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notes of the organ, being all joined, how can the power and virtue of such a happy conjunction fail in raising sentiments of admiration and pleasure in the soul of the philosopher, and even of the physician?"

According to the advertisements, the descriptive exhibition of the apparatus in the daytime was conducted by an "officiating junior priest." This office was filled by a young medical man named Mitford, afterwards well known as, among other things, father of the celebrated authoress. Graham's expenses were very heavy, and when after a time his advertisements failed to draw he fell into poverty, and it is said died in very straitened circumstances near Glasgow.

CHAPTER XVI.

LOTTERIES AND LOTTERY INSURANCES.
HERE have been few things which in their time have

J. had more intimate connection with advertising than Lotteries. In fact almost all we can now discover about them is by means of the notices which were published before and after a drawing, as the system of picturesque descriptive writing now applied to everything had not come into fashion during the existence of this legalised species of gambling, which was for generations most ruinous and demoralising in its effects, but which was continued mainly because it added to the revenue, and perhaps because it was considered unfair to stop the speculation of the people while gaming under so many forms and in so many varieties was indulged in by the higher classes. In these days the Legislature has got over any such squeamish feelings—even if it ever possessed them—for though gambling is carried on to as great lengths as ever under certain forms, though within the past few years great scandals have leaked out from clubs and private hells, and though on the turf many noble names have been dragged through the mire, the rank and file of the community are rigidly guarded from any chance of giving way to the temptations of gambling, either by means of the racehorse or the milder forms of speculation which up till recently were allowed in publichouses, and are very properly compelled to be virtuous whether they like it or no.

The origin of lotteries is involved in obscurity, but it is generally believed that the first of them was held in Italy early in the sixteenth century, and that in due course the plan found favour over here, and was gradually taken up by the State. Erom 1569 down to 1826 (except for a short time following upon an Act of the reign of Anne) lotteries continued to be a source of revenue to the English Government Some interesting particulars are given by Hone and Chambers, the latter of whom says: "It seems strange that so glaringly immoral a project should have been kept up with such sanction so long. The younger people of the present day may be at a loss to believe that, in the days of their fathers, there were large and imposing offices in London, and pretentious agencies in the provinces, for the sale of lottery tickets; while flaming advertisements on walls, in new books, and in public journals, proclaimed the preferableness of such and such 1 lucky' offices—this one having sold two-sixteenths of the last twenty-thousand-pounds prize; that one a half of the same; another having sold an entire thirty-thousand-pound ticket the year before; and so on. It was found possible to persuade the public, or a portion of it, that where a blessing had once lighted it was the more likely to light again. The State lottery was framed on the simple principle, that the State held forth a certain sum to be repaid by a larger. The transaction was usually managed thus. The Government gave ^10 in prizes for every share taken on an average. A great many blanks or of prizes under £10, left, of course, a surplus for the creation of a few magnificent prizes wherewith to attract the unwary public. Certain firms in the City, known as lottery-office keepers, contracted for the lottery, each taking a certain number of shares; the sum paid by them was always more than £10 per share; and the excess constituted the Government profit. It was customary, for many years, for the contractors to give about J£i6 to the Government, and then to charge the public from £20 to ^22. It was made lawful for the contractors to divide the shares into halves, quarters, eighths, and sixteenths; and the contractors always charged relatively more for these aliquot parts. A man with thirty shillings to spare could buy a sixteenth; and the contractors made a large portion of their profit out of such customers. The Government sometimes paid the prizes in terminable annuities instead of cash; and the loan system and the lottery system were occasionally combined in a very odd way. Thus in 1780, every subscriber of ^1000 towards a loan of ^12,000,000, at four per cent., received a bonus of four lottery tickets, the value of each of which was and any one of which

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might be the fortunate number for a twenty or thirty thousand pounds prize. Among the lottery offices, the competition for business was intense. One firm, finding an old woman in the country named Goodluck, gave her ^50 a year on condition that she would join them as a nominal partner, for the sake of the attractive effect of her name. In their advertisements each was sedulous to tell how many of the grand prizes had in former years fallen to the lot of persons who had bought at his shop. Woodcuts and copies of verses were abundant, suited to attract the uneducated."

The first lottery in this country, so far as is known, took place in 1569. Dr Rawlinson, a distinguished antiquary of the last century, produced before the Antiquarian Society in 1748 the following :—

A Proposal for a very rich Lottery, general without any Blankes, contayning a great N° of good prices, as well of redy money as of Plate and certain sorts of Merchandizes, having been valued and prised by the Commandment of the Queenes most excellent Majesties order, to the extent that such Commodities as may chance to arise thereof, after the charges borne, may be converted towards the reparations of the Havens and Strength of the realme, and towards such other public good workes. The N of lotts shall be foure hundred thousand, and no more; and every lott shall be the summe of tenne shillings sterling only, a d no more. To be filled by the feast of St Bartholomew. The shew of Prises ar to be seen in Clieapside, at the sign of the Queenes armes, the house of Mr. Dericke, Goldsmith, Servant to the Queen.

Some other Orders about it in 1567-8.

Printed by Hen. Bynneman.

According to Stow the drawing of this lottery was commenced at the west door of St Paul's Cathedral on the nth of January 1569, and continued day and night until the 6th of May. It was originally intended to be drawn at Dericke's house, but most likely, as preparations were made, it was discovered that a private establishment would be hardly the place for so continuous a piece of business. Maitland in his " London" says, "Whether this lottery was on account of the public, or the selfish views of private persons, my author* does not mention; but it is evident, by the time it took up in drawing, it must have been of great concern. This I have remarked as being the first of the kind I read in England." By these remarks it would seem that neither Stow nor Maitland had seen the "Proposal" we have quoted above, which gives the reason for the lottery.

In 1586 there was another drawing, about which we are quaintly told: "A Lotterie, for marvellous rich and beautiful armor, was begunne to be drawn at London, in S. Paules churchyard, at the great west gate, (an house of timber and boord being there erected for that purpose) on St. Peter's Day in the morning, which Lotterie continued in Drawing day and night for the space of two or three daies."t Of this lottery Lord Burleigh says in his diary at the end of Munden's State Papers: "June 1586, the Lottery of Armour under the charge of John Calthorp determined." About the year 1612 James I., "in special favour for the plantation of English colonies in Virginia, granted a lottery to be held at the west end of St Paul's; whereof one Thomas Sharplys, a taylor of London, had the chief prize, which was four thousand crowns in fair plate."J

A correspondent of the Gentleman's Magazine in 1778 gives Mr Urban some particulars regarding a lottery "held in London for the present plantation of English colonies in Virginia" in 161a. The writer says: "It may be found,

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