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39. Amphitheatrum flavianion
40. Tia Sacra
p. Carina et Ceriotensis
a. Claus Turbius
B. Collis Latiaris
44. Collis Mutialis
15. Arcus Gallieni
46. Castelho Aque Juliwe
47. Ductus Aquæ Martiæ
48. Tempho Minerva Verticce
10. Dructus Aqua Claudiæ
50. Sessorion
51. Amphitheatrum Castrense
52. Rudera vulgo Sette Sale dicta
53. Suburra
64. Nympharum Neronis

57. Arcus Drusi
58. Aquæeductus in usum. Therm. Carac.
69. Arau Aquce Claudia
60. Voniomentum Cesti
62. Mons Testaceus
62. Navale
63. Pons Sublicius
64. Pons Palatinus
66. Pons Fabricius
66. Pons Centrs
67. Pons Janiculensis
68. Pons Triomphalis
69. Pons Elius

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Published as the Act directs, for the Author, by Jaxph Parker. Oxford. 1825.

GEOGRAPHICAL AND HISTORICAL

DESCRIPTION

ANCIENT ITALY;

WITH

A MAP, AND A PLAN OF ROME.

BY

THE REV. J. A. CRAMER, M. A.

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Adde tot egregias urbes, operumque laborem," : "
Tot congesta manu præruptis oppida saxis :

.::, Fluminaque antiquos præterlabentia muros.

GEORG. II. 155.

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711-YOR! OXFORD, AT THE CLARENDON PRESS,

MDCCCXXVI.

PREFACE.

As Italy, from its political circumstances, has always afforded greater facilities to the traveller and topographer for exploring the remains of antiquity with which it abounds, than Greece and Asia Minor, its rivals in celebrity and classical interest, it is reasonable to expect that its comparative geography should in consequence be better understood and more definitively settled, than that of either of those two countries. Nor will this expectation prove groundless, when we examine the materials possessed by the geographer for constructing a map illustrative of the ancient condition and history of Italy, every part having now been so thoroughly investigated by foreign as well as native antiquaries, that there is hardly a site of any historical importance which has not been identified with sufficient accuracy and precision. From thence it is obvious, that the writer who follows so beaten a track must renounce all hope of communicating original information, and content himself with the humbler, though not less useful task, of giving publicity to the researches of others; and

thus, by collecting what is detached and dispersed, endeavour to condense knowledge and simplify instruction. This in fact has been the author's object in the work now presented to the public; having himself experienced the want of a compendious, yet more than elementary guide to the topographical and classical antiquities of a country so universally admired, he was induced to form the design of supplying, in some degree, that deficiency for the benefit of others.

Since the publication of the Italia Antiqua of Cluverius, no detailed work on the same subject has, I believe, appeared, either in this country or on the continent; that book therefore still continues to be the great repertory from which the critic, as well as the tourist, derives his information on the classical geography of Italy. But highly valuable as this elaborate compilation must always be accounted, it cannot be denied that the vast fund of learning which it contains might be rendered more generally accessible and useful, by being reduced to a less bulky and antiquated form. Its size indeed necessarily precludes it from obtaining a place in the traveller's library, while the language in which it is written, being now no longer the common medium of instruction, must, to

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