« AnteriorContinuar »
grade his merit as a philofopher, we not the person by whom Ifrael sha}} may venture to prophely, that he is be gathercd.
A Demonstration that True Philofoping has no tendency 89 undermine Divine
Revelation. By C. Morgan, M. A. to whom the Honorary Prize was ade judged by Teyler's Theological Society at Haarlem. 8vo. T WO errors have prevailed a- opinion, a thorough refutal of each of
1 mong mankind with respect to these fuppofitions. As a specimen of this very interesting topic. On the one the author's manner of writing, we hand, infidels availing themselves of a shall produce a part of his reply to the few instances of men of specious ta- objections of those who alledge that lents, who have deserted from the faith philofophy, by producing an arrogance of the gospel, have contended that it of mind, makes men prone to rejeet is a belief inconsistent with the im- the positive declarations of the Deity. provements of a mind enlarged by "While the philofophic mind is humscience. On the other hand, fome bled by the inscrutable nature of the zealous, but weak advocates for chris- essence of things; it receives another tianity, observing the same fact, have very severe check, when it proceeds taken occasion from it to decry human farther to contemplate the arrangeknowledge as hostile to the influence ments of them, and to investigate the of the gospel. Against this latter mis- ends for the accomplishment of which take the author has levelled his ar- those arrangements were formed. guments. After defining philosophy to There is nothing to be found in nabe the discovery of truth, by a careful ture, single and conne&ed. Whatever attention and investigation of the ap- now exists, owed the beginning of its pearances and operations of nature, existence to some precedent causes, is he proceeds to inquire first of all, preserved and modificd in its being, by whether such an employment of our 'the operation of things co-existent with faculties be discountenanced in the in- it; and will act, and be acted upon, spired writings? Having clearly pro. by a variety of surrounding objects at ved that this is not the cafe, he goes its dissolution. The man, whose view on to consider the question more at of things has not been enlarged by Large, and to decide upon it, by its philofophy, is able to trace this conown apparent merits, independent of nection but a very little way; and when the authority. In doing this, he par. he has got to the limit of his capacity, ticularly examines three reasons, which he persuades himself that he is advan. he supposes to be the only ones that ced as far as the operation of cause and can be ashgned why philofophy should effect extends. But the true philosohave a tendency to undermine revela- pher, whose prospect is enlarged by tion. If, That the principles of re- fcience, perceives that this connection velation and philofophy are inconsistent branches out in all possible directions ; * with each other; or, 2dly, That the that a general and mutual dependence very act of investigation is apt to pro- appears to be established in nature, and duce doubt and uncertainty; or, 3dly, that the production of events is often
That knowledge itself has, in its own discovered, upon minute examination, * niature, a tendency to introduce unbe- to depend upon circumstances apparentlief.
ly the most adverse. The improve. . The reader will find a very candid ment of philosophy by the discovery and judicious examination, and, in our of acw, and hitherto unheard-uf branch
Barton's Account of fome American Antiquities. tes of this connection, teaches us to viction which philofophy affords, that be very modest in our decisions; when all the works of nature are parts of an every step that we take, not only ene immense system; a very inconsiderable Jarges, but varies the prospect, and portion of which, is exposed to our often shews those things to be fit and scrutiny, and that there is scarcely proper, harmonious and beautiful, any thing in the whole compass of nawhich we once considered as rude and ture so simple, or insignificant, that deformed. Indeed nothing can be all its relations and correspondences conceived better calculated to repress can be discovered by the most pene
arrogance and temerity, than the con- trating genius." er of it Obfervations on fome Parts of Natural History. Part I. By Benjamin Smith
Barton, M. A. 8vo. Cicing are en Mit D THIS Number of a larger work method of supporting the sides. Even cicas o de 1 contains one subject entire, and the existence of wells, except in counGorice it is an important one. Allusions have tries exposed to a tropical fun, seems cabe not often been made to some remains on the to show an European origin. The Git recerca continent of America, ofa more polished tiles and pottery do not prove that when it and cultivated people, when compared there were inhabitants anterior to the late the it with the tribes which possessed it on tribes which the Europeans discovered. to include its first discovery by Europeans. Mr They had vessels of clay, burned in lihamas Barton has collected the scattered hints the fire, and the glazing may have Tere food of Kalm, Carver, Filson, and some been accidental from the occasional - to be parts others, and has added a plan of a re- mixture of sand. Stone walls mult merede, Vi gular work, which has been discovered have continued many years ; and if te bewerking on the banks of the Muskingum, near America had ever been inhabited by a event its junction with the Ohio. These civilized race, their vestiges would din instante remains are of different kinds; they have been discovered in many difai permite are stone walls ; wells lined with brick; ferent places ; at present, the account con lo tiles and other pottery unglazed ; and of walls, supposed to be anterior nie die we think that we have met with some to the period of the inhabitants,
relations in which they were said to is light and fufpicious. In short, of many have been glazed ; large mounds of this extensive list of proofs, we can
earth, and a combination of these select only the account of the mounds mounds with the walls, suspected to and walls beyond the Apallachian chain, have been fortifications. In some places on which we can with any security rest. the ditches and the fortress are said to The mounds of earth are of two have been plainly seen ; in others, fur- kinds; they are artificial tumuli, de. rows, as if the land had been ploughed. figned as repositories for the dead;
The sides of the wells, supported or they are of a greater size, for the by bricks, were discovered many years purpose of defending the adjacent coun
after the first population of America try; and with this view they are artiher you by Europeans; and brick, employed ficially constru&ed, or advantage is
for this purpose, is so very obviously taken of the natural eminences, to raise artificial, and the production of Eu- them into a fortification. The author's rope, that we must attribute it to the fyftem is, shortly this, that America early settiers. The old wells in Eng. was peopled from the north of Europe, land are constructed by means of stone; probably by the Danes, who landed
and, in a country where stone is not on the coast of Labrador, and gradually bir pot wanting, it would be the most obvious advanced to a more genial climate,
pp . - , i...in decling
leaving their temporary fortresses, and that they are wholly artificial, it is adt marks of their progress, till they reach- from thence clear that America was ed Mexico, where we find similar peopled by the Danes, or indeed, ex. Structures *
cept in the northern parts, by any Ex• It is evident that the smaller mounds, ropean nation. Perhaps the author's · were intended for sepulchres, and the facts may be applied to different purlarger ones, which have been hitherto poses. opened, seem to have been designed We know that the Mexicans had a · for the same purpose. We know not, tradition that their ancestors came therefore, whether they may not be from the north-welt ; and these renatural eminences; and, since we have marks of civilization, in the direction been acquainted with the labours of the from Mexico, contribute to support it: Termites, it is not certain that they may but they do not support any particular pot have been the works of inseats f. origin, either if we suppose them to be It has been supposed by some of the vestiges of a nation, or of the colony historians of Mexico, that their eleva- from whom they derived their peculiar ted buildings were only these natural manners, or their civilized frate. mounds covered; and the opinion These remains are undoubtedly curiis supported by the access to the top ous and important; they deserve a being on the outside, and no internal minute investigation, and may perpart of the structure being visible. haps contribute to elucidate the oriThe same opinion has prevailed rela- gin of the Mexican and Peruvian na. ting to the pyramids of Egypt, tholigh tions. It is not necessary, in this these have been partially excavated. inquiry, to suppofe any remote period At all events, if we allow that fimilar for these structures, since even the eminences are observed in Ireland, and vast bulk of the trees which grow on
them [This article is taken from the Critical Review, and the following Notes are added by a Gentleman who is intimately acquainted with the fubject.]
* The sense of the Author is here evidently misrepresented. It does not, by any means, appear to be his opinion," that America'was peopled from the north of Europe;" on the contrary, in the introduction to his work, he has expressly said, that " it is more & probable it has been peopled from a thousand sources;” and, towards the conclusion, we find the following pallage :““ Even the warmest favourer of the doctrine of feparate « creatioris cannot but view the posterity of the Greenlanders in the wretched inhabitants to of LABRADOR : he cannot but confess the amazing fimilitude of the Iroquois to fome “ of the nations inhabiting the north-east parts of Asia.” From an attentive perufal of Mr Barton's work, this appears to be his real meaning : That the Tolticas, or some or ther Mexican nation, were the people to whom the mounts and fortifications, which he has described, owe their existence; and that those people were probably the descendants of the Danes. The former part of this conjecture seems to carry more than probability with it, from the similarity of the Mexican mounts and fortifications described by the Abbe Clavigero, and other' authors, to those described by our author; and from the tradition of the Mexicans, that they come from the north-wejt ; for, if we can rely on the testimony of late travellers, fortifications fimilar to those mentioned by Mr Barton have been discovered as far to the north as Lake Pepin; and we find them, as we approach to the south, even as low as the coasts of Florida. The second part of our author's conjecture is, indeed, not so well supported : it is however highly probable, that several centuries before Columbus there fublisted some intercourse between the northern parts of Europe and those of America t.
+ From the great regnlarity of some of the mounts that are mentioned by our author, there cannot be the least shadow of doubt that they are the workmanship of man: the history of thc Termites does not furnish us with any thing, in their curious laboars, that can entitle us to deny what our author has advanced on this subject : befides, it is to be remembered, that these insects have never been discovered, at least so far as we know, in those parts of America, * See Edin, Mag. Vol. IV, p. 134. from Foriter's Northern Discoveries
Remains of Antiquity in America.
343 Them will not carry them beyond two is a large level, encompassed by walls, centuries * ; and we shall nót, at any nearly in the form of a square, the rate, be obliged to go much farther sides of which are from ninety-six to back than the shipwreck mentioned eighty-six perches in length. These in Mr Forster's relation t. If, after walls are, in general, about ten feer all, we must be obliged to fix the ori- in height above the level on which gin of the population of the western they stand, and about twenty feet in parts of America, the force of evidence diameter at the base, but at the top is rather in favour of the south, than they are much narrower : they are, at. of the north-east parts of Europe. The present, overgrown with vegetables ära of the event mentioned by Mr Form of different kinds, and, among others, Iter is much too recent for that pure with trees of several feet diameter. pose ; but, in a series of ages, similar . The chasms, or openings in the occurrences could not be very uncom- walls, were probably intended for mon.
gate-ways : they are three in number As a specimen of this volume, we at each side, besides the smaller openshall transcribe the general description ings in the angles. of the remains near the banks of the "Within the walls there are three Muskingum: the particular descrip- elevations, each about six feet in height, tion is illustrated by a plate.
with regular ascents to them : it is un: • These remarkable remains are fi- necessary to describe these elevations, tuated about one mile above the junc- as they are represented in the plan on tion of that river with the Ohio, and a scale proportionate to the other parts; one hundred and sixty miles below and as their forms are better expressed Fort Pitt.
by the drawing than they could be by • They consist of a number of walls the most studied description : I shall and other elevations, of ditches, &c. only observe, that they confiderably rea together occupying a space of ground semble fome of the eminences which about three hundred perches in length, have been discovered near the river and from about one hundred and fifty Mississippi, and of which I have als to twenty-five or twenty in breadth, ready given some account.' • • The town, as it has been called,
* It will, perhaps, require fomething more than a bare affertion to prove this : had the trees, of which our author makes mention, been carefully examined, their antiquity might have been known with tolerable accuracy: but as this is not the case, we muft be content to observe, that, considering the situation of these trees, it is not probable that , they would have increased more than one foot diameter in a century.
+ Even allowing that the ship, of which Dr Forster makes mention, was wrecked On the coast of America, which is, at best, only a gratuitous supposition, yet it is certain, * that the origin of the Mexican, or of the Peruvian Empire, can neither of them be dam .ted from the æra of that event; for we have histories (deemed authentic) of those two nations of a much earlier date. But still, it seems highly probable, from several circumftances, that both of these empires were constituted by the inhabitants of China, and of Japan : but on this head we shall say nothing further at present, as the public will probably shortly have it in their power to see the several arguments which can be addu. ced in support of this opinion, in an intended work on the 5 Origin of the Mexicaa aad Peruvian Empires.".
Singular Visijitudes in the Life of Noor-Jehan, Queen of the Emperor Ichana
gire.-A true Story. THB Mohammedan holds virtue in Directed by a knowledge of the pla
1 women to depend on the prevention nets, the commencement of his journey of intercourse and opportunity: but, ae was prosperous. The glowing expecta. bove all, feclufion is ordained to true be- tion of advancement, in a land flowing lievers in the Koran of the most holy with milk and honey, made him inattenprophet.
. tive to little difficulties. He already, in In Mohammedan Afia, however, there imagination, felt himself pofleffed of cong have been exceptions, and those too of a fequence and riches. The glad tidings, commanding bature, which have come he supposed communicated to his friends bated the efablifhed fyftem of immuring and he enjoyed in thought, the services women in the feraglio. Instances have he hould be enabled to render to his fae been known where the restraints imposed mily: but the fairy wanderings of delu
pon them have been burst, and where five fancy are frequently preludes to the females of the highest rank and preten- keenest grief. “ To heaven they raise fions have not only appeared in private “ us, but to plunge us deeper in despair." to the male friends of their families, but Unhappily for him, the season of the year, even in public, to the astonishment in. was far advanced, the windings of the deed at first, but afterwards to the ad- desert became at every step more intri miration of a people both bigotted and cate ; his provisions began to fail : no tenacious. One thail ferve our prefent homely roofs were in fight, which could purpose. It was in the person of the either yield succour or refreshment: the Queen of the Emperor lehangire: a prin- fun too, in his annual progress, had ar: etis, whose story has employed the pens rived in that situation in the heavens, of poets and historians, and the singular from whence he darted his fierceft rays riciiftudes of whole life are worthy to and the wife of his bosom was in hourly be recorded.
expectation of presenting him with i Å To give a proper idea of this extraor- pledge of their afections. dinary woman, it will be necessary to go Three days he continued in this situa, a little farther back than the æra when tion, when on the fourth, and when his the appeared as Empress of the East. ftore was quite exhausted, heaven, as in Her father was hy birth a Tartar, and mockery, made him the father of a of a noble family, but, as frequently is daughter. In this event, indeed, the cup the case among thofe wandering tribes of of his afflictions was bitterly overflowed. Scythia, the patrimony he inherited was But the rational mind is not to be fright. inconsiderable. The pride of blood, how- ened from its native dignity. He faw the ever, kept him fuperior to his fortune. horrors with which he was surrounded: His genius taught him to feel that there his heart bled at them, as a, man, as a was karcely any thing beyond the reach husband, and as a parent; but complaint of man; he therefore refolutely deter- was unavailing, and no resource was in
inedion cultivating the understanding defpair. With a determined foul, there. he was master of, and which he knew to fore, and with a countenance ferene and be good, though it was wild. Imprefs awfully refigned, be foftly withdrew his fed thus with a spirit of enterprize, and daughter from his wife, who, from ex. a thirft for knowledge, Haja-Ayafs ea. cefs of languor, had fallen into a sleep, gerly began on the effential and preparaç and gathering for it the largest portion *tory steps for the object he had in view ; of the little valuables he had left, he pla *and, in a short time, having so far fuc- ced it, with its humble fortune, under cecded as to excel in all the manly, mar- the shelter of a bush. “ God may find tial exercises of the field, as well as in the « thee aid," cried he, “I cannot. Thou cooler and more deliberate business of the “ mayeft be found by travellers able to cabinet, he chearfully collected the little “ assist thee. Charity may prompt thein fortune he was master of, difcharged the 66 to befriend thee. If thou goeft in these debts with which he was encumbered, “ arms, thou wilt fall by famine. Thy and, having bade adieu to his compa- “ mother is almost dead, and my hour nions, he departed, in a truly primitive " comes with hasie upon me. Fare thec style, for the deserts which feparate Tar. “ well! Blessings unheard of yet be show. tary from Hindoftan; his wife, a horse, "ered upon thee. Providence is merci. and a few days provifion, being the on- « ful; and thy helpless innocence is furely treasure he could call his own. “ ly worthy of its protection.” More