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INTRODUCTION TO BOOK 1.

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supply the one sacrifice for sin ; who “committed His spirit into God's hand" (xxxi. 5), and "delighted to do God's will” (xl. 8), even when that will demanded of Him that, taking on Him the burden of human iniquity, He should find “innumerable evils compassing Him" and depressing Him into “the horrible pit” of intensest mental agony. And, as it had been with sanctified David, so in an infinitely higher degree should it be with the righteous and holy Son of David. “As for me, Thou upholdest me in mine integrity, and settest me before Thy face for ever (xli. 12).

Obs. In one Psalm (xxii), the agonizing sufferings of the Holy One are set forth in language which far transcends any that could have possibly been used by David about himself, or even about (what some have suggested) an “Ideal Righteous Man."

It may be noticed that, as Isaiah liji is the middle chapter of the second portion of Isaiah, so Ps. xxii occupies the centre of the body of the Psalms (iii-xli) of the First Book.

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PSALM 1.A $

The present and everlasting contrast between the righteous and the wicked.

$ The first and second Psalms weld the Law and the Psalter together. Ps. I looks back to the general revelation of God's will in the Law; Ps. II looks on to the special manifestation of God's will (choq, v. 7) in the kingdom of His Son, which is the grand subject of the Psalter. Each speaks of the blessedness of accepting, the wretchedness of rejecting, the revealed will of God.

Thus the two psalıns bind the Mosaic and the Davidic covenants in close con. tinuity. Sinai and Sion are but different exhibitions of the same essential Will. The word uttered amidst the thunders of Sinai conducts the righteous to true and aviding happiness; the decree, that made Sion the “joy of the whole earth." is full of terror to the ungolly. The law given on Mount Sinai was the very heart of the Ark of Testimony; and the temple on Mount Sion depended for its glory on the presence of Him who made that Ark His throne.

He who loved God's law would rejoice in the establishment of His kingdom. None would rebel against the "Lord's Anointed," who had not ALREADY gone astray from His revealed Will.

I

OH
H happy the man

That has not walked in the counsel? of the

wicked, And has not stood in the way of sinners“, And has not sate in the seat of scorners. Obs. 1. The connection of the two Psalms was recognised of old : (a) by the Jewish tradition which said that the first Psalm begins and ends with “Oh happy" (i. 1, ii. 12); (6) by the reading èv TỰ púto vaduw, which is found in some mss. in Acts xiii. 33. (In four mss. of Kennicott, and three of De Rossi, the two psalms are joined together.)

Obs. 2. Compare also the "meditate" of i. 2 and il. 1, and the “way ... perishing” of i. 6 and ii. 12.

KT In combination with Psalm I, study especially the following passages :Numb. xvi, 1-33; Josh. i. 1-9; Jer. xvii. 5-14.

1 Ashrey.--Almost the last utterance of Moses (Deut. xxxiii. 29), was, “Happy art thou, Israel.” That was the purpose of the Law; to make men happy. The Psalter links itself on to the Law by that word, as also does the Gospel; for our Lord, in proclaiming the rules of His kingdom, began with “Happy are ...." St. Matt. v.

2 Has not adopted their suggestions, followed their line of policy, gone off into their views or ways of thinking. See 2 Chr. xxii. 5, the only other place where the exact phrase occurs; though nearly the same is found in Ps. Ixxxi. 12 (13); Mic. vi. 16; Jer. vii. 24.

Obs. Etsah is used of Ahithophel's policy in 2 Sam. xv. 31, 34 ; xvi. 23 ; xvii. 14, 23.

3 Reshaim—the opposite of “righteous,” v. 6. See Gen. xvii. 23, 25; Exod. xxiii. 7; Ps. xlv. 7. Originally the word seems to denote the restless character of men who are guided by self-will. (See Isai. lvii. 20; Job iii. 17.) LXX. doeßwv; E.V. ungodly; -which are substantially correct; for the man of lawless impulses must really have cast aside the fear of God. See Job xxi. 15, 16, xxii. 18; (where the same phrase occurs.)

4 Chattäim-open and avowed offenders, habitual transgressors— Gen. xiii. 13; Numb. xvi. 38 (xvii. 3, Heb.). Cp. on v. 5.

Standing implies that he has taken up his position among them. His associations are fixed.

6 Moshav.—The Greek versions have kadédpa,"chair" or“ bench"; used in cvii. 32 of a seat of official dignity.

6 Letsim-men who deride the thought of religious obligationProv. xxi. 24. “Haughty, arrogant man! Scorner is his name." Cp. Jer. Χν. 17. Ag. χλευαστών.

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2 But in the law of the Lord is his delight",

And in His law will he meditate day and night®. 3 And he shall be as a tree planted by streams of

water, Which will yield its fruit in its season, And whose leaf shall not wither : And in all that he does he shall prosper". The first step was to accept the views—the clever, seeming-wise, views_of men who in heart were ungodly. In the second stage, the man is no longer swayed from without; he acts habitually on wrong principles. Then, at last, he becomes a leader, an authority, a propagandist of impiety.

7 His heart's affections rest in- it ; His will (LXX. Deanua) wholly coincides with it. Cp. Rom. vii. 22, ovvñdouai vóug ; Ps. xl. 8 (9); xix. 8, 10.

The Law supplies him with “counsel," cxix. 24. Cp. lxxiii. 24.

Obs. Love to God is the foundation of the righteousness here set before us.

8 According to the command given to Joshua (Josh. i. 8) ;-a sufficient proof that the “meditation ” belongs to the heart and con. science rather than to the intellect. LXX. pelethoel.

“The Law of God is his delight ;

That cloud by day, that fire by night,
Shall be his comfort in distress,

And guide him through life's wilderness.”—J. MONTGOMERY, Obs. The first Psalm recalls to our minds him who gave Israel its inheritance in Canaan. The second Psalm sets before us the greater Joshua, who should extend the Church to the “utmost parts of the earth.”

Shathul —properly used of a transplanted tree; and so Aq. μεταπεφυτευμένον. He is not left to the efforts of nature, but taken beneath the gardener's care, and placed in a favourable soil. Cp. xcii. 13 ; Jer. xvii. 8; and observe in Jer. xvii. 6 the antithesis, “the desert heath,” (LXX. ảyplouvpikn.)

10 Palgey branch-canals drawn from a river for irrigation. Cp. xlvi. 4; Ezek. xxxi. 4.

What river but “the river of the water of life,”—the Spirit of God ?- Rev. xxii. 2.

11 Another reference to Josh. i. 8; but also cp. Gen. xxxix. 23.

4 Not so are the wicked,

But like chaff which the wind scatters? 5 Therefore13 the wicked shall not stand up in the

judgment", Nor sinners in the congregation of the righteous; 6 For the Lord knows the way of the righteous,

But the way of the wicked shall perish18.

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29).

12 The chaff disappears in the winnowing. It has no vitality,no power of “taking root downward and bearing fruit upward.”

13 Because thus destitute of spiritual vitality.

14 But sink down abashed and self-condemned. Cp. xxiv. 3; Mal. iii. AU, indeed, shall rise ; but “they who have done evil ” only, alas ! "to the resurrection of condemnation” (St. John v. Corderius : cadent causa sua.

15 The Chaldee has, “ In the great day."

16 Edah-used in the book of Numbers seventy eight times of the “Congregation” of Israel. See especially Numb. xvi, xvii. The Church in the wilderness contains ungodly men ; but on the Day of Doom “sinners shall be consumed out of the earth" (civ. 35), and “the people shall be all righteous” (Isa. Ix. 21).

17 Takes loving note of ; Nahum i. 7. Cp. 2 Tim. ii. 19; “The Lord knows them that are His":-referring to Numb. xvi. 5 ; "In the morning the Lord will even make known who are His, and who is holy.” The issue was that “those wicked men " (v. 26) “perished from amidst the congregation" (v. 33).

18 So ends another psalm that begins with ashrey, cxii. 10.

This “way that perishes” is the contrast of the “way everlasting" of cxxxix. 24, and of the “everlasting paths " (nethivoth olam) of Jer. vi. 16.

Obs. This last passage is referred to (Matt. xi. 28-30) by our Lord when He was inviting men to take His "easy yoke" upon them. (Cp. note on ii. 3.)

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II.A

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HY do the nations make an uproar",

' And the peoples meditate a vain thing? 2 Earth's kings station themselves“,

And princes have plotted together,

Against the LORD and against His Anointed" ; 3

“Let us burst in sunder their bands
And hurl away from us their cords."

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masses

A The contrast, to which we were introduced in the preceding Psalm, is here depicted in its most concentrated form :-allegiance to, or rebellion against, God and His Son.

The Psalm is one of the most regular as regards structure, four stanzas of three verses each.

KT Read Gen. xi. 1-9. Dan. vii. 9-14. 1 Goyim specially designates the nations as heathen. Cp. Isai. xlix. 6; Deut. xxxii. 43. The word in the next line, leümmim, of people,” occurs in parallelism with goyim in xliv. 2, 14 ; cv. 44, etc.

2 Rageshu-here only. The Chaldee verb is used in Dan. vi. 6, 11, 15 (7, 12, 16). LΧΧ. έφρύαξαν. Αq. εθορυβήθησαν.

3 Contrasted with the “meditate” of i. 2. What they are agi. tating with so much tumult is, to set aside God's declared will and to set up a power independent of Him ;-an essentially vain project, contradicting the very nature of things, and therefore necessarily doomed to come to nought.

4 The word used of Goliath taking up his station to defy Israel. 1 Sam. xvii. 16. Cp. xciv. 16.

5 Meshicho-His anointed King.–See xviii. 50; xx. 6. Cp. xlv. 7 ; 1 Sam. ii. 10 ; xvi. 6 ; xxiv. 7, 11 (Heb.) In Daniel's time the name had become so usual a designation of the future Redeemer that he employed it without the article : "until Messiah Prince" (ix. 25); just as in apostolic writings Xplotós occurs without the article.

Obs. 1. 2 Sam. xix. 21 (22 Heb.) (immediately after Absalom's rebellion), “Abishai said : Shall not Shimei be put to death for this, because he cursed the Lord's anointed ?

Obs. 2. The two chief titles of the Saviour, “ Christ,” and “Son of God," are both found in this Psalm ;-see St. Matt. xxvi. 63; St. Jobn vi. 69.

6 They speak of themselves as already bound -already subjects

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