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sociation of public companies, and other legal notices, are required to be inserted in the Journal des Petites Affiehes, which is published in a small octavo form.

The oldest newspaper paragraph approaching W an advertisement yet met with, is in one of those early German newsbooks preserved in the British Museum. It is printed in 1591, without name of place, and contains all the memorable occurrences of the years 1588 and 1589, such as the defeat of the Armada, the murder of King Henry III. of France, and other stale matter of the same kind; a curious instance of the tardiness with which news, whether good or ill, travelled in those times. Among the many signs and tokens which were then supposed to give warning of divine wrath at the general wickedness of mankind, was an unknown plant which had made its appearance in one of the suburbs of the town of Soltwedel. It grew in a garden amongst other plants, but nobody had ever seen its like. A certain Dr Laster thereupon wrote a book describing the plant, and giving a print of it in the frontispiece. "This book," says the pamphlet, "which as yet is not much known, shows and explains all what this plant contains. Magister Cunan has published it, and Matthew Welack has printed it, in Wittemberg. Let whoever does not yet know the meaning of this [portend] buy the book at once, and read it with all possible zeal:"—

Ein wunderlichs Gewechs man hat,

Von Soltwedel der Alten stad,
Der Berber die Vorstadt genand,

Gefunden welchs gar niemand kertd.
In einem Garten gewachsen ist,

Bey andern Kreutern ist gewis,
Sein Conterfey und recht gestalt,

Wird auffm Tittel gezeiget bald,
Ein Buch Hoffarts Laster genand,

Welches jetzt noch sehr unbekand
Darin gewiesen und vermied,

Was das gewechse in sich hilt,

Mag: Cunaw hats geben an den Tag
Zu Wittemberg druckts Matths Welack,

Wer des bedeutung noch nicht weis
Kauff das Buch lisz mit allem fleis.

Though this is an advertisement to all intents and purposes, still it is of the kind now best known amongst those most interested as "puff pars," and is similar to those that the early booksellers frequently inserted in their works. It is therefore not unlikely that the book in question and the newsletter were printed at the same shop. Another, in fact, the earliest instance of newspaper advertising, is that of Nathaniel Butler; still this also only relates to books. The first genuine miscellaneous advertisements yet discovered occur in a Dutch black-letter newspaper, which was published in the reign of our James I., without name or title. The advertisement in question is inserted • at the end of the folio half-sheet which contains the news, November 21, 1626, and, in a type different from the rest of the paper, gives notice that there will be held a sale by auction of articles taken out of prizes, viz., sugar, ivory, pepper, tobacco, and logwood. At that time there appeared two newspapers in Amsterdam, and it is not a little curious that Broer Jansz * occasionally advertised the books he published in the paper of his rival, which was entitled "Courant from Italy and Germany." Gradually the advertisements become more frequent, the following being some of them literally translated. The first is from the Courante uyt Italien en de Duytschland of July 23, 1633 :—

With the last ships from the East Indies have been brought an elephant, a tiger, and an Indian stag, which are to be seen at the Old Glass house, for the benefit of the poor, where many thousands of people visit them.

* Broer Jansz styles himself "Couranteer in the Army of his Princely Excellence," i.e., Prince Frederic Henry, the Stadtholder. Subsequently, in 1630, Jansz commenced a new series, which he entitled "Tidings from Various Quarters."

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The Holland-ache Mercuriut, which was issued more than two hundred years ago, showed great Interest in English affairs, especially with regard to the Civil. War. It was much inclined to the Royal cause; and when in 1633 Cromwell assumed supremo power, the above was issued as a title, and purported to show the various events which had recently passed in Great Britain.

The heirs of the late Mr Bemardus Paludanus, Doctor, of the City of Enkhuyzen, will sell his world-famed museum in lots, by public auction, or by private contract, on the 1st of August, 1634.

The two following are taken from the Tydiughen, the first appearing on May 27, 1634 :—

The Burgomasters and Council of the town of Utrecht have been pleased to found in this old and famous town, an illustrious school [university], at which will be taught and explained the sacred Theology and Jurisprudence, besides Philosophy, History, and similar sciences. And it will commence and open at Whitsuntide of this present year.

A few days after, on June 7th, the inauguration of this school is advertised as about to take place on the ensuing Tuesday. There is one instance of an advertisement from a foreign country being inserted in this paper; it runs as follows, and is dated June 2, 1635 :—

Licentiate Grim, British preacher and professor at the University of Wesel, has published an extensive treatise against all popish scribblers, entitled "Papal Sanctimony," that is, catholic and authentic proof that Pope John VIII., commonly called Pope Jutte [Joan], was a woman.

In England the first bona fide attempt at newspaper work was attempted in 1622, when the outbreak of the great Civil War caused an unusual demand to be made for news, and as the appetite grew by what it fed on, this unwonted request for information maybe regarded as the fount-spring of that vast machine which "liners" delight to call "the fourth estate." It was this demand which suggested to one Nathaniel Butler, a bookseller and a pamphleteer of twelve years' standing, the idea of printing a weekly newspaper from the Venetian gazettes, which used to circulate in manuscript. After one or two preliminary attempts, he acquired sufficient confidence in his publication to issue the following advertisement:—

If any gentleman or other accustomed to buy the weekly relations of newes be desirous to continue the same, let them know that the writer, or transcriber rather, of this newes, hath published two former newes, the one dated the 2nd and the other the 13th of August, all of which do carry a like title with the arms of the King of Bohemia on the

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