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as a bad man, you necessarily get some images of what is good as well as of what is bad. For no living man is entirely evil. Even Banditti have some generous qualities. Whereas the representation of the Devil should be purely and entirely evil, without a tinge of good, as that of God should be purely and entirely good, without a tinge of evil: and you can no more get the one than the other from anything human. With the heathen it was different. Their Gods were themselves made up of good and evil, and so might well be mix'd up with human affociations. The hoof and the horns and the tail are all useful in their way as giving you an image of something altogether disgusting. And so Mephistophiles in Faust, and the other contemptible and hateful character of the little monster in Sintram, are far more true than the Paradise Loft.'” -See Life of Arnold, ii. p. 408. To this I may add, that a strong instance of this mix'd character given to Satan, as here observed on, may be found in Book iv.p. 387, where Satan is contemplating Adam and Eve in their state of Paradisiacal innocence, and utters sentiments seemingly at variance with his lost condition and his evil nature ; at least they have always appeared to me objectionable and unnatural.
“ And should I at your harmless innocence
To do what else, tho' damnd, I jould abhor.”
i Thank him who puts me loath to this revenge!” The reader is also referred to a most judicious note by Mr. Hawkins. 8vo. ed. of Newton's Milton, i. xcviii.
As regards the character of Satan in Paradise Regained, Mr. Coleridge says: “Milton has represented Satan as a sceptical Socinian. See Book iv. ver. 196.
• Be not so fore offended, Son of God,
Though fons of God both angels are and men.' Again verse 500,
• Then hear, O Son of David, Virgin-born
For Son of God to me is yet in doubt.' Milton has represented Satan as owning the Prophetic and Meffianic character of Christ, but sceptical as to higher claims.”
P. cx. Mr. C. Carlyon in his Early Years and Late Reflections, quotes from Leslie's Sermon on the words “There was war in Heaven,” (Rev. xii.) and mentions the very objectionable liberties which had been taken with some important passages of Holy Writ, particularly instancing the 7th verse of Pf. xi. vity and seriousness,” he observes, “ with which this subject ought
« The grato be treated, has not been regarded in the adventurous flight of Poets, who have dressed angels in armour and put swords and guns into their hands, to fulminate battles in the plains of heaven; a sort of heathen fancy. But the truth has been greatly hurt thereby.
“ This is one reason why I have endeavoured to give a more serious representation of that war in Heaven, and I hope I may say much better grounded than Milton's groundless supposition, who in the 5th Book of his Paradise Lost makes the cause of the revolt of Lucifer and his Angels to have been,-That God upon a certain day in Heaven, before the creation of this lower world, did fummon all the Angels to attend, and then declared his Son to be their Lord and King, and applies to that day the 7th verse of the 2nd Pfalm, — Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee.' The folly of this contrivance appears many ways. To make the Angels ignorant of the Blessed Trinity, and to take it ill to acknowledge Him for their King, whom they had always addressed as their God, -or as if the Son had not been their King, or had not been begotten till that day. This scheme of the Angels' revolt cannot answer either to the eternal generation of the Son, or to his temporal generation of the Blessed Virgin, that happening after the fall of the Angels,” &c.
P. cx. On the difficulties of the subject of Paradise Lost, see Mr. Henry Taylor's Notes on Books, p. 200-202. least cannot doubt that Milton's great Work is a continued struggle with insuperable difficulties, and that the victory gained is a victory, not over the difficulties, but independently of them ;-a victory in which the faults of the design stand out unsubdued in the execution : and the triumphs all here are those of unrivalled power of intellect destroying them : affording a slight compensation for the faults, but not in any degree averting, not even disguising them. Admire and applaud as we may, we cannot but be painfully sensible, as often as the supernatural agencies occur, that the author has set out on a fallacious plan and character from the first; and when mounting the Aying steed and pressing into the theme of heaven, he has evidently Nighted the warning to which he himself alludes, and has in fad truth fallen on the Aleïan field, erroneous there to wander ! and the more relief and delight we find in the parts of the Poem which are bound in this visible diurnal sphere, and the more we find of surpassing excellence in the descriptive and collateral passages, the more we lament the mistake of the Poet in adopting a scheme so utterly impracticable, exalting our imagination at the outset, only to abase it as we proceed—a Scheme of such celestial dignity in its aim and scope, that every detail is in derogation of it, and every realization felt to be false to the ideal,” &c. &c.
« We at
P. cxiv. The late Thomas Amyot, Esq. in a letter to the Editor.
P. cxvii.“ In Paradise Regained,” says the Rev. C. Wordfworth,“ the only topographical inaccuracy consists in the site of the Lycæum : it is there placed within, instead of without the walls.—Lib. iv. l. 253.
Within the walls then view
See Wordsworth's Athens, p. 177. P. cxxi. Of Milton, Sir James Mackintosh thus speaks. “ Perhaps the subtle genius of Greece was in part withheld from indulging itself in ethical controversy by the influence of Socrates, who was much more a teacher of virtue than even a searcher after truth.
Whom well inspired, the oracle pronounced
Wiselt of men. It was doubtless because he chose that better part that he was thus spoken of by the man whose commendation was glory, and who, from the loftieft eminence of moral genius ever reached by a mortal, was perhaps alone worthy to place a new crown on the brow of the Martyr of Virtue.” -v. Progress of Ethical Philosophy, p. 18.
P. cxxvi. The following note was sent to me by a gentleman, and I subsequently saw the bust. The judgment of the public does not seem to have supported the opinion here given.
« The Rev. Charles Woodward, of 18, Thayer-street, Manchester-Square, pofleffes a buft of Milton about half the size of life in white marble in Florentine costume. It is an exquisite work of art and conveys a more beautiful likeness of the great Poet than any print known, but agrees with the head by Faithorne allowing for the difference of age. It was sent from Florence in 1827, and was called a bust of Raphael by the dealer. No doubt that is the identical bust mentioned by Thomas Warton in a note to the Minor Poems, p. 333, and in the Life to the Aldine ed. p. xx.”
P. cxxix. In Georgii Richteri Epistola Sele&tiores, Norimb. 1662, 4to. is a letter from Christopher Arnold to him, dated from London 7 August, 1651, in which he gives a very interesting and entertaining account of the persons, parties, and objects of curiosity he met with. Among others he thus makes mention of MILTON.
“ Hujusdem (Reipublicæ novæ ) ftrenuus Defensor Miltonus, libenter se in sermonem dat, pura ejus elocutio eft, et fcriptio terfiffima. De antiquis Anglorum Theologis, horumque in S. Scripturæ libros commentariis (ipfam eruditionem teftor) sanè doctiffimis durius faltem, fi non iniquius judicare judicium, omninò is mihi videbatur.”-p. 483. Again, “Jo. Milton, celebris ille Populi Anglicani defensor, olim et Areopagitica consignavit, A speech for the Liberty of unlicensed Printing to the Parlament of Engeland. i. Sermonem libertate five licentiâ imprimendi libros, ad Parlamentum Angliæ, contra hujus conftitutionem qua non nisi cum licentia approbatos imprimere permissum erat.
Percuriofus Scriptor ifte jam pridem hodiernam libertatem, hoc est, A. C. 1644, in Areopagiticis suis cogitaffe mihi videtur.'-p. 491. This passage was brought to my notice by Thos. Watts, Esq. of the British Museum, who also pointed out to me the passage I have quoted from the Dutch Translation of Paradise Lost.
P. cxxx. On the influence of Plato on Milton's genius, see Edinburgh Review, No. clxxvi. p. 335, &c.
P. cxxx. 17. I now add the Emendations, &c. in a Copy of Aratus, in the hand writing of Milton, in the British Museum, Αρατου Σολεως φαινομενα και Διοσεμεια, Θεωνος Σχολια, Λεοντιου Μη
Xavixou aregi Agatelas apaigas. Parisiis 1559. 4° Apud G. Morelium.
[On the two sides of Morel's device this line. ]
“ Jo: Milton
pre : 2' 6d
1631." αυτήν. .
Paragraph 6, line 9, auny.
Nώτω μεν στεφανος πελάει. .
Par. 11, 1. 5. wny.
κεφαλή γέ μεν άκρη. (the latter part of the line is
added in manuscript, with this note in the margin] “ Ex aliis editionibus supplemus.”
μεν, . [with this note in the margin] Ρar. 1, 1. 17. βόες άροτρα. [in margin] legendum fortaffe
unin nisi subsit mendum inu
fitatè corripitur. (note in margin] ndegev pro
ç delšev fic enim emendarat vir doctus aliquis in editione Lug
dunenfi Degatiana. n
Par. 11, 1. 12. MdEldey.
και άροτρα. Ρar. 11, 1. 29. τ' εξείεσθε. [in margin] τεξείεσθε Lugdun.
a themate τέκω. Ρar. 16, 1. 3. δυνών.
[in margin] ούρανον Lugdun. Ρar. 19, 1. 8. προτέροισ'. προτέροις. Ρar. 19, 1. 14. άκρως.
[in margin] άκρος Lugdun. In the comment on paragraph 24 occurs this passage: φησί φεύγειν την Ηλέκτραν του μη υπομείναι ιδείν τον ήλιον αλισκομένην
και τους έκγονούς δυστυχούντας, &c. &c. - there is an afterilk
after ήλιον, and in the margin the words « fupple τρόιαν.” Ρar. 28, 1. 2. ούτήρα.
ρύτορα. Ρar. 32, 1. 1. Tοίος και. [in margin] έου fortaffe interpo
nendum. Ρar. 32, 1. 5. δεινή.
δεινω Lugd. . Ρar. 39, 1. 7. πρότερον.
πρότεροι. Ρar. 43, 1. 5. συνεργμένα. συνεερημένα. Ρar. 44, 1. 7. ει.
through, and this note in
« dele xai et lege
τούτο pro τούθ'.” υπoστας.
[in margin] παραστάς videtur
legiffe Theon. Ρar. 44, 1. 1Ι. μεγ αμέινονες. [in margin] μέγα μείονες. Lugd. Ρar. 46, 1. 6. τόξου.
τόξον. Ρar. 56, 1. 14. έλέειπτο.
ελέλειπτο. Ρar. s8, 1. 2. νεία.
νείατα. Ρar. 64, 1. 4. Οσον επισκιάζειν. όσσον επισκιάειν. Ρar. 65, 1. 7. Η ετέων.
ήε τέων. Stef. Ρar. 66, 1. 3. μέλει.
μέλοι. Stef. Ρar. 73, 1. 6. ούνοθεν.
ουρανόθεν. Ρar. 85, 1. 3. μάλακεν.
μάλα κεν. Ρar. 88, 1. 3. ή ασπίζων. [in margin] ηωα σπίζων, fic
emendatius legit Stephanus in
Thefauro. Ρar. 91, 1. 1. αυθαι.
αύξαι. Ρar. 91, 1. 4. άκρα.