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CHAPTER XVI.

The revolution not effected without great sacrifices and sufferings on the part

of the Americans-Paper money issued-Depreciates Taxes not called for

by congress until Noveinber, 1777Paper money made a tender in payment of

debts-- Prices of articles fixed by law-Congress attempt to call in the paper,

but without success—States neglect to comply with the requisitions--Con-

gress present an address to the states—Paper ceases to circulate in 1780-

Distresses of the Americans for want of funds-Apply to France for aid-

Special minister sent to the French court--King of France furnishes money

-Loans obtained in Holland--New arrangements in the civil departments

Sufferings of the army--General Washington's letters on this subject--Revolt

of the Pennsylvania line--- Americans suffer from the burning of their towns--

Discontents among the officers of the army--- Half pay recommended by gen-

eral Washington---Finally granted—Is unpopular in some of the states--Offi-

cers petition congress on this subject, and for a settlement of their accounts

---Congress delay acting on their memorial--- This creates great uneasiness

among the officers---A meeting called by an anonymous notification to obtain

redress--- Prevented by general Washington---Congress grant five years' full

pay in lieu of the half pay for life---News of peace arrives---Arrangements

made for disbanding the army---General Washington sends a circular letter to

the states---Definitive treaty of peace arrives---Ariny finally disbanded---Gen-

eral Washington addresses the army for the last time--- Takes leaves of his

officers--- Resigns his commission to congress,

154

CHAPTER XVII.*

After the peace of 1783, congress take measures to restore public credit--

Amount of the debt of the United States-States requested to vest congress

with power to levy duties on imposts, and to establish funds for the payment

of the interest of the debt-Address to the states on the subject-All the states

grant the impost, except New York-Congress propose to enter into commer-

cial treaties with most of the powers of Europe-Establish certain principles

respecting treaties--Appoint ministers to form commercial arrangements with

foreign nations --Pitt's bill respecting commercial intercourse with the United

States--Not approved by the new ministry and the navigating interest-Lord

Sheffield's observations upon it-King and council authorized to regulate the

commerce of the United States-Americans excluded from the West India

trade--Disputes with Great Britain about the inexecution of the treaty of

peace---Mr. Adams sent minister to England--His instructions--His reception

at the court of London-Presents a memorial to the British ministers, British

complain of infractions of the treaty on the part of the United States--Con-

gress recommend the repeal of all laws contrary to the treaty--Disputes with

Spain renewed about limits and the navigation of the Mississippi--Gardoqui,

minister from Spain, arrives--Mr. Jay appointed to negociate with him--His

instructions, and course of negociation with the Spanish minister--Cessions of

lands by the states—Territory of the United States formed into a district-Or-

dinance of congress for the government of the territory--Inefficiency of the

general government--Depressed state of American commerce-Insurrection in

Massachusetts--Alarms congress--Troops ordered to be raised to assist Massa-

chusetts-Meeting of commissioners from several states at Annapolis, to amend

the articles of confederation-General convention recommended by these com-

Inissioners and by congress-Delegates to this convention appointed by all the

states except Rhode Island,

179

CHAPTER XVIII.

General convention meet at Philadelphia--- Form rules for their proceedings-

Propositions of Mr. Randolph for a new system of government-Amendments

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of the articles of confederation proposed by Mr. Patterson-Both debated— The

amendments of Mr. Patterson rejected --Large majority agree to form a new

system of government---To be divided into three greai departments, legisla-

tive, executive and judicial-Legislative divided into two branches, house of

representatives and senate--Convention divided on the subject of the represent-

ation of the states in the senate-Sketch of the debate on this question --States

equally divided upon it--- The subject referred to a large committee---Commit-

tee report a compromise between the large and small states---This finally

adopted by a majority of the convention---Sketch of the powers granted to

congress---General government prohibited from doing certain acts--- The

powers of the states restricted---The organization of an executive attended

with great difficulty---Outlines of the first plan adopted by the convention---

This afterwards rejected and a new plan formed and eventually adopted---

Powers given to the executive---Judicial department to consist of a supreme

court and inferior courts--- In what cases they have jurisdiction---Constitution

eventually different, in many respects, from what the members first con-

templated--- Difference between the articles of confederation and the constitu-

tion-States divided on the subject of inporting slaves, and on the subject of

the powers of congress, relative to navigation acts--- These differences settled

by mutual concessions --General Washington's influence in the convention---

Constitution considered by state contentions---People greatly divided in some

of the states---Adopted by three states unanimously---By large majorities in

four states--- Rhode Island refuses to call a convention---The other five states

much divided---Doubtful for a time whether they would ratify it without pre-

vious amendments---Massachusetts adopts it, and recommends certain amend-

ments---Convention of New Hampshire meet and adjoum---The system

strongly opposed in New York, Virginia and North Carolina, without previous

amendments---Is warmly debated in the conventions of those states---New

Hampshire follows the example of Massachusetts--- Virginia and New York

adopt it in the same manner by small majorities---North Carolina refuses her

assent unless amended,

221

CHAPTER XIX.

States institute forms of government agreeably to the advice of congress-

States of Connecticut and Rhode Island proceed according to their charters

Massachusetts at first conform to their charter as far as practicable--New

Hampshire, South Carolina, Virginia, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware,

Maryland, and North Carolina, establish new governments in the course of the

year 1776---Those of New Hampshire, South Carolina, and New Jersey, lim-

ited to the continuance of the disputes with Great Britain---General principles

and outlines of these constitutions---New York establishes a government in

1777---Its general features---Constitution of Massachusetts not finally com-

pleted until 1730---Vermont not a part of the union until 1791---Claimed by

New York and New Hampshire--Declares independence in 1777---Outlines

of her constitution, formed in 1786---Constitution of Georgia as established in

1789---After the formation and adoption of the general government, principles

of making constitutions better understood--Pennsylvania, New Hampshire,

South Carolina, and Delaware, revise and alter their systems of governinent,

293

CHAPTER XX.

First congress under the new constitution meet at New York, on the 4th of

March, 1789---George Washington chosen president, and John Adams vice-

president---President's inaugural speech, and answers of both houses---Con-

gress lay tonnage and other duties---Give a preference to American shipping---

Establish different departments---Determine the question about the removal

of the heads of these departments--- Power of removal vested in the presi-

dent alone---Debate on this subject---The senate about equally divided upon

it--- Amendments to the constitution proposed--- A national judiciary establish-

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ed---Its powers and jurisdiction...Vessels of North Carolina and Rhode Island

placed on the same footing with those of the United States, until the 15th of

January, 1790---Congress direct the secretary of the treasury to report, at their

next session, a plan for the support of public credit---Request the president to

recommend the observance of a day of public thanksgiving and prayer---Ad-

journ to the first Monday of January, 1790---North Carolina adopts the con-

stitution in November---Speech of the president at the opening of the second

session of congress---He recommends the promotion of such manufactures,

as would render the United States independent on others for essential arti-

cles, the establishment of a good militia system, and adequate provision for

the support of public credit--- Financial plan of the secretary of the treas-

ury, submitted to the house in January-Outlines of this plan-Secretary

recommends funding the debt of the United States, and the assumption of the

state debts-- This creates great divisions and long debates in congress-Motion

to discriminate between the original holders and the assignees of the domestic

debt negatived-Assumption of the state debts violently opposed-Debates

on this question-Finally carried— Terms of funding the debts-Commission-

ers appointed to settle the accounts between the states, and principles of set-

tlement adopted-Census of the inhabitants to be taken on the first Monday

of August, 1790—Third session commences the first Monday of December,

1790—Vermont and Kentucky admitted into the union-National bank es-

tablished—Strongly opposed as unconstitutional-Cabinet divided on the

question-President decides in favor of its constitutionality-Duties laid on

spirits distilled within the United States—Opposed in congress, and in some

of the stales-Speech of the president at the opening of the first session of the

second congress in October, 1791–Ratio of representation settled--Difference

between the houses and the president as to the constitutional rule of apportion-

ment-Gen. St. Clair and his army defeated by the Indians--Opposition to

the internal duties increases—The two great parties in the United States

more distinctly marked--Cabinet divided--An inquiry into the official conduct

of the secretary of the treasury, instituted in the house of representatives

Charges exhibited against him-Negatived by a large majority-Supreme

court decides, that a state is liable to a suit in favor of individuals-An amend-

inent altering the constitution in this respect proposed and adopted—The

first term of president Washington's administration expires on the 4th of

March, 1793,

317

CHAPTER XXI.

George Washington again elected president, and John Adams vice-president

-Public feeling in America in favor of the French revolution-France declar-

ed a republic--Declare war against England and Holland-Genet a new

French minister arrives in America-Proclamation of neutrality issued-Is

strongly opposed--French minister's instructions---He is directed to form a

family or national compact with the United States—A new guaranty of the

French West Indies to be a condition of enjoying a commerce with them---

Conduct of Genet---Difference between him and the American executive---

Causes of it—Genet claims a right to arm vessels in American ports, and to

issue commissions and to enlist Americans to man them-Uses intemperate

language in his correspondence-French consuls take cognizance of prizes

---Resist the officers of the United States—Genet arms and sends out a vessel

directly contrary to the orders of the president-Threatens to appeal to the

people---President requests his recall-Genet furnished with a copy of the

letter containing this request---His insulting reply--- Issues commissions, and

engages men in South Carolina and Kentucky in hostile expeditions against the

Spanish possessions-Spirited conduct of South Carolina against such pro-

ceelinys-Conduct of the French agents in Kentucky— Their correspondence

with the governor of that state-Correspondence between the secretary of

state and governor Shelby-Conduct of the French minister supported by

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many Americans-President accused of sacrificing the interests of France-

Great mass of the people, when informed of the threat of the French minis-

ter to appeal to them, express their indignation at this, and support the presi-

dent,

356

CHAPTER XXII.

Political relations with Great Britain under the new government--The president

informally sounds the British government relative to the inexecution of the

treaty, and a commercial intercourse-Discriminating duties in the United

States claim the attention of the British ministry--Referred to the committee

of trade and plantations in September, 1789--Report of the committee on this

subject, and also with regard to the terms of a commercial treaty with the Uni-

ted States--West India trade not to be open to the Americans, nor the princi-

ple admitted that free ships should make free goods-English minister arrives

in the United States--Enters into discussion with the secretary of state on the

subject of the treaty--This discussion broken off, by the new state of things

in Europe--British orders of June 8th, 1793, relative to certain articles of pro-

visions destined to France--American government remonstrates against these

orders--Treaties between Great Britain and Russia, and other powers on this

subject--Similar orders issued by Russia and other nations in Europe--Reasons

given in justification of them- Answers of some of the European neutrals-

Algerine cruizers let loose upon American commerce in the Atlantic, in conse-

quence of a truce between Algiers and Portugal—This truce made by a British

agent-Many American vessels captured, and their crews made slaves--

Speech of the president at the opening of congress in December, 1793--Re-

port of the secretary of state concerning foreign restrictions on American com-

merce--Mr. Jefferson resigns--Mr. Madison's commercial resolutions--New

British orders respecting the West India trade-- American vessels bound to the

West Indies taken and condemned-Congress divided as to the mode of resist-

ing these aggressions on neutral rights, and obtaining satisfaction and inden-

nity--Various plans proposed in the house of representatives--British estab-

lish a new military post at the rapids of the Miami of the lake--Mr. Jay nomi-

nated minister extraordinary to London--Reasons of the president for this

mission--Mr. Jay's instructions--Non-intercourse bill passed by the house,

but rejected in the senate---Congress take measures of defense--Lay additional

intemal taxes--Pass acts to prevent the violation of the neutrality and sove.

reignty of the country---Fauchet arrives as successor to Genet---Has orders to

send Genet to France--- Requests liberty of the president to take him by force

or stratagem---President refuses his request ---Views of the French government

not changed---Mr. Morris recalled from France, and Mr. Munroe appointed

his successor---

---His instructions,

390

CHAPTER XXIII.

Insurrection in the western counties of Pennsylvania - The marshall unable to

execute process-House of the inspector burnt by the insurgents—Judge

Wilson declares that the opposition to the laws was too powerful to be sup-

pressed by ordinary judicial proceedings-Fifteen thousand militia ordered out

to suppress the insurrection--Commissioners appointed to offer terms to the

insurgents–Mail robbed-Meeting at Braddock’s field—Proceedings of the

meeting at Parkinson's ferry--Commissioners hold a conference with a com-

mittee of the insurgents--Question submitted to the people whether they

would obey the laws--The result not satisfactory, and a military force

marches into the country—The insurgents submit without resistance-Gen-

eral Wayne obtains a complete_victory over the Indians-Congress meet in

November, 1794—Speech of the president--Difference in the house concern-

ing the answer to the speech-House refuse to approve of the conduct of the

executive towards foreign nations, or to censure self-created societies—Plan

of the secretary of the treasury for the redemption of the public debt-Adopt-

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cd by congress-Secrctaries of the treasury and of war resign- Vegociations

with Spain renewed--These interrupted by Spain's joining the coalition against

France--American commerce sutters from Spanish depredations— This pro-

duces new causes of complaint-- Treaty finally concluded in October, 1795---

Negociations with Algiers for the release of American captives---Exorbitant

demands of the Dey resisted---The business of procuring the release of the

first captives placed in the hands of a religious order in France, but without

success---Treaty made with the Dey in September, 1795---Prisoners not tinal-

ly released until 1796,

421

CHAPTER XXIV.

Afr. Jay concludes a treaty with Great Britain in November, 1794-Outlines

of the treaty- The senate advise its ratification, with the exception of

one article—Treaty made public soon after-Creates great dissatisfaction

-Meetings of the citizens held and resolutions of disapprobation adopted-

Addresses presented to the president requesting him not to sanction it-Views

of the pre ent on the subject of the treaty, and of the opposition to it-Rat-

ifies it the 14th of August-Congress meet in December-President's speech

at the opening of the session-Adet presents the colors of France to the pre-

sident--Speeches on this occasion-Petitions against the British treaty circu.

lated and signed by the people-Presented to the house of representatives

Copy of the treaty laid before the house-Resolution submitted to the house

calling on the president for Mr. Jay's instructions, with his correspondence-

Long debates on this resolution-Finally adopted-President refuses the pa-

pers-Ilis reasons for this refusal-House pass a resolution declaratory of

their rights respecting treaties-Resolution submitted to the house, declar-

ing it expedient to make provision for carrying the treaty into effect-Oc-

casions long debates---Finally carried by a sinall majority,

412

CHAPTER XXV.

Conduct of France with respect to the British treaty-French government con-

sider the treaty of 1778, at an end, after the ratification of the treaty with

Great Britain-The ultimate measures of the directory not taken until the final

vote of the house of representatives to carry it into effect-Directory require

the aid of Holland and Spain in defeating the treaty-Conduct of these na-

tions— Treaty of alliance, offensive and defensive, between France and Spain

-Spain delays fulfilling her treaty with the United States-Attempts to in-

duce the western people to form an independent empire-Instructions of the

Spanish governor to his agent on this subject-France supposed to be concern-

ed in this plan-General Washington declines being a candidate for the presi-

dency--People divided with respect to his successor-French minister sup-

posed to interfere in the election--- President Washington's last speech to con-

gresg--- He recommends among other things, the establishment of a navy---

Answers of both houses express great respect for his character, and a high

sense of his eminent services.--French depredations on American commerce---

President submits to congress a review of the conduct of the French govern-

ment towards the United States.-- His farewell address on retiring from oilice, 179

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