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as an instance, who, tho' far from ODE, in which Kings, Laureats, a perfect painter, was entitled to Lords, Ladies, Knights, Fiddlers, more respect from our author. and Amateurs, are treated with most His next work was LYRIC ODES unmerciful severity. To this fucon the saine subject, with the same ceeded an APOLOGETICAL Postseverity and humour; and, we are SCRIPT, ironically juftifying the afraid, with the same want of can- waison ridicule of the preceding dour.

. . publication, and which indeed may During the intervals of his Odaic be considered as a witty repetition effufions our author produced The of his fatirical offences. The next LOUSIAD, a Mock-Heroic Poem, a- work in order, as well as we can rebounding in wit, humour, and collect, was the Second Canto of the strength ; but at the fame time de- LOUSIAD, breathing the same spirit fective in that respect due from a of ridicule, replete with the fame fubject to his Sovereign *. Peter novelty of imagery and strength of should have recollected the old a. numbers. Peter Pindar's last produc. dage, that “ truth is not to be spo- tion is entitled INSTRUCTIONS TO A ken at all times.” Our author's CELEBRATED LAUREAT, pofseffing next performance was his EPISTLÉ a vein of ironical wit and humour, TO JAMES Boswell, Esq. The equal, if not superior to any of his subject was undoubtedly fair game, publications. Thus have we given and fully justified the lash of his a catalogue of the labours of our Juvenalian severity. This Poem, author, whose poetical versatility is for novelty of imagery, strength of such, that we find a difficulty where satire, and glow of poetry, may rank most to admire him ; whether he with any production in our language. lashes with Juvenal, sneers with The next labour of his pen was Swift, laughs with Butler, fighs Bozzy AND Piozzi, a just ridicule with Tibullus, or tells a tale with of vain and ignorant biographers. Fontaine. After this appeared ODE UPUN

To the Publisher of the EDINBURGH MAGAZINE. SIR, THE Reverend Mr Whitaker, “have been the peculiar disease of

1 in his “ Vindication of Mary « PROTESTANTISM,” Vol.IIl. p.49. Queex of Scots," sees forgeries Amongst his numerous detections springing up on every side ; and no of forgeries, there is one which mewonder that he should, for, accord- rits particular attention. .. ing to him, “ FORGERY appears to He says, Vol. III. p. 38, 39.


• The foundation of the Lousad was a discovery made by his Majesty, one evening at supper, of a something on his plate that had green pease on it. We have endeavoured to detect the object that created so much disgust. From the best information, we find it to have been a hair from the human head; which DETER, by a licentia poetica, converted into a LOUSE. Thus much happened in confequence of his Majesty's discovery, viz. the cooks, scullions, &c. Sec. were forced to submit to the dreadful operation of shaving, to the number of fifty, and great was their displeasure thereat. This we can vouch for; but whether 'tis a proper subject for the poet's ridicule or not, is a question that may admit of fome controversy.

Remarks on Whitaker's Vindication of Q. Mary. 165 That the commission from Francis treaty published by Rymer. Faeand Mary, to make an accord with dera, Vol. XV. their subjects, and the accord itself Had Mr Whitaker consulted any are forgeries. “ All this is a for- common French historian, such as “ gery,” are his own unambiguous Mezeray, or Pere Daniel, he would words,

have seen mention made of the His reasons for this novel asser. concessions which an unsuccessful tion seem to be three :

war had rendered necessary. is, A copy of the supposed con- ' But, thirdly, All this is assertmillion and accord is certified to be “ed to be a forgery;" for “ the true by James Stewart, that is Mur. " commission is said to have been ray, by Lord Ruthven, and by Se- « signed at Remorentia the second cretary Maitland. He says, “ The “ day of June in the year 1560, “ very touch of such villains carries « and of our reign the Erft and fix“ contagion with it; and whatever teenth. But this is a grofs error “ paper has been under the hands“ in chronology. Mary was now, « of these political harpies, must “ not in the sixteenth, but in the « be considered, by every thinking “ eighteenth year of her reign ; and « mind, to carry in its very fullness “ as the. seal of forgery upon the " and fatisfactorinefs of intelligence, “ paper thus comes forward with " in its very singularity and ampli- " a bold and strong relief to the « tude of concessions to the rebels, “ eye, so does it shew the whole “the marks of their defiling claws « to have been forged, when the “ imprinted strongly upon it.” “ period of its dates had been long · Mr Whitaker ought to have ad- “ elapsed.". Ib. p. 40. ded, Gecil, the English Ambaffador As there can be no doubt that in Scotland, to his list of harpies : Montluc and Randan had a comfor Cecil marked the copy with his mission, would it not be more chaown hand, and it will be remem- ritable to suppose, that the French bered, that he was then on the spot. minifters, or their clerks, mistook

But supposing Cecil to have been the date of Mary's accession? a forger of commissions and treaties, Does Mr Whitaker mean that and supposing Murray and Maitland the figure 18 could not have been to have been engaged, either as ac- mistaken for the figure 16 in the cessaries or principals in later for- original ? or does he suppose, that geries, why should Lord Ruthven, an error in a date, and that a most who was dead before the date of immaterial one, proves the commifthose later forgeries, be involved fion to have been forged by Murray in the same charge and condemna- and his associate villains ? tion ?

This will lead to consequences 2dly, It is supposed, that the con- of which he is not aware. Mr Rudceflions made to the Rebels are so diman has shewn, in his preface to great as to imply, that they were Diplomata Scotia, p. 40. not that not granted, but somehow foiited most of the charters granted by in.

David II. are misdated as to year of This says nothing as to the com- that King's reign ; so as to them mission from Francis and Mary, also, “the seal of forgery comes which was certainly granted to " forward with a bold and strong Montluc Bishop of Valence, and M. " relief to the eye, and those charde Randan, of the family of Roche- « ters are all a forgery." foucault : it is referred to in the I make no doubt that the con


mission and accord 1560 are in the Some farther specimens may be public Registers of France, and I produced hereafter, of the Gorgons, even suspect that they have been Hydras, and Chimeras dire, which printed in that country. But any disturb the imagination of Mr further inquiry concerning this seems Whitaker. fuperfluous.

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Obfervations on M. Buffon's Character of the Indians of America, by

Mr Jefferson. 6 T HO' the American favage," ly, are feeble ; and one family has

1 fays Buffon, " be nearly of the no attachment to another. Hence fame stature with men in polished fo- no union, no republic, no facial cieties, yet this is not a sufficient ex- ftate, can take place among them. ception to the general contraction of The physical cause of love gives rise animated nature throughout the whole to the morality of their mannerse Continent. In the savage, the organs Their heart is frozen, their fociety of generation are small and feeble. cold, and their empire cruel. They He has no hair, no beard, no ar regard their females as servants del dour for the female. Though nim- tined to labour, or as beasts of burbler than the European, because' den, whom they load unmercifully more accustomed to running, his with the produce of their hunting ; Itrength is not so great. His sen- and oblige,' without pity or gratifations are less acute ; and yet he tude, to perform labours which of, is more timid and cowardly. He ten exceed their strength. They has no vivacity, no activity of mind. have few children, and pay little

The activity of his body is not so attention to them. Every thing much an exercise, or spontaneous must be referred to the first cause. motion, as a necessary action pro. They are indifferent, because they duced by want. Destroy his appe- are weak; and this indifference to tite for victuals and drink, and you the sex is the original stain which will at once annihilate the active disgraces Nature, prevents her from principle of all his movements; he expanding, and, by destroying the remains in Itupid repose, on his germs of iife, cuts the root of for limbs or couch, for whole days. It ciety." is easy to discover the cause of the An afflicting picture, indeed ! scattered life of savages, and of their which, for the honour of human estrangement from society. They nature, I am glad to believe has no have been refused the most precious original. Of the Indian of South Spark of Nature's fire : They have America I know nothing; for I no ardour for women, and, of course, would not honour with the appella, no love to mankind. Unacquainted tion of knowledge what I derive with the most lively and most ten- from the fables published of thein. der of all attachments, their other These I believe to be just as true sensations of this nature are cold as the fables of Æfor. This belief and languid. Their love to parents is founded on what I have seen of and children is extremely weak. man, white, red, and black ; and The bonds of the most intimate of what has been written of him by all societies, that of the same fami- authors, , enlightened themselves,


Charaéter of the Indians of North America. 167 and writing amidst an enlightened while it is education which teaches people. The Indian of North A. us to * honour force more than fi. merica being more within our reach, nesse : that he will defend himself I can speak of him somewhat from against an host of enemies; always my own knowledge, but more from chusing to be killed rather than to + the information of others better ac- surrender, tho' it be to the whites, quainted with him, and on whose who he knows will treat him well: truth and judgment I can rely. From that in other situations also he meets these sources, I am able to say, in death with more deliberation, and contradiction to this representation, endures tortures with a firmness unthat he is neither more defective in known almost to religious enthusiasm ardour, nor more impotent with his with us : that he is affectionate to female, than the white reduced to his children, careful of them, and inthe fame diet and exercise : that he dulgent in the extreme : that his is brave, when an enterprize de., affections comprehend his other pends on bravery ; education with connections, weakening, as with us, him making the point of honour from circle to circle, as they recede confift in the destruction of an ene- from the center : that his friendships my by stratagem, and in the preser: are strong and faithful to the uttervation of his own person free from most I extremity : that his sensibi. injury : or perhaps this is nature , lity is keen; even the warriors

weeping • Sol Rodomonte sprezza di venire Se non, dove la via ineno è sicura.

Ariolto. 14. 117. + In so judicious an author as Don Ulloa, and one to whom we are indebted for the most precise information we have of South America, I did not expect to find such affertions as the following: • Los Indios vencidos son los mas cobardes ý pusilanimes que se peuden vér:--se hacen inocentes, se humillan hasta el defprecio, disculpan su inconsiderado arrojo, y con las súplicas y los ruegos dan seguras pruebas de su pusilanimidad.ó lo que refieren las historias de la Conquis ta, sobre sus grandes acciones, es en un sentido figurado, ó el caracter de estas gentes no es ahora segun era entonces; pero lo que no tiene duda es, que las Naciones de la parte Septentrional fubfiften en la misma libertad que siempre han tenido, sin haber sido sojuzgados por algun Principe extrano, y que viven segun fu régimen y costumbres de toda la vida, fin que haya habido motivo para que in uden de caracter; y en estos se vé lo mismo, que sucede en los del Peru, y de toda la América Meridional, reducidos, y que nunca lo han estado. Noticias Americanas. Entretenimiento XVIII. S. 1. Don Ulloa here admits, that the authors who have described the Indians of South America, before they were ensaved, had represented them as a brave people, and therefore seems to have suspected that the cowardice which he had observed in those of the present race might be the effect of subjugation. But fuppofing the Indians of North America to be cowards. also, he concludes the ancestors of those of South America to have been so too, and therefore that those authors have given fictions for truths. He was probably not acquainted himself with the Indians of North America, and had formed his opinion of them from hear-fay. Great numbers of French, of English, and of Americans; are perfectly acquainted with these people. Had he had an opportunity of inquiring of any of thefe, they would have told him, that there never was an instance known of an Indian begging his life when in the power of his enemies : on the contrary, that he courts death by every poslible insult and provocation. His reasoning then would have been reversed thus : " Sinec the present Indian in North America is brave, and authors tell us, that the anceftors of those of South America were brave also; it must follow, that the cowardice of their descendants is the effect of subjugation and ill treatment,' For he observes, ib. S. 27 that ? los obrages los aniquilan por la inhumanidad con que se les trata.'

| A remarkable instance of this appeared in the case of the late Col. Byrd, who was sent to the Cherokce nation to tranfact fome business with them. It VOL. VI. No 33.

happened weeping most bitterly on the loss of and of hunting, child-bearing betheir children, though in general comes extremely inconvenient to they endeavour to appear fuperior them. It is said, therefore, that they to human events : that his vivacity have learnt the practice of procuring and activity of mind is equal to ours abortion by the use of some vegein the same situation; hence his table ; and that it even extends to eagerness for hunting, and for games prevent conception for a confiderof chance. The women are sub-, able tiine after. During these parmitted to unjust drudgery. This I ties they are exposed to numerous believe is the case with every bar- hazards, to excessive exertions, to barous people. With such, force is the greatest extremities of hunger. law. The stronger sex therefore Even at their homes the nation deimposes on the weaker. It is civili- pends for food, through a certain zation alone which replaces Wo- part of every year, on the gleanmen in the enjoyment of their natu- ings of the forest : that is, they exral equality. That first teaches us perience a famine once in every to subdue the selfish passions, and to year. With all animals, if the ferespect the rights in others' which male be badly fed, or not fed at all, we value in ourselves. Were we in her young perish : and if both male equal barbarism, our females would and female be-reduced to like want, be equal drudges. The man with generation becomes less active, less them is less strong than with us, but productive. To the obstacles then their woman stronger than ours ; of want and hazard, which nature and both for the same obvious rea- has opposed to the multiplication of fon; because our man and their wild animals, for the purpose of woman is habituated to labour, and restraining their numbers within formed by it. With both races certain bounds, those of labour and the sex which is indulged with ease of voluntary abortion are added is least athletic. An Indian man is with the Indian. No wonder then Small in the hand and wrist for the they multiply less than we do. same reason for which a failor is Where food is regularly supplied, a large and strony in the arms and single farm will shew more of catfhoulders, and a porter in the legs tle, than a whole country of forests and thighs.—They raise fewer chil- can of buffaloes, The same Indian dren than we do. The causes of women, when married to white this are to be found, not in a differ- traders, who feed them and their ence of nature, but of circumstance. children plentifully and regularly, The women very frequently attend- who exempt them from excessive ing the men in their parties of war, drudgery, who keep them Itation

ary happened that some of our disorderly people had just killed one or two of that nation. It was therefore proposed in the council of the Cherokees that Col. Byrd should be put to death, in revenge for the loss of their countrymen. Among them was a chief called Silòuee, who, on some former occasion, had contracted an acquaintance and friendship with Col. Byrd. He came to him every night in his tent, and told him not to be afraid, they should not kill him. After many days deliberation, however, the determination was, contray to Silòuee's expectation, that Byrd should be put to death, and some warriors were dispatched as executioners. Silòuee attended them, and when they entered the tent, he threw himself between them and Byrd, and said to the warriors, (This man is my friend; before you get at him, you must kill me.' On which they returned, and the council respected the principle fo much as to recede from their detera mination.

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