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L. S. Be it remembered, That on the twenty-third day of January, in the fifty-

second year of the Independence of the United States of America, A. D.
1828, TIMOTHY PITKIN, of the said District, hath deposited in this Office the Title
of a Book, the right whereof he claims as author ; in the words following--to wit :

“A Political and Civil History of the United States of America, from the year 1763
to the close of the administration of President Washington, in March, 1797 : including
a summary view of the Political and Civil state of the North American Colonies, prior
to that period. By TIMOTHY Pitkin. In two volumes.”

In conformity to the act of the Congress of the United States, entitled “ An act for
the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts, and books, to
the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned"--and
also to the act entitled “ An act supplementary to an act entitled . An act for the en-
couragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts, and books, to the au-
thors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned,' and extend-
ing the benefits thereof to the arts of designing, engraving, and etching historical and
other prints.”

Clerk of the District of Connecticut.



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Outlines of the plan of confederacy submitted to congress by Dr. Franklin, July,

1975—Not acted upon June 11th, 1776, congress appoint a committee of one

from a state to prepare a plan of confederation-Plan reported July following

--- Is debated in congress at various times until the 15th of November, 1777,

when it is adopted---Outlines of the system ---Congress divided as to terms of

union--- Particularly the mode of voting in congress, the rule of apportioning

expenses among the states, and the disposition of the western lands--- Articles

sent to the several states with a circular letter---Adopted by some states with-

out amendment---Principal amendments proposed by several states---All the

states except New Jersey, Delaware and Maryland, instruct their delegates to

ratify and sign the articles, if their amendments should be rejected by congress

-Objections of New Jersey---Congress nearly equally divided on the amend-

ment proposed about the western lands--- Articles ratified by New Jersey and

Delaware --Maryland gives special instructions to her delegates not to ratify

them, without an amendment securing the western lands for the benefit of the

union---These instructions laid before congress---States of Virginia and Con-

necticut empower their delegates to agree to the confederacy, exclusive of

Maryland---Other states unwilling to do this---Compromise about the western

lands---New York cedes for the benefit of the union her claim to lands west

of a certain line---Congress recommend to the other states to make liberal ces-

sions for the same purpose..-Virginia cedes her right to the country north

west of the Ohio---Maryland accedes to the union, and the articles signed by

her delegates March first, 1781--- The union then completed,


British Ministry call upon the people of Great Britain for voluntary contribu-

tions-Parliament meet January 20th, 1778—Ministers propose a plan of recon-

ciliation on the 17th of February—this plan contained in three bills-Purport

of the bills—Sent to America before they had passed-Governor Tryon, to

whom they are entrusted, sends them to general Washington and to the gov-

ernors of soire pf the states—General Washington transmits them to congress-

Are referred to a committee-Report made against them-Answer of governor

Trumbull to the letter of Tryon-Treaties with France arrive in May, 1778–

Are immediately ratified and published-Congress prepare an address to the

people of the United States—British commissioners arrive in America to offer

terms of reconciliation-Dr. Franklin secretly consulted as to terms, before

the commissioners left England-David Hartley and others go to France to

sound him on the subject of terms of reconciliation-Propose that America

should yield certain advantages in trade, on condition of peace-British com-

missioners arrive in America - Propose to congress certain conciliatory prop-

ositions—Congress refuse to listen to any terms short of independence and the

withdrawing of the fleets and armies—Reply of the British commissioners

Governor Johnston, one of the commissioners, sends letters to several mem-

bers of congress, and through a lady makes certain offers to Mr. Reed---Con-

gress declare this an attempt to bribe one of their body and refuse all further

intercourse with him-British commissioners present an address or manifesto

to the people of the states making the same offers they had sent to congress

- The people refuse the offers--Congress issue a counter manifesto,



French fleet and a French minister arrive in America in the summer of 1778–

French minister received with great joy-Dr. Franklin appointed minister to

France-His instructions--Plan of attacking Canada in conjunction with

France adopted by congress-submitted to general Washington-Disapproved

by him-His public and his private letters on this subject-Congress finally

relinquish the scheme-Co-operation of Spain expected-Spain declines ac-

cering to the treaties made with France-Reasons of this— Wishes security for

her own American possessions-Offers her mediation between France and

Great Britain - France accepts the mediation-Great Britain holds a corres-

pondence on the subject for some months --Refuses to have her disputes with

the Americans brought into the negociations—Rejects the final proposition of

Spain--King of Spain joins France in the war, June, 1779—This in pursuance

of a secret treaty made in April preceding-Manifestoes issued both by France

and Spain—Answered by Great Britain--Pending this mediation the British min-

ister, through Mr. Hartley, again sounds Dr. Franklin at Paris, on the subject

of reconciliation --Mr. Hartley with this view submits to him certain preliminary

propositions - Not acceded to-Object of the British minister to break the alli-

ance between the United States and France --Congress informed of the offer-

ed mediation of Spain by the French minister-Subject referred to a commit.

tee-Committee report instructions to be given to an American minister to

negociate peace--These instructions create long debates and great divisions in

Congress-Particularly about the fisheries, the boundaries and the navigation

of the Mississippi --Terms relative to peace ultimately settled in congress-

The use of the fisheries and the navigation of the Mississippi not made ultima.

ta--No treaty of commerce to be made with Great Britain, without a stipula-

tion on her part not to disturb the Americans in taking fish on the banks of

Newfoundland, &c.


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Congress offer to guaranty the Floridas to Spain, if she would accede to the trea-

ties-John Adams appointed Minister to negociate peace-John Jay, Min-,

ister to the Court of Madrid–French Minister communicates to Congress

the views of the Spanish Court concerning the western country and the navi.

gation of the Mississippi-Spain requires the United States to relinquish all

claim to the country west of the Alleghany mountains, and to the right of nav-

igating the Mississippi-In answer to this, Congress send their Ministers a

statement of their claim to the western lands, to be communicated to the

courts, both of France and Spain-Congress give additional instructions to

Mr. Adams concerning a truce-Mr. Jay's instructions varied concerning the

navigation of the Mississippi below latitude 31°-Mr. Jay arrives in Spain, in

the spring of 1780—Spanish Minister requires of him particular information

concerning the United States-Mr. Jay confers with the Spanish Minister-Is

informed that the King would not accede to the treaties--His situation very un-

pleasant-Is much embarrassed by bills drawn upon him by Congress-Span-

ish Minister engages to furnish money for the United States-Neglects to

comply with his engagement-Henry Laurens appointed Minister to Holland

-Negociations between the pensionary of Amsterdam, and the American Min-

ister, William Lee, concerning a treaty of commerce-Laurens taken on his

passage to Holland, and committed to the tower-His papers fall into the

hands of the British-War between Great Britain and Holland-Mr. Adams

appointed Minister to Holland in the room of Mr. Laurens— Presents a memo-

rial to the Dutch government–The subject referred to the several provinces

- This creates great delay-Mr. Adams demands a categorical answer-Is at

last received as a Minister, and concludes a commercial treaty-Armed neu-

trality in Europe-Principles of it approved by Congress-Mediation of the

Empress of Russia, and the Emperor of Germany-Communicated to Congress

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France assists America with troops—6000 arrive at Newport in July, 1780--

In the spring of 1781, join the American army near New York--Assist in the

capture of lord Cornwallis in October of the same year--British ministry

again attempt to make separate treaties with United States and France

Make advantageous offers to the latter--Both nations refuse to treat separately

--Change of ministry in England - Pacific overtures made by the new admin-

istration-Mr. Oswald sent to Paris on the subject--His reception by Dr.

Franklin and the French minister-Agree to treat of peace at Paris--Mr. Gren-

ville sent as minister by the British Commissioners of peace about the same

time sent to America ---Congress refuse to treat with them—Grenville declares

to Dr. Franklin that the independence of the United States was to be ac-

knowledged as a preliminary--New administration in England in consequence

of the death of the marquis of Rockingham-Lord Shelburne placed at the head

of it--Opposed to an express and open acknowledgment of American indepen-

dence-Supposed to have sent Mr. Jones to Paris secretly to sound the Amer-

ican ministers on the subject-Mr. Jones arrives at Paris--Makes an extraordi-

nary communication to Dr. Franklin--Great difficulties respecting the powers

of the British negociators--Mr. Jay refuses to treat except as the representative

of an independent nation—Views of the French minister on this subject-Gren-

ville recalled---Oswald appointed to treat with America---His powers finally

satisfactory.--Negociations commence--American commissioners and Mr. Os-

wald agree on articles concerning boundaries and the fisheries to be inserted

in a treaty if approved by the British cabinet---Sent to London---Mr. Jay

resumes negociations with Spain at Paris-Views of the Spanish and French

courts concerning the western bounds of the United States, Western line

designated by the Spanish minister-Not approved by the American ministers

---Extraordinary communication made to Mr. Jay on this subject by the sec-

retary of Vergennes—Views of France on the subject of the fisheries---Articles

sent to London not agreed to by the British court---Mr. Strachey sent to

Paris to assist Mr. Oswald in further negociations---The subjects of bounda-

ries, the fisheries, and compensation to the loyalists create great difficulties---

Finally settled by a provisional treaty---This treaty concluded by the American

minister without consulting the French court-Reasons of this---Correspon-

dence between Dr. Franklin and Vergennes on this point---Delay in the

negociations between Great Britain and France and Spain occasioned by the

demand made by Spain, for the surrender of Gibraltar---Majority of the British

cabinet agree to give up this fortress on certain conditions -- The British mon-

arch refuses to give it up on any terms---Spanish minister obliged to relinquish

the demand and treaties between those powers finally concluded---The treaties

not approved by the house of commons---Change of administration---Provis-

ional treaty ratified by the United States—The article about debts not satis-

factory to some of the states---David Hartley sent by the new ministry to

complete the definitive treaty.--Negociators not able to agree on any new

terms, or to make any commercial arrangements,


Vol. II.


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