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the English student at least, give it the character of a book of reference, rather than one of general use. The Italia Antiqua, which was itself published in an unfinished state, received, not many years after its appearance, numerous emendations in the shape of notes, from the pen of Lucas Holstenius, the fellowtraveller of Cluverius; who, from his own subsequent researches and long residence in Italy, was enabled to correct and improve in many points the labours of that geographer, especially with regard to the measurements of distances; Cluverius not having been sufficiently careful to distinguish between the ancient and modern Italian miles, whereas six of the former are only equivalent to five of the latter. The advance which has since been made in the comparative geography of Italy, if we except the names of Cellarius, D’Anville, and the Abbé Chaupy, is to be attributed chiefly to the industry of native antiquaries; such as Durandi, Oderigo, and Filiasi, in the northern provinces; Fabretti, Corradini, Volpi, and Nibby, in Latium ; Pratilli, Mazzocchi, Antonini, and Romanelli, in Campania, Samnium, and Magna Græcia. From these authorities, as well as from those writers who have each described the antiquities of his own particular city and its district, I have derived most of the topographical information contained in these volumes. The latter class is very numerous, as almost every place remarkable in ancient times has thus furnished matter for a separate dissertation ; many of these, however, I have been unable to procure, while several on the other hand have been found to contain nothing that repaid the trouble of perusing them.

As the study of ancient geography can only be deemed useful from its connexion with history, it seemed desirable to render the present publication especially illustrative of that more important branch of knowledge; and by a frequent reference to the classical writers of antiquity, to give it a greater interest than it could have laid claim to as a work of mere topographical nomenclature. I have therefore attempted to embody the mass of quotations, collected by Cluverius, with those I could add to their number, so as to exhibit a succinct but connected account of each people and city as they occur in geographical order, taking care at the same time always to refer the reader to the original text, of which I more commonly present him only with the substance ; although in some passages of peculiar interest a literal translation has been supplied. But as the poetical citations would of course lose much of their value by being rendered in a different language, they have been retained in the words of the author from whence they are selected. The advantage of such a plan was long since pointed out by a writer who had studied with great attention the antiquities of Italy, with a view of giving to the world the result of his labours, and who would have been far more competent to do justice to the subject-I allude to Gibbon : that historian, however, did not complete his intention, having only prepared for the purpose a small body of notes and extracts, which have been published in the third volume of his miscellaneous works.

However copiously the topography of ancient Rome may have been treated of by others, it ought not for that reason to be passed over unnoticed in a general description of Italy; and as the Roma Antica of Nardini still maintains its superiority among the books that have been written on that head, I imagined that I should best consult the advantage of the antiquarian student, by furnishing him with an epitome of that valuable work, taken from the improved edition published in 1818 by Antonio Nibby, a name well known to those who have visited Rome.

The plan of the city, which will be found at the end of this volume, has been copied, with some slight variations, from that prefixed to Nibby's edition.

I have now only to add, that the map which is destined to accompany these volumes has been chiefly arranged on the basis of that of modern Italy by Orgiazzi, compared with Arrowsmith's and other maps, which have been more recently published in France and Italy. General perspicuity in the physical delineation of the country has been more attended to than minuteness of detail in the subordinate parts; and with a view of rendering it further serviceable to the purposes of history, references have been inserted to those military events which may be considered more particularly deserving of notice ; such as memorable battles, together with Hannibal's operations during his first four campaigns. The principal Roman ways are also traced according to the Itineraries, and as far as it was possible to identify them, modern names have been subjoined to ancient sites, mountains, and rivers.

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