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A STATE of the BAROMETER in inches and decimals, and of Farenheit's

THERMOMETER in the open air, taken between 12 and 3 o'clock, after. noon ; and the quantity of rain-water fallen, in inches and decimals, From the 30th of June 1787, to the 30th of July 1787, near the foot of Arthur's Seat.

[graphic]

Days. Ther. Barom. Rain. Weather. June 30 i 65

Clear. Tid July | 64 E 29.75

Ditto. 30.13

Ditto. 30.13

Ditto.
77 29.57

Ditto.
29325***
0.125

Rain.
29.4

Clear.
29.356 0.04 Showers.
29.575 0.02

Ditto.
29.65
29 75 0.28 Rain and hail.
29.625 0.09

Rain.
121 59 29.625

Clear 1359 29.575 0.095 Cloudy, small showers: gar 14 29.535

Clear. vd by brood wpisil 61 29.625 0.35 Rain. 1195) ühiw 16 :47 29.6125

0.38

Ditto. Mot bis 9 29.6375 0.07 Small rainas Fio STS 2nd 10 8

29.675 0.03 Showers. 295 11 12 19 60 29.625 0.011 Ditto, cloudy, sollegoili'. 29.325

Cloudy. Ve Third 26 sli SLUST 21 29.4525

Ditto.9mmods to aro 290 29.4575

Rain and thunder. 29.425 0.67 Ditto. edi goflo SVI 93. stotec 24 160

29.612 0.02 Shower. ) lo slund
161 29.875 0.44

Rain.
29.6125 1.58 Ditto and thunder.
* 29.875

Clear.
1 29.625 0.45 Rain.
68 29.
4

0.04 Clear showers at night. 30 | 62 | 29.4 0.04 Showers. M23

879 ORAT

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BAROMETER.NO 291152 Days of t erroig

S tore Days. osavi 1990 g or bisk 4. 77 greatest height at noon. 3. 30.18 greatest elevation. Pla 1746 lealt ditto, morning. 20. 29.325 least ditto.

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per IS Caftlé is feated on an eminence, in the midst of a pretty vale,

bounded by hills covered with corn and woods; a most picturesque 1 fcene. It consists of a vast square tower, ninety feet high, with square and round baltions at equal distances from its bafe. The state. rooms are on the first storey, once acceffible by a draw-bridge. Some of the apartments were very large; the hall forty féét long, and had its mufic gallery, the roof lofty, and once adorned with paintings. This castle was built by a Lord Borthwick, once a potent family. In the vault lies one of the name, in armour, and a little bonnet, with his lady by him. On the fide are numbers of little elegant human figures. The place was once the property of the Earl of Bothwel, who, a little before the battle of Carberry-hill, took refuge here with his fair confort.

i Pennant. "I DO

.: On the Rise and Progress of the Italian Operai AN Opera is defined by the eino, and compofed by Peri, a mu

critics--a poetical tale or fic. frcian of fome eminence in that age. tion, reprefented by vocal and iris Tlie subject was the death of Euri. strumental music, adorned with dice, and the defcent of Orpheus fcenes, machines, and dancing. It into the infernal regions. A ftory is said to have been invented in happily enough cholen for the inItaly, towards the close of the 16th troduction of striking fcenes, gros century. The first performance of tesque figures, and dresses, surpri. this kind deserving much notice fing deceptions by machinery, and was exhibited in Florence, ipon mufic of powerful and various éx occasion of the marriage of Henry IV. preffion. Accordingly, its success of France with a princess of the was very great, and it remained a Medicean family. It was written long time as a standard of imitation by a Florentine poet, named Rinuc- for fuceeeding poets and musicians. A 2

For

For a considerable period the mar- tlie modern ballad, tho' far more vellous was confidered as the foun- correct and significant. In the ardation of this Dramay. the subject ticles of decoration and machinery, was generally “no mortal businefs, they appear to have gone greater the music an imitation of “no found lengths than the critics are aware of. that this earth owns,” and the per- How, otherwise, fhall we accoumt fons, gods, demigods, devils, fairies, for the enormous expence attending and forcerers; beings whose actions the representation of their pieces, and appearances were not to be and the wonderful ftage-effects which hampered by nature, truth, or pro. we perceive they produced? What bability. To support and adorn kind of flying chariot was it in those reprefentations vast expences which Medea made her triumphant were lavished, and every fource of exit? -What curious device made

pleasure in the fine arts explored. the back-scene, 'which at firft ap- Theatres arose over all Italy, rival- peared to Strepsiades in the form of ing in magnificence the palaces of clouds, gradually roll forward, and kings, and in elegance the monu- change into the more engaging ments of antiquity. In them spectacle of several clever lafles, artists of every kind vied with each who advanced, and with great good other in the exertion of their re- nature gave the honest man a long? fpetive abilities: the most ingeni. These, and other particulars that ous machines, and the most enchant- might be mentioned, feem to prove ing scenery conspired to fascinate that the Greek theatre was not only the eye; while multitudes of instru- supported by excellent poets, but ments and voices astonihed the ear. by excellent musicians, painters, ar:: Such a representation, though ve- chitects, and mechanics; and give

may imperfect, and very absurd in some colour to the opinion, that the - many respects, was highly admired; pieces there exhibited differed in

and the Wits of the time congratu- nothing from modern operas, but

lated themselves on the invention in being much better written, and * of what they thought a new species in wanting the distinction of air and Î of Drama, unknown to the ancients. recitative.

Here, faid they, we have disco- I do not imagine, however, that

vered a new scenic power to inter- the inventors of the Italian Opera · est and to charm, Admiration ; and availed themselves of this, or indeed

we can join it to Aristotle's Terror that they knew any thing of it; - and Pity. All the merit of the in- for had that been the case, it is na

vention may, perhaps, be granted tural to suppose their first performthem; while the novelty of it is de- ances would have been direct

nied. The Opera, so far froin be- translations of Greek plays. .ra. **ing unknown to the ancients, and ther incline to think they took their hi especially to the Greeks, appears to idea from the old Masque, an enter*' me to have been the only Dramą tainment brought into Spain by the

they knew. The Greek tragedies Saracens, from whence it spread are all serious operas; their come over Europe, and became the con. dies, at least those that still remain, stant attendant of mirthful folemmay, without any disrespect, be cal. nities, in the courts of princes, and led Burlettas. We have reason the castles of the great barons, i It to believe that the declamation of was an interlude of a few songs, their theatre was a true recitative, mixed with dances by fantastie fiand that for the most part accomo gures, and feats of agility; and in panied. Their chorus answered to it were found most of the perfo

nages

Introduction into England.

nages which first appeared in the heart was introduced with success : great. Opera-gods, dæmons, he- they found themselves no longer in roes, dwarfs, magicians, and scara- need of filling their scenes with mouches. The stretch of invention imaginary characters; and being was not much from singing some able to represent mortals, they bedetached airs to make thein repre- came independent of the gods *. fent; a short story. There is no- The music thus was made fo chathing in this but what happened racteristic and appropriated, as to be long before, in the affair of Thel. in a manner loft during the reprepis and his hymns 10 Bacchus. sentation, to that a fenfible specta

Such was the rise of this Drama. tor could hardly separate the exIn the course of near 200 years it pression of the orchestre from the has undergone several alterations, expreffion of the poet. A raging improvements, and refinements ; hero stalked along the scene and but those have been very unequally it seemed not abfurd that he should applied. In Italy, they have been rage in fong; for the song was happy in discarding many foolilla fuch as shook every foul of feeling tricks of the stage, and in cultiva. with pleasing terror. : A mourning ting impassioned music : in France, heroine appeared---and the tender the chief stress is still laid on “ in- and pathetic accents which the muexplicable dumb fhews,” and noile. sician gave her to breathe, could It was in the former of those coun- not be distinguished from the real tries that some genuises of the first ones of griet. . . . rank arose, such as Vinci, Per The Opera was arrived at that

golese, Porpora, and Durante; men perfection in Italy, when it was first - not only of profound skill in music, introduced into England ; and if Mr

but of chaste and elegant taste. Addison's accounts of it were to be

They foon perceived, that harmony believed, it might seem astonishing · and melody, when applied to words, how a representation, fo clumsy and were not things indifferent; that bungling, could ever be endured, far they were capable of assuming al- less become the favourite amusement most every variation of sentiment of the nation. This, however, hap. 'r and passion, and that, consequently, pened in spite of all the powers of

instead of being employed, as for- ridicule that he and his associates merly, to excite a pleasure merely could muster against it. We may

physical, they might be addressed suspect, therefore, that he ought not - to the imagination and the heart. inplicitely to be credited; and for

Upon this account, many person- this there are several good reasons, ages of high renown were driven one of which is, that he appears to

from the theatre; the whole rab- have known little of the fubjeft. In :blement of mythological beings were the first paragraph of the first paper

discarded, (except Orpheo, who he writes concerning it, there are .: keeps his ground to this day ;) and as many mistakes as fentences. It

fubjects were chosen from real is the fifth Spec. and the third of his hiftory, more proper for affording writing, for lie seems eager to have - interesting situations. The machines a thrust at the new arrived Syren,

of poets and carpenters were de. "An Opera, (fays the great man) stroyed, and the lyric drama put may be allowed to be extravagantly on a form more noble and graceful. lavish in its decorations, as its only Every thing that could touch the defign is to gratify the senses, and

keep Rousseau.' ile is

keep up an indolent attention in the representation of his own tragedy. audience." Is it possible that tliree I fuppofe he had directed the ma. Artists, and so many at least there nager of the theatre to have a Romull be in getting up every opera, man hall ois saloon represented as could combine their talents in come exactly as possible by the scenery : posing a work of which the only therefore, instead of fuffering Mr design should be to keep up an in. Booth to play Cato, he ought to dolent attention? Would they ne- have procured a man of pasteboard ver think of throwing out a bait for and painted canvas ; for verily the the applause of the audience i The scenes, both' back and lide, were love scenes in Cato are as power-composed of sucli materials. In ano. fully soporific as a long recitativo; ther paper, le fhews his knowiedge yet froin'this we may not conclude, of music, by telling us of a lion that that the only design of tragedy is to was to be killed by Hydafpes, and hull men asleep. * Common fense, to roar twice or thrice, ere he died; (continues he), requires, however, to a'thorough bass : doubtless, the that there should be nothing in the most extraordinary piece of Iristory scenes and (machines which may ap- extant concerning that noble ani. pear childish and absurd.” But why mal. To have roar'd simply a bass, 1o ! for firely there are several might have been fufficiently won." things both childish and abfurd which derful, but the roariog of a thorough will gratify thic fentes, and kecp op bass, as Bottom says, would have an indolent attention. “ How (cries done any man's heart good to have he) would the wits of King Charles's heard him."? time lave laughed, to have seen Ni. I mention these little flips of Ado colini exposed to a tempeft in robes dison, because he has written a great of ermine, and failing in an open deal, and with the air of connoisseurboat upon a fea of pasteboard?” ship on the subject ; and becaufe I Now this bullying question is not ca. know many people take their fily anfwered; for there seems no- ideas of it entirely from his huthing more risible in one's being o- morous, though absurd reprefentavertaken by a tempest in a coat of tions. But though perfect faith ermine, than in a coat of buckram or ought not to be given to him, it is". Kendal-green ; and as to the sea of undeniable, that there was in his pafteboard, it is no more laughable time, and still is, ample field for exthan a tree of pasteboard, a column, erting the severities of criticism on or an arch of pasteboard ; things the lyric ftage. There is perhaps which are feen every night in every no department of the fine arts where theatre, without exciting a convul. more inight be done by a person of fion in any, body's midriff. He goes good raste, information, and knowon, " A little ikill in criticism would ledge of the subject, Mr Addison, inform us, that fladows and realities by pouring forth his ridicule on the uright not to be mixed together ir tailor in the lion's skin, and the spare. ile fame piece, and that the scenes rows acting the parts of finging hirds, which are designed as the repre- has done nothing. Those absurdisentations of Nature, should be filled ties mast foon have failed of them. with resemblances, and not with the felvés. Had he been capable of Things themselves.” If this be true, touching what was eflential, the bad it will follow, tliat MrArdifon knew taste of the coinpofers, and the ima nothing of criticism, for he was liim- proper licenèes taken by the fingers, '. self guilty of this supposed absurdity he would have done good fervice to in the most glaring mauncr, at the the national taste, and our theatrical

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