordinary art indeed is he observes, that the porphyry is very beaustill extant among the Egyptians, and appears to tiful to the eye, and is discovered by a fine have existed in that country from the most re- purple sand without any gloss. An unvamote antiquity; a power of enchanting the most riegated marble of a green color is generally met deadly serpents in such a manner, that they allow with in the same mountain ; and where the two themselves to be handled, nay even hurt and meet, the marble becomes soft for a few inches, wounded severely, without offering to bite the but the porphyry retains its hardness. The person who injures them. Those who have this granite has a dirty brown appearance, being
are named Psylli. See that article. covered with a sand; but, on removing this, it But the pacha has introduced colleges and appears of a gray color with black spots, with a academies for the instruction of youth in foreign reddish cast all over it. The granite mountains languages and mathematics ; afforded toleration lie nearer to the Red Sea, and seem to have to all the European and other religious sects; afforded the naterials for Pompey's pillar. The and encouraged the practice of vaccination and redness above mentioned seems to go off on exthe surgery and pharmacy of Europe.
posure to the air; but re-appears on working or Mr. Brúce gives a long account of the sources polishing the stone farther. The red marble is of the vast quantities of marble, met with in the next to the granite, though not inet with in the remains of ancient buildings in this country; same mountain. There is also a red kind with and which supplied in ancient times, we know, white veins, and vast quantities of the common the materials of many of the public buildings green serpentine. Some samples of that beautiful of Italy. These he discovered during his jour- marble named Isabella, were likewise observed ; ney from Kenne to Cosseir on the Red Sea, one of them of that yellowish cast called quaker before he went to Abyssinia. At Hamra thé color, the other of the bluish kind named dove Porphyry Mountains and quarries begin, the color. The most valuable kind is that named verde stone of which is at first soft and brittle; but antico, which is found next to the Nile in the the quantity is immense, as a whole day was mountains of serpentine. It is covered by a taken up in passing by them. These Porphyry kind of blue fleaky stone, somewhat lighter than Mountains begin in the latitude of nearly 24°, a slate, more beautiful than most, kinds of marand continue along the coast of the Red Sea to ble, and when polished having the appearance about 22° 30', when they are succeeded by the of a volcanic lava. In these quarries the verde marble mountains; these again by others of antico had been uncovered in patches of about alabaster, and these last by basaltic mountains. twenty feet square. There were small pieces of From the marble mountains our author selected African marble scattered about in several places, twelve kinds, of different colors, which he but no rocks or mountains of it; so that our brought along with him. Some of the moun- author conjectures it to lie in the heart of some tains appeared to be composed entirely of red other kind. The whole is situated on a ridge and others of green marble, and by their dif- with a descent to the east and west, by which ferent colors afforded an extraordinary spectacle. means it might easily be conveyed either to the Not far from the Porphyry Mountains the cold Nile or Red Sea; while the hard gravel and was so great, that his camels died on his return level ground would readily allow the heaviest from Abyssinia, though the thermometer stood carriages to be moved with very little force. In the no lower than 42o. Near Cosseir he discovered Red Sea in lat. 25° 3', at a small distance from the quarries whence the ancients obtained those the south-west coast, there is an island called the immense quantities of marble, with which they Mountain of Emeralds ; but none of these preconstructed so many wonderful works. The cious stones are to be met with there. Here, first place, where the marks of their operations as well as on the continent, there were found were very perceptible, was a mountain much many pieces of a green pellucid substance; but higher than any they had yet passed, and where veined, and much softer than rock crystal, though the stone was so hard that it did not yield to the somewhat harder than glass. A few yards up stroke of a hammer. In this quarry he ob- the mountain he found three pits, which are served that some channels for conveying water supposed to have been the mines whence the terminated; which, according to him, shows that ancients obtained the emeralds; but, though many water was one of the means by which these hard pieces of the green substance above mentioned stones were cut. In four days, during which were met with about these pits, no signs of the our author travelled among these mountains, he true emerald could be perceived. The subsays, that he had passed more granite, porphyry, stance, however, he conjectures to have been the marble, and jasper, than would build Rome, smaragdus of the Romans. In the mountains Athens, Corinth, Syracuse, Memphis, Alexan- of Cosseir, as well as in some places of the dria, and half a dozen such cities. It appeared deserts of Nubia, our author found some rocks to him that the passages between the mountains exactly resembling petrified wood. The only and what he calls defiles, were not natural but metal said by the ancients to be produced in artificial openings; where even whole moun- Egypt is copper. On the road to Suez are tains ha been cut out, in order to preserve a found great numbers of Egyptian flints and gentle slope towards the river. This descent pebbles, though the bottom is a hard, calcareous,
and sonorous stone. Volney tells us that the heat is not intolerable till after it has continued stones above-mentioned, which resemble petrified for some time. Its pernicious qualities are eviwood, are to be met with here. They are in the dently occasioned by its excessive aridity of form, he says, of small logs cut slanting at the moisture. Thus it dries and shrivels up the ends, and might easily be taken for petrifac skin; and, by affecting the lungs in a similar tions, though he thought them real minerals. manner, soon produces suffocation and death.
Besides camels, horses, asses, mules, sheep, The danger is greatest to those of a plethoric black cattle, and other domestic quadrupeds, havit, or who have been exhausted by fatigue; there are many wild animals in Egypt; particu- and putrefaction soon takes place in the bodies larly tigers, hyenas, antelopes, crocodiles, apes of si.ch as are destroyed by it. Its extreme dry, with heads resembling those of dogs, hippopo- ness is such, that water sprinkled on the floor tamuses, ichneumons, chameleons, yellow lizards, evaporates in a few minutes; all the plants are and a species of rats resembling ferrets, remark- withered and stripped of their leaves; and a ably useful for destroying the crocodiles' eggs. fever is instantly produced in the human species Among the feathered tribe, there are ostriches, by the suppression of perspiration. It usually eagles, hawks, pelicans, and water fowls of va- lasts three days, but is altogether insupportable rious kinds, among which last the most remark- if it continue beyond that time. The danger is able is the ibis, a bird of the duck kind, which greatest when the wind blows in squalls, and to was deified by the ancient Egyptians, on account travellers who happen to be exposed to its fury of its usefulness in destroying serpents, and without any shelter. The best method in this noxious insects. These are numerous, and among case is to stop the nose and mouth with a handthe different species of serpents the cerastes, or kerchief. Camels, by a natural instinct, bury horned viper, abounds, whose bite proves mortal, their noses in the sand, and keep them there til except to those who have the secret of charm- the squall is over. The inhabitants, who have ing it.
an opportunity of retiring to their houses, iaF. Sicard mentions two salt lakes situated in stantly shut themselves up in them, or go into the desert west of the Delta, three or four leagues pits made in th: earth, till the destructive blast in length, and about a quarter of a league in be cver. The description of a blast of this kind breadth, with a solid and stony bottom. For which overtook Mr. Bruce in the desert of Nubia nine months in the year they are without water; is still more terrible. See SIMOOM. but in winter there oozes out of the earth a red The population of Egypt is composed of Franks, dish violet-colored water, which fills the lakes to or Europeans, Armenians, Greeks, Syrians, the height of five or six feet. This being eva- Christians, Jews, Turks, Arabians, and Copts, porated, by the return of the heat, there remains who are supposed, on very probable grounds, to å bed of salt two feet thick and very hard, which be the descendants of the ancient Egyptians. is broken in pieces with iron bars : ard from The Franks are mostly from the shores bordering these lakes no less than 30,000 quintals of salt on the Mediterranean, and engaged in commerce are procured every year.
and in the pacha's new manufactories; they do Besides the ordinary winds before mentioned, not exceed 1000, half of whom are in AlexanEgypt is infested, as we have also intimated, dria, and the other half in Cairo. In spite of all with the destructive blasts common to all warm the partiality and protection of the pacha, the countries which have deserts in their neighbour- Turks lose no opportunity of insulting and abushood. These have been distinguished hy va- ing these · Christian dogs. But our expeditions rious names, such as poisonous winds, hot winds to this country seem to have resulted in two proof the desert, Samiel, the wind of Damascus, visions, in favor of Europeans, that are remarkKamsin, and Simoom. In Egypt they are de- able enough:-1. At the peace of Amiens, Sir nominated • winds of fifty days, because they John Stuart demanded, and succeeded in obtainmost commonly prevail during the fifty days pre- ing, permission for Europeans to enter the wesceding and following the equinox, though, should tern harbour of Alexandria, from which they they blow constantly during one-half of that had been jealously excluded, and permitted only time, a universal destruction would be the con- to enter the eastern harbour, of which the water sequence. Of these travellers have given various is shallow, the bottom rocky, and the anchordescriptions. M. Volney says that the violence age dangerous: the one was formerly called the of their heat may be compared to that of a large harbour of the Faithful, and the other that of oven at the moment of drawing out the bread. Infidels. 2. No European or Christian was They always blow from the south, and are un- formerly permitted to ride on horseback in any doubtedly owing to the motion of the atmosphere part of Egypt, the horse being reserved for Maover such vast tracts of hot sand, where it cannot hommedans, while the ass was deemed the probe supplied with a sufficient quantity of moisture. per animal for Christians. This indignity was When they begin to blow, the sky loses its usual also abolished by the exertions of Sir John Stuart, serenity, and assumes a dark, heavy, and alarm- wlio stipulated that all Europeans, without dising aspect, the oun laying asi de his usual splen- tinction, should be allowed to ride on horseback, dor, and becoming of a violet color. This ter- which they still do. rific appearance seems not to be occasioned by There are about 2000 Armenians, who re de any real haze or cloud in the atmosphere at that principally in the capital, where they exetetse time, but solely by the vast quantity of fine sand every kind of trade, and are much concerned in carried along by those winds, and which is so money transactions with the government. The excessively subtile that it penetrates every where. Greek Christians of Syria may be reckoned at The motion of this wind is always rapid, but its 3000 in Cairo, and 1000 in the other cities di
Egypt: 'they were formerly the wholesale mer- priests. They labor hard on the soil, and live in chants who supplied the land proprietors and the most abstemious manner on dourra, dwell in others with various kinds of articles, and were cottages of unbaked bricks, are clothed in coarse in general wealthy; but the monopoly of the woollen cloth, and sleep on mats: those in the viceroy has very considerably impoverished them. towns exercise handicraft trades, and keep shops There are about 5000 descendants of the ancient in the bazaars, which they only quit to attend the Greek colonists, who form quite a distinct race mosques. Like all orientals, they are fond of from the modern Greeks: these people have frequenting coffee-houses, and listening to the lost their ancient language, and speak a kind of tales of pretended magicians, or the rude music Arabic; many of them are mariners, but in ge- of strolling singers. In meekness and apathy neral they pursue the inferior and handicraft they cannot be exceeded. trades. According to the latest computations, • The tented Arab,' says an able article on Egypt there are about 4000 Jews in Egypt, 3000 of in the Quarterly Review, hovering with his flocks whom inhabit a part of Cairo, called after them along the borders of the fertile valley of the Nile, the Jews' quarter, of which the streets are so is the same in character, manners, and customs, narrow as to be almost impassable; the houses as he every where else is, and apparently has are dark, crowded together, filthy, and so infec- been, in all times since the days of the patriarchs, tious that, when the plague breaks out, the first regarding with disdain and proud independence enquiry is, If it has appeared in the Jews' quarter? all other classes of mankind, but more particu
M. Mengin, the author of L'Histoire de larly those of his own nation, who, in his eyes, l'Egypte, sous le Gouvernment de Mohammed have degraded themselves by taking up their Aly, reckons, in Cairo, eight persons to each abodes in fixed habitations, and whom he calls in house, and in the provinces four. The account contempt haty, or Arabs of the walls. Those then stands thus :
who turn cultivators are equally despised, and
considered in the light of Fellahs, with whom an Houses. Inhabit.
alliance by marriage would be regarded as disIn Cairo
25,000 200,000 honorable. The Arab women have fine features In the provincial towns of
and complexions; they are much fairer than the Alexandria, Rosetta, Da
Egyptian women, and far more correct in their mietta, Old Cairo, and
conduct. In cases of infidelity, the injured Boulak . .
party takes the law into his own hands, and the In rteen provinces, con
culprit is generally punished with death.' taining 3475 villages 564,168 2,256,272
The Egyptian women, like other oriental fe
males, are the mere slaves of their husbands' or 603,700 2,514,400 their owners' caprices; and thus their degraded
condition is one of the greatest obstacles to the Cairo being the only city of Egypt which con- civilisation of Egypt, and one of the last that will tains any great accumulation of inhabitants, built probably be removed, connected as it is with the by Gaubar, a general in the service of the first precepts of the Mahommedan law. M. Mankhalif of the race of the Fatemites of Egypt, in gin, however, states the women of late, whether the year 358 of the hegira (968 of the Christian married, or slaves from Georgia, Circassia, and era), it was surrounded with walls by Saladin. Mongrelia, are allowed frequently to quit the For the last 300 years its splendor has declined harem, and that accompanied by a contidante, considerably; and the palaces of Mohammed under pretext of going to the bath, or of making Aly are mean and ill contrived. But here are visits, they indulge with impunity in illicit 240 principal streets, forty-six public places, amours. eleven bazaars, 140 schools, 300 public cisterns, A cady, or judge, sent from the Porte anand 400 mosques,
nually, settles all lawsuits and criminal proThe Copts are by far the most numerous class secutions: under him are the sheiks and others, of Christians in Egypt, amounting at least to learned in the law. A civil process is stated to 160,000, of whom about 10,000 inhabit the two cost about 4 per cent. of the value in dispute, of most populous quarters of Cairo. In towns they which the cady takes four-fifths for himself, and practise different trades, but the greater part of gives one-fifth 10 the other lawyers. All minor them labor on the lands, among the Fellahs. disputes and complaints are brought before the Under the government of the Mamelukes the Kiaya-bey. His officers are the Agha of the Copts were employed in taking an account of, janissaries, who is charged with maintaining and collecting, the revenues of the villages ; and good order, and especially among the soldiers ; many of them still hold situations of this kind, the ouali, or agba of the police, who looks after and as writers about the court. They are aus the thieves and prostitutes, on both of whom he tere and forbidding in their manners, generally levies contributions for the support of himself silent, and wearing an air of melancholy: but and his myrmidons. The moteceb regulates the are said to be tyrannical when in authority. weights and measures; the bache-agha has the
The oriental race of Fellahs compose the chief direction of the patroles, and the spies who frepart of the population of Egypt, a mixture, quent the coffee-houses, bazaars, and other pubperhaps, of ancient Egyptians, Arabians, and lic places; and, in addition to these, there is a Syrians; they approach nearest to the Copts, in head-man in every quarter of the city for settling general appearance and manners, but they are disputes and preserving peace. This is said to rigid Mussulmen, and strictly observe the rites be so effectually done, that the streets of Cairo and ceremonies laid down by their sheiks or are as safe as those of London, except on occaVol. VII.