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in his power to miss the Archbishopric rather than be the occasion of any
of Paris, which seemed to be his by heart-burnings between Meffrs de
inheritance, as it had been possessed Sorbonne and their Protector, he
by his grand-uncle and two of his would decline the place, content with
uncles. Before he was seventeen he having deserved it. .
had been engaged in three duels, and A conduct so haughty alarmed the
had signalized himself in two or three family of Gondi. The Abbé was
affairs of gallantry. Yet his family sent to travel in Italy. At Venice he
persisted in making him coadjutor to signalized himself by gallantries, at
his uncle ; so that notwithstanding his Rome by lampoons: but he quickly
conduct and inclinations, he was for returned to Paris, to support the use-
ced to remain in the ecclesiastical line, less and dangerous character of the ene-
and to make a great fortune whether my and rival of Cardinal Richelieu.
he would or not. .

Sometimes he attached himself to the The young Abbé de Retz brought ladies with whom the Cardinal was at his intriguing spirit to Court. · And variance; sometimes he made court to against whom did he employ it ? a- his mistresses, and even carried them off gainst the Cardinal de Richelieu: but from him, and at last entered into a why he did fo is a question he would conspiracy, which aimed at his life. have been at a loss to answer himself, It would appear that the Abbé entered for it could lead to nothing. It was upon this plot with great unconcern; at this time that he translated the his. he considered himself as another Fieltory of Fiesco's conspiracy: he shew- co; he was of the same age with his 'ed the work to the Abbé de Boisro- model when he was killed, that is bert, and probably accompanied it with two and twenty: but luckily the consome reflections, which shewed this fpiracies of the French Abbé were not sagacious friend of Cardinal Richelieu, so actively carried through as those of that de Retz had all the inclination in the Genoese count : he had the hapa the world to become factious and med- piness to see his projects miscarry, one dling. Boisrobert acquainted the after another, without any accident prime minister with his fufpicions. or danger to his person. At last he * I see, said the Cardinal aloud, that was made sensible that the most he the little Abbé will one day be a dan- could do was to join with the turbugerous fellow.” This discourse a- lent of his own stamp, with whom he larmed M. Gondi the father; but it had nothing to gain and every thing was otherwise with the son; he was to lose. He found it neceffary to take charmed to think that at his age he a new course: he associated with the was considered as a dangerous man by devout, though he did not imbibe their a minister who made France and all spirit, and with ecclefiaftics who had Europe tremble. In order to support the reputation of sanctity, before he the great part that he pretended al- fanctified his own life: he undertook ready to act, he disputed the first place to make converts before he was con. of licenser in the Sorbonne with the verted himself; and he found the Abbé de la Mothe-Houdancourt, a most respectable part of the clergy and relation of the Cardinal, and carried it. those the highest in the church, very Richelieu, the patron and restorer of much disposed to receive him as a prothe Sorbonne, was as much surprised digal fon, without waiting till he should as enraged; and threatned the doctors repent of his errors. who had voted against the person he The good M. Vincent himself was had proposed : these came in triumph inclined to believe that the instructions to inform the Abbé de Retz, who ge- he had formerly given him were not Lerously but proudly apswered, That feed sown in a loil altogether ungrate



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Anécdotes of the Cardinal de Retz. ful. The devout thought it an ho- may easily believe that the holy man nour to include him in their number; gave him his best advice, which he and without subjecting him to severe feigned to listen to with much edificatrials, they endeavoured to procure tion. He confesses in his Memoirs, for him the coadjutorship of the Arch-' that he employed the time destined bishopric of Paris. It was necessary for meditation in thinking, not how he to begin with reconciling him to the should become a good Bishop, but on Cardinal ; this they effected. It was the means of turning his character urged in his behalf, and as an evidence and office to account, and of being of his conversion, that he had not en- wicked with art and address. I have

tered into the conspiracy of Cinq-Mars, known many such restless spirits, countered This was thought sufficient proof that who, when they had leisure, have laid

he had renounced his passion for in- plans of conduct detestable in their ched his trigue, but the sequel thewed that it tendency, but which might easily have she Cat was not yet relinquished.

succeeded if they had been carried on. as be matcast Every thing was in train for his be- The Coadjutor for some time seemed ren camiones ing appointed coadjutor when Cardinal to act in conformity to his plan. He Lault et Richelieu died. But it would proba- preached in Paris, and his sermons, aimed at bly have been finished by Lewis XIII. which my uncle told me he had often it the best had he not soon followed the Cardinal. read, were written with much spirit 1 great at The honour of it was reserved for and erudition, according to the taste of

Anne of Austria, who began her re. that time, and even in a strain of piety fame as i gency by allowing herself to be direc- and devotion, which he no doubt had was kilo 'ted by people of acknowledged incapa- learnt of M. Vincent. The people of -it luckilick city. They made her commit an ad- Paris were enchanted with the sight che Albizi ditional blunder, in appointing to the of an Archbishop in the chair; and hrough as Archbishoprick of Paris a perfon so he made some other grimaces in perThe band's turbulent and so dangerous as the fu- forming the episcopal functions in the it is taken ture Cardinal de Retz.

absence of his uncle. 29 Mazarine, who foon supplanted these Having thus prepared the way, the on a first favourites of the Queen regent, Coadjutor waited only for an oppor. ühe the pit would not perhaps have committed tunity of signalizing himself, and of with this fault. However, he was more a- reaping the fruits of his hypocrisy,

fraid of de Retz than hurt by him. which he was incapable of supporting de The political conduct of these two long. But no great occasion presentmi personages was very different, tho' it ed itself for four or five years. In the

proceeded in both 'from a bad heart: mean time, he had some disputes with

neither of them had any regard for regard to his rank in quality of DioCARE honour or virtue: but Mazarine forme cesan of Paris. These he supported

ed plans, and he pursued them; not boldly, and gave the Cardinal to un

ever failed for want of judgement: if derstand that he was no contemptible hen he was not brave, he was neither fickle enemy. But it would have been cost

nor inconsiderate ;, and what he want- ly to gain him over, as nothing less ed in greatness, he made up by skill would have satisfied him than the Car

and address. The Cardinal de Retz dinal's place. i had none of those qualities; for one In the mean time, the minds of the

cannot be great without great designs; people were irritated with the misconand of what use is skill or address with- duct of the Queen regent and her mi. out determinate objects ? i

nisters ; and now the Coadjutor found The Abbé de Retz being now Coad- an opportunity to exert himself; he jutor of Paris, retired to his old mas- gained the people underhand, by dif. ter M. Vincent at St Lazare. We tributing charities that procured him Vol. VI. No 35. I


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the favour of the poor, without tell- ation, and to deprive him of iliat res ing them what he wanted of them. pofe which he found ten years afterSometimes he would go to the regent, wards in the obscurity of inaction and and inform her of the disaffection of retreat. the people ; fometimes to the parlia- I said at the beginning, that Messrs ment with complaints of the Queen de Caumartin, my relations, had a and her ministry. The Coadjutor hand in the publication of the Cardicontinued this conduct till the fa- nal's Memoirs. They had entrusted mous day of the Barricades, when he to the care of some indiscreet persons fhone forth in all his glory. Nothing the copy of these Memoirs, which had can be more curious than the accounts been found with the Nuns of Comcontained in his Memoirs of the com- mercy in Lorraine, a town where De mencement of the War of Paris and Retz had passed many years of his its consequences. The weakness of the life, and of which he was Lord, not Queen and of her male and female fa- as a dependence on any of his benevourites, the address, the meanness and fices, but by inheritance from his motreachery of Mazarine; the folly and ther Margaret de Silly de la Rocheabsurdity of many members of the par: pot. The good Nuns knew nothing liament, and the inconsiderate turbu- of the merit or demerit of these Melence of the people of Paris, he has moirs, nor I believe of the lady to described with great truth, and in the whom they had been addressed : neimost lively colours.

ther indeed do I ; but it is certain, 'He does not dissemble the wicked. that, at the beginning of the regency ness and folly of his own conduct in of the Duke of Orleans in 1717, the that farce which lasted during the first furreptitious edition was publishyears 1648 and 1649. After a short ed. The Regent asked my father, interruption, it began again in the fol- who was then Lieutenant of the Polowing years 1650 and 1651, when lice, what effect the book would have? the Coadjutor pursued a plan not less “ None, Sir, replied M. d'Argenson, intemperate and undecided

that can give you uneafinefs. The His account of that strange scene manner in which the Cardinal speaks which happened in the great saloon of himself, the frankness with which of the palace, where he meant to as- he displays his own character, confaslinate the Prince of Condé, would fesses his faults, and informs us of the appear apocrypbal at this day, if it had ill success of his imprudent behaviour, not been witnessed and related by peo- will never encourage any body to imiple of both parties : but that the prin- tate him ; on the contrary, his misforcipal actor should relate it with all the tunes will be a lesson to the factious, . frankness and naiveté imaginable, is and to those who impertinently med: without example.

dle in matters that do not concern In the year 1652 the Coadjutor them. I do not know why he left obtained the Cardinal's hat ; but he this general confession in writing ; but would have had it sooner, if he had if it has been published in the hope maintained a different conduct. He that his frankness may operate his paris not the only person in the world don with the public, the editors will who has taken pains to counteract undoubtedly be mistaken.” the good intentions of fortune, and to However probable it might appear render problematical the best-ground to my father, that this would be the ed hopes. If he could not lose the effect of these Memoirs, it is certain hat after having obtained it, his sub- that the opinion of the public was vesequent conduct tended to make him'ry different; for in the year 1718 the lose the public esteem and consider. Regent again mentioned the subject

Characters of Fontenelle, of Montesquieu, and Henault. 323 to my father, who was then Keeper tate him. The Memoirs of Joly failof the Seals ; and it was found necef- ed in the effect: they were written in sary to think of something to counter- a less captivating style than those of act the ill effects which the Memoirs the Cardinal, and the author was conhad produced. It was agreed to print fidered as an ungrateful and dishonest the Memoirs of Joly, who had been servant, who calumniated the master his secretary: these were still in the whose bread he had eaten ; while the library of M. de Caumartin, who was openness of the Cardinal pleased every averse to their being made public, be- one. In short, the thoughtless and cause he had made Cardinal de Retz meddling continued to love the Carblacker than the Cardinal had made dinal de Retz, and to imitate him, himself. But the 'Regent was anxi- whatever might happen to themselves ; ous to decry the Cardinal, to fhew while no body took the lide of Me him for what he was, and to disgust Joly. those that might have a fancy to imi

Characters of Fontenelle, of Montesquieu, and of Henault *. I Have often heard it said, that he we can be kind to another ? persecu

I who is not a bitter enemy, can- tors before we can be protectors ? No, not be a zealous friend; the meaning for my part, I declare myself a feeble of which no doubt is, that he who enemy, not only in power but in in- . does noť carry to extremity the effects tention, although I am a very zealous of his hatred and revenge, will not and very firm friend. exert himself with ardour in the ser. If I have been sometimes falsely vice of his friends. But let us dif- accused of indifference for people with tinguish between the enormities into whom I am intimate, there are three which we may be led by our paffions, of my friends that deserve such reand the consequences of a wise and proach Itill more than I do, though I prudent attachment: friendship ought do not esteem them the less on that always to be of this fort; when it account. They are people well known rises into passion, it forfeits in part our in the world, M. de Fontenelle, the esteem and respect; it is attended with President de Montesquieu, and Presiall the dangers of love, which is the dent Henault. source of as many faults as hatred or The first is accusedand convicted of a 1 revenge. God preserve us from ei- fortof apathy,blameable perhaps as itrether loving or hating to excess : yet gards others, but excellent as it regards we must indulge the paslion of love to his own preservation ; for being occua certain degree; the heart of man pied solely with himself, and being amihas need of this sentiment, which me- able enough to make others concern liorates the mind when it does not themselves about him, he has had leiblindfold it. But hatred and revenge sure to take care of his weak and deliare unceasing tormentors: we are hap- cate constitution; he has always enjoypy while we do not hate ; but while ed his pleasures, and finds himself now we love with reason, is it impossible at the eightieth year of his age, in to serve our friends with ardour, with the pleasing hope of seeing the revoaffection, with constancy, with obsti- lution of a compleat century. Each nacy? Must we be cruel to one before year procures him an additional de

Rr 2
* From the fame; and written about the same time.


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gree of merit, and adds to the interest ments; but we forgive him, and even
we take in his existence. We look love him the more for it; for we love
upon him as on one of those master. him for himself, without demanding
pieces of art which have been finished or expecting a return. We may say
with the most exquisite delicacy and of him what Madame du Deffant said
care, and which we are at pains to of her cat : “ I am fond of him to
prefcrve entire, as such are not made distraction, for he is the most amiable
every day. He not only reminds creature in the world: I trouble mye
us of the fine age of Lewis XIV. self little about the degree of affection
that age so noble and so grand, which he has for me: I should be wretched
some of us have seen end, but like if I were to lose him ; for I feel, that
wife of the wit of the Benserades, of the while I employ myself in cherishing
Saint Evremonts, and of the Scuderies, my cat, I multiply and prolong my
while he breathes the spirit of the ho- own enjoyments.”
tel de Rainbouillet, which he inhaled The President de Montesquieu is not
on the spot. He is possessed of the so old as Fontenelle, and has as much
fame spirit now softened and perfec- genius, but of a different kind. We
ted, adapted to the complexion of expect more from the President in
our age, less obscure, less pedantic company, because he has more viva-
than that of the beaux-esprits that city, seems more active, niore suscep-
founded the Academy, less precife tible of enthusiasm. But at bottom,
than that of Julia d'Angernes, and of their hearts are of the fame temper.
her mother. His conversation is ex. Montesquieu disquiets himself for no
quisitely agreeable, abounding in the body, nor has he ambition enough to
most delicate strokes and lively fallies, make himself uneasy : he reads, he
and in anecdotes keenly satirical, tho' travels, he collects information, and
never ill natured, as they relate only he writes, merely for his own plea-
to subjects of literature or gallantry, fure. As he has a great deal of wit,
and to the little bickerings incident to he makes an admirable use of what he
social life. All his tales are short, knows, particularly in his books, for
and on that account the more striking; in conversation he is careless, and is
and they have all an epigrammatic turn, not ambitious of shining. He has
which is essential to a good story, preserved the gascon accent, which he

The eloges pronounced by him at the acquired in his native place (Bour. · Academy of Sciences are in the fame deaux,) and thinks it beneath him to

style with his conversation, and are correct it. He does not take pains consequently delightful : but I am not with his style, which is more fpright. sure that the manner in these is what ly and nervous than pure; he does not it ought to be: he confines himfelf too study method or connection in his wrimuch to the personal circumstances of tings, and thus they are rather plea. the Academicians, endeavours to draw sing than instructive. He early actheir character, and to describe the par- quired a taste for a kind of bold phia ticulars of their private life; and, as losophy, which he has mingled with he is an excellent painter, his portraits the gaiety and levity of the French are admirable : may we not, however, manner; and it is this which makes say of them, that they relemble those the charm of his Persian Letters. But beautiful engravings that we find be- if, on one hand, this book exched adfore the works of some heroes ? they miration, on the other it occafioned Thew us their physiognomy, but do not very well-grounded complaints : there tell us what thcy have done.

are strokes in it that a man of genia It is well known that Fontenelle is us might eafily conceive, but which peither warm nor violent in his attach- no man of prudence would have al

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